Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Cardiac Arrest Related Abstracts

8 Outcome of Emergency Response Team System in In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Jirapat Suriyachaisawat, Ekkit Surakarn

Abstract:

Introduction: To improve early detection and mortality rate of In- Hospital Cardiac arrest, Emergency Response Team (ERT) system was planned and implemented since June 2009 to detect pre-arrest conditions and for any concerns. The ERT consisted of on duty physicians and nurses from emergency department. ERT calling criteria consisted of acute change of HR < 40 or > 130 beats per minute, systolic blood pressure < 90mmHg, respiratory rate <8 or > 28 breaths per minute, O2 saturation < 90%, acute change in conscious state, acute chest pain or worried about the patients. From the data on ERT system implementation in our hospital in early phase (during June 2009-2011), there was no statistic significance in difference in In-Hospital cardiac arrest incidence and overall hospital mortality rate. Since the introduction of the ERT service in our hospital, we have conducted continuous educational campaign to improve awareness in an attempt to increase use of the service. Methods: To investigate outcome of ERT system in In-Hospital cardiac arrest and overall hospital mortality rate. We conducted a prospective, controlled before-and after examination of the long term effect of a ERT system on the incidence of cardiac arrest. We performed Chi -square analysis to find statistic significance. Results: Of a total 623 ERT cases from June 2009 until December 2012, there were 72 calls in 2009, 196 calls in 2010 ,139 calls in 2011 and 245 calls in 2012.The number of ERT calls per 1000 admissions in year 2009-10 was 7.69, 5.61 in 2011 and 9.38 in 2013. The number of Code blue calls per 1000 admissions decreased significantly from 2.28 to 0.99 per 1000 admissions (P value < 0.001). The incidence of cardiac arrest decreased progressively from 1.19 to 0.34 per 1000 admissions and significant in difference in year 2012 (P value < 0.001). The overall hospital mortality rate decreased by 8 % from 15.43 to 14.43 per 1000 admissions (P value 0.095). Conclusions: ERT system implementation was associated with progressive reduction in cardiac arrests over three year period, especially statistic significant in difference in 4th year after implementation. We also found an inverse association between number of ERT use and the risk of occurrence of cardiac arrests, But we have not found difference in overall hospital mortality rate.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Cardiac Arrest, emergency response team, ERT

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7 Long-Term Outcome of Emergency Response Team System in In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Jirapat Suriyachaisawat, Ekkit Surakarn

Abstract:

Introduction: To improve early detection and mortality rate of in-hospital cardiac arrest, Emergency Response Team (ERT) system was planned and implemented since June 2009 to detect pre-arrest conditons and for any concerns. The ERT consisted of on duty physicians and nurses from emergency department. ERT calling criteria consisted of acute change of HR < 40 or > 130 beats per minute, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, respiratory rate <8 or >28 breaths per minute, O2 saturation <90%, acute change in conscious state, acute chest pain or worry about the patients. From the data on ERT system implementation in our hospital in early phase (during June 2009-2011), there was no statistic significance in difference in in-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and overall hospital mortality rate. Since the introduction of the ERT service in our hospital, we have conducted continuous educational campaign to improve awareness in an attempt to increase use of the service. Methods: To investigate outcome of ERT system in in-hospital cardiac arrest and overall hospital mortality rate, we conducted a prospective, controlled before-and after examination of the long term effect of a ERT system on the incidence of cardiac arrest. We performed chi-square analysis to find statistic significance. Results: Of a total 623 ERT cases from June 2009 until December 2012, there were 72 calls in 2009, 196 calls in 2010, 139 calls in 2011 and 245 calls in 2012. The number of ERT calls per 1000 admissions in year 2009-10 was 7.69; 5.61 in 2011 and 9.38 in 2013. The number of code blue calls per 1000 admissions decreased significantly from 2.28 to 0.99 per 1000 admissions (P value < 0.001). The incidence of cardiac arrest decreased progressively from 1.19 to 0.34 per 1000 admissions and significant in difference in year 2012 (P value < 0.001 ). The overall hospital mortality rate decreased by 8 % from 15.43 to 14.43 per 1000 admissions (P value 0.095). Conclusions: ERT system implementation was associated with progressive reduction in cardiac arrests over three year period, especially statistic significant in difference in 4th year after implementation. We also found an inverse association between number of ERT use and the risk of occurrence of cardiac arrests, but we have not found difference in overall hospital mortality rate.

