Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

carcinoma Related Abstracts

4 Synergistic Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and Taxol in Overcoming Taxol Resistance through the Inhibition of LDHA in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Lin Feng, Ling-Ling E., Hong-Chen Liu

Abstract:

The development of chemoresistance in patients represents a major challenge in cancer treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase‑A (LDHA) is one of the principle isoforms of LDH that is expressed in breast tissue, controlling the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and also playing a significant role in the metabolism of glucose. The aim of this study was to identify whether LDHA was involved in oral cancer cell resistance to Taxol and whether the downregulation of LDHA, as a result of cisplatin treatment, may overcome Taxol resistance in human oral squamous cells. The OECM‑1 oral epidermal carcinoma cell line was used, which has been widely used as a model of oral cancer in previous studies. The role of LDHA in Taxol and cisplatin resistance was investigated and the synergistic cytotoxicity of cisplatin and/or Taxol in oral squamous cells was analyzed. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay, LDHA expression was analyzed by western blot analysis and siRNA transfection was performed to knock down LDHA expression. The present study results showed that decreased levels of LDHA were responsible for the resistance of oral cancer cells to cisplatin (CDDP). CDDP treatments downregulated LDHA expression and lower levels of LDHA were detected in the CDDP‑resistant oral cancer cells compared with the CDDP‑sensitive cells. By contrast, the Taxol‑resistant cancer cells showed elevated LDHA expression levels. In addition, small interfering RNA‑knockdown of LDHA sensitized the cells to Taxol but desensitized them to CDDP treatment while exogenous expression of LDHA sensitized the cells to CDDP, but desensitized them to Taxol. The present study also revealed the synergistic cytotoxicity of CDDP and Taxol for killing oral cancer cells through the inhibition of LDHA. This study highlights LDHA as a novel therapeutic target for overcoming Taxol resistance in oral cancer patients using the combined treatments of Taxol and CDDP.

Keywords: carcinoma, cisplatin, Taxol, oral squamous cells

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3 Principle Component Analysis on Colon Cancer Detection

Authors: N. K. Caecar Pratiwi, Yunendah Nur Fuadah, Rita Magdalena, R. D. Atmaja, Sofia Saidah, Ocky Tiaramukti

Abstract:

Colon cancer or colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that attacks the last part of the human digestive system. Lymphoma and carcinoma are types of cancer that attack human’s colon. Colon cancer causes deaths about half a million people every year. In Indonesia, colon cancer is the third largest cancer case for women and second in men. Unhealthy lifestyles such as minimum consumption of fiber, rarely exercising and lack of awareness for early detection are factors that cause high cases of colon cancer. The aim of this project is to produce a system that can detect and classify images into type of colon cancer lymphoma, carcinoma, or normal. The designed system used 198 data colon cancer tissue pathology, consist of 66 images for Lymphoma cancer, 66 images for carcinoma cancer and 66 for normal / healthy colon condition. This system will classify colon cancer starting from image preprocessing, feature extraction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classification using K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) method. Several stages in preprocessing are resize, convert RGB image to grayscale, edge detection and last, histogram equalization. Tests will be done by trying some K-NN input parameter setting. The result of this project is an image processing system that can detect and classify the type of colon cancer with high accuracy and low computation time.

Keywords: Lymphoma, colorectal cancer, carcinoma, Principle Component Analysis, k-nearest neighbor

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2 PD-L1 Expression in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising Denovo or on Top of Autoimmune Thyroiditis

Authors: Dalia M. Abouelfadl, Noha N. Yassen, Marwa E. Shabana

Abstract:

Background: The evolution of immune therapy motivated many to study the relation between immune response and progression of cancer. Little is known about expression of PD-L1 (a newly evolving immunotherapeutic drug) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) arising de-novo and PTC arising on top of autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's (HT) and lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT)). The aim of this work is to study the alteration of expression of PD-L1 in PTCs arising from de-novo or on top of HT OR LT using immunohistochemistry and image analyser system. Method: 100 paraffin blocks for PTC cases were collected retrospectively for staining using PD-L1 rabbit monoclonal antibody (BIOCARE-ACI 3171 A, C). The antibody expression is measured digitally using Image Analyzer Leica Qwin 3000, and the membranous and cytoplasmic expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells was considered positive. The results were correlated with tumor grade, size, and LN status. Results: The study samples consisted of 41 cases of PTC arising De novo, 36 cases on top of HT, and 23 on top of LT. Expression of PD-L1 was highest among the PTC-HL group (25 case-69%) followed by PTC-TL group (14 case-60.8%) then de-novo PTC (19 case-46%) with P Value < 0.05. PD-L1 expression correlated with nodal metastasis and was not relevant to tumor size or grade. Conclusion: The severity of the immune response in tumor microenvironment directly influences PTC prognosis. The anti PD-L1 Ab can be a very successful therapeutic agent for PTC arising on top of HT.

Keywords: carcinoma, Thyroiditis, papillary, Hashimoto's, lymphocytic, PD-L1

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1 A Case of Apocrine Sweat Gland Adenocarcinoma in a Tabby Cat

Authors: Funda Terzi, Elif Dogan, Ayse B. Kapcak

Abstract:

In this report, clinical, radiological, macroscopic, and histopathological findings of apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma are presented in a 13-year-old male tabby cat. In clinical examination, soft tissue masses were detected in the caudal abdomen and left tuber coxae. On radiological examination, subcutaneous masses with soft tissue contrast appearance were detected, and the masses were surgically removed under general anesthesia. The sizes of the masses were approximately 2x2x3 cm in the caudal abdomen and approximately 1x1x2 cm in the tuber coxae region. The cross-section of the mass was whitish-yellow in color. After the masses were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, a routine histopathology procedure was applied. In histopathological examination, apocrine sweat glands in a cystic structure and extensions from the center of the cyst to the lumen were determined, and anisonucleosis, anisocytosis, and anaplastic cells with giant nuclei were observed in the epithelial cells of the gland facing the lumen. A diagnosis of papillary-cystic type apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma was made with these findings.

Keywords: Histopathology, Cat, carcinoma, apocrine sweat gland

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