Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

carbonation Related Abstracts

9 Effect of the Accelerated Carbonation in Fibercement Composites Reinforced with Eucalyptus Pulp and Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Authors: Viviane da Costa Correia, Sergio Francisco Santos, Holmer Savastano Junior


The main purpose of this work was verify the influence of the accelerated carbonation in the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites, reinforced with micro and nanofibers and composites with microfibers. The composites were produced by the slurry vacuum dewatering method, followed by pressing. It was produced using two formulations: 8% of eucalyptus pulp + 1% of the nanofibrillated cellulose and 9% of eucalyptus pulp, both were subjected to accelerated carbonation. The results showed that the accelerated carbonation contributed to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites and of the composites reinforced with microfibers (eucalyptus pulp