Keywords: Cardiac Arrest, ERT, outcome, in-hospital

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6 Effectiveness of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Jellyfish Stings Treatment at the Emergency Room of Songkhla Hospital Thailand

Authors: Prataksitorn Chonlakan, Tiparat Wongsilarat

Abstract:

The traditional clinical practice guideline used at the emergency room at Songkhla Hospital in caring for patients who come in contact with jellyfish venom took a long time for the pain to reduce to the level that patients can cope with. To investigate the effectiveness of clinical practice guidelines by comparing the effectiveness of a newly developed clinical practice guideline with the traditional clinical practice guideline in the following aspects: 1) pain reduction, 2) length of pain, 3) the rate of patient’s re-visit, 4) the rate of severe complications such as anaphylactic shock, and cardiac arrest, and death, and 5) patient satisfaction. This study employed a quasi-experimental research design. Thirty subjects were selected with purposive sampling from jellyfish-sting patients who came for treatment at the Emergency Room of Songkhla Hospital. The subjects were divided using random assignment into two groups of 15 each: an experimental group, and the control group. The control group was treated using the traditional clinical practice guideline consisting of rinsing the affected area with 0.9% normal saline, using a cloth soaked with vinegar to press against the affected area, and controlling pain using tramadol or diclofenac intramuscular injection. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired t-test at the significance level p < 0.05. The results of the study revealed the following. The pain level in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (the average pain score of the experimental group was 3.46 while that of the control group was 6.33) (p < 0.05).The length of pain in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (the average length of pain in the experimental group was 48.67 minutes while that of the control group was 105.35 minutes) (p < 0.05). The rate of re-visit within 12 hours in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (the rate of re-visit within 12 hours of the experimental group was 0.07 while that of the control group was 0.00) (p < 0.05).No severe complications such as anaphylactic shock, and cardiac arrest were found in the two groups of subjects.The rate of satisfaction among the subjects in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (the rate of satisfaction among the subjects of the experimental group was 90.00 percent while that among the control group was 66.33 percent) (p < 0.05). The newly develop clinical practice guideline could reduce pain and increase satisfaction among jellyfish-sting patients better than the traditional clinical practice guideline.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Cardiac Arrest, Clinical Practice Guideline, jellyfish-sting patients

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5 Lipid Emulsion versus DigiFab in a Rat Model of Acute Digoxin Toxicity

Authors: Cansu Arslan Turan, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu, Kemal Aygun, Ecem Deniz Kırkpantur, Ozge Ecmel Onur

Abstract:

Although the mechanism of action is not well known, Intravenous Lipid Emulsion (ILE) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. It is thought that ILE probably separate the lipophilic drugs from target tissue by creating a lipid-rich compartment in the plasma. The second theory is that ILE provides energy to myocardium with high dose free fatty acids activating the voltage gated calcium channels in the myocytes. In this study, the effects of ILE treatment on digoxin overdose which are frequently observed in emergency departments was searched in an animal model in terms of cardiac side effects and survival. The study was carried out at Yeditepe University, Faculty of Medicine-Experimental Animals Research Center Labs in December 2015. 40 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-400 g were divided into 5 groups randomly. As the pre-treatment, the first group received saline, the second group received lipid, the third group received DigiFab, and the fourth group received DigiFab and lipid. Following that, digoxin was infused to all groups until death except the control group. First arrhythmia and cardiac arrest occurrence times were recorded. As no medication causing arrhythmia was infused, Group 5 was excluded from the statistical analysis performed for the comparisons of first arrhythmia and death time. According to the results although there was no significant difference in the statistical analysis comparing the four groups, as the rats, only exposed to digoxin intoxication were compared with the rats pre-treated with ILE in terms of first arrhythmia time and cardiac arrest occurrence times, significant difference was observed between the groups. According to our results, using DigiFab treatment, intralipid treatment, intralipid and DigiFab treatment for the rats exposed to digoxin intoxication makes no significant difference in terms of the first arrhythmia and death occurrence time. However, it is not possible to say that at the doses we use in the study, ILE treatment might be successful at least as a known antidote. The fact that the statistical significance between the two groups is not observed in the inter-comparisons of all the groups, the study should be repeated in the larger groups.

Keywords: Cardiac Arrest, arrhytmia, DigiFab, digoxin intoxication

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4 Analyzing the Readiness of Resuscitation Team during Cardiac Arrest

Authors: J. Byimana, I. A. Muhire, J. E. Nzabahimana, A. Nyombayire

Abstract:

Introduction: A successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation during a sudden cardiac arrest can be delayed by different components including new hospital setting, lack of adequate training, lack of pre-established resuscitation team and ineffective communication and lead to an unexpected outcome which is death. The main objective of the study was to assess the readiness of resuscitation teams during cardiac arrest and the organizational approaches that would best support their functioning in a new hospital facility, and to detect any factor that may have contributed to responses. This study analyses the readiness of Resuscitation Team (RT) during cardiac arrest. —Material and methods: A prospective Analytic design was carried out at a newly established United Nations level 2 hospital facility, on four RTM (resuscitation team member). A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data. —Results: This study highlights indicate that the response time during cardiac arrest simulation meet both American heart association (AHA) and European resuscitation council guidelines. The study offers useful evidence about the impact of a new facility on RTM performance and provides an exposure of staff to emergency events within the Work setting.

Keywords: Simulation, Cardiac Arrest, code blue, resuscitation team member

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3 The Influence of Applying Mechanical Chest Compression Systems on the Effectiveness of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Slawomir Pilip, Michal Wasilewski, Daniel Celinski, Leszek Szpakowski, Grzegorz Michalak

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation taken by Medical Emergency Teams (MET) at the place of an accident including the usage of mechanical chest compression systems. In the period of January-May 2017, there were 137 cases of a sudden cardiac arrest in a chosen region of Eastern Poland with 360.000 inhabitants. Medical records and questionnaires filled by METs were analysed to prove the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitations that were considered to be effective when an early indication of spontaneous circulation was provided and the patient was taken to hospital. A chest compression system used by METs was applied in 60 cases (Lucas3 - 34 patients; Auto Pulse - 24 patients). The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among patients who were employed a chest compression system was much higher (43,3%) than the manual cardiac massage (36,4%). Thus, the usage of Lucas3 chest compression system resulted in 47% while Auto Pulse was 33,3%. The average ambulance arrival time could have had a significant impact on the subsequent effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in these cases. Ambulances equipped with Lucas3 reached the destination within 8 minutes, and those with Auto Pulse needed 12,1 minutes. Moreover, taking effective basic life support (BLS) by bystanders before the ambulance arrival was much more frequent for ambulances with Lucas3 than Auto Pulse. Therefore, the percentage of BLS among the group of patients who were employed Lucas3 by METs was 26,5%, and 20,8% for Auto Pulse. The total percentage of taking BLS by bystanders before the ambulance arrival resulted in 25% of patients who were later applied a chest compression system by METs. Not only was shockable cardiac rhythm obtained in 47% of these cases, but an early indication of spontaneous circulation was also provided in all these patients. Both Lucas3 and Auto Pulse were evaluated to be significantly useful in improving the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by 97% of Medical Emergency Teams. Therefore, implementation of chest compression systems essentially makes the cardiopulmonary resuscitation even more effective. The ambulance arrival time, taking successful BLS by bystanders before the ambulance arrival and the presence of shockable cardiac rhythm determine an early indication of spontaneous circulation among patients after a sudden cardiac arrest.

Keywords: Resuscitation, Effectiveness, Cardiac Arrest, mechanical chest compression systems

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2 Predicting Factors for Occurrence of Cardiac Arrest in Critical, Emergency and Urgency Patients in an Emergency Department

Authors: Angkrit Phitchayangkoon, Ar-Aishah Dadeh

Abstract:

Background: A key aim of triage is to identify the patients with high risk of cardiac arrest because they require intensive monitoring, resuscitation facilities, and early intervention. We aimed to identify the predicting factors such as initial vital signs, serum pH, serum lactate level, initial capillary blood glucose, and Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) which affect the occurrence of cardiac arrest in an emergency department (ED). Methods: We conducted a retrospective data review of ED patients in an emergency department (ED) from 1 August 2014 to 31 July 2016. Significant variables in univariate analysis were used to create a multivariate analysis. Differentiation of predicting factors between cardiac arrest patient and non-cardiac arrest patients for occurrence of cardiac arrest in an emergency department (ED) was the primary outcome. Results: The data of 527 non-trauma patients with Emergency Severity Index (ESI) 1-3 were collected. The factors found to have a significant association (P < 0.05) in the non-cardiac arrest group versus the cardiac arrest group at the ED were systolic BP (mean [IQR] 135 [114,158] vs 120 [90,140] mmHg), oxygen saturation (mean [IQR] 97 [89,98] vs 82.5 [78,95]%), GCS (mean [IQR] 15 [15,15] vs 11.5 [8.815]), normal sinus rhythm (mean 59.8 vs 30%), sinus tachycardia (mean 46.7 vs 21.7%), pH (mean [IQR] 7.4 [7.3,7.4] vs 7.2 [7,7.3]), serum lactate (mean [IQR] 2 [1.1,4.2] vs 7 [5,10.8]), and MEWS score (mean [IQR] 3 [2,5] vs 5 [3,6]). A multivariate analysis was then performed. After adjusting for multiple factors, ESI level 2 patients were more likely to have cardiac arrest in the ER compared with ESI 1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; P < 0.001). Furthermore, ESI 2 patients were more likely than ESI 1 patients to have cardiovascular disease (OR, 1.89; P = 0.01), heart rate < 55 (OR, 6.83; P = 0.18), SBP < 90 (OR, 3.41; P = 0.006), SpO2 < 94 (OR, 4.76; P = 0.012), sinus tachycardia (OR, 4.32; P = 0.002), lactate > 4 (OR, 10.66; P = < 0.001), and MEWS > 4 (OR, 4.86; P = 0.028). These factors remained predictive of cardiac arrest at the ED. Conclusion: The factors related to cardiac arrest in the ED are ESI 1 patients, ESI 2 patients, patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, SpO2 < 94, lactate > 4, and a MEWS > 4. These factors can be used as markers in the event of simultaneous arrival of many patients and can help as a pre-state for patients who have a tendency to develop cardiac arrest. The hemodynamic status and vital signs of these patients should be closely monitored. Early detection of potentially critical conditions to prevent critical medical intervention is mandatory.

Keywords: Emergency Department, Cardiac Arrest, predicting factor, emergency patient

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1 Teaching Basic Life Support in More Than 1000 Young School Children in 5th Grade

Authors: H. Booke, R. Nordmeier

Abstract:

Sudden cardiac arrest is sometimes eye-witnessed by kids. Mostly, their (grand-)parents are affected by sudden cardiac arrest, putting these kids under enormous psychological pressure: Although they are more than desperate to help, they feel insecure and helpless and are afraid of causing harm rather than realizing their chance to help. Even years later, they may blame themselves for not having helped their beloved ones. However, the absolute majority of school children - at least in Germany - is not educated to provide first aid. Teaching young kids (5th grade) in basic life support thus may help to save lives while washing away the kids' fear from causing harm during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. A teaching of circulatory and respiratory (patho-)physiology, followed by hands-on training of basic life support for every single child, was offered to each school in our district. The teaching was performed by anesthesiologists, and the program was called 'kids can save lives'. However, before enrollment in this program, the entire class must have had lessons in biology with a special focus on heart and circulation as well as lung and gas exchange. More than 1.000 kids were taught and trained in basic life support, giving them the knowledge and skills to provide basic life support. This may help to reduce the rate of failure to provide first aid. Therefore, educating young kids in basic life support may not only help to save lives, but it also may help to prevent any feelings of guilt because of not having helped in cases of eye-witnessed sudden cardiac arrest.

Keywords: Teaching, Children, Cardiac Arrest, basic life support, CPR

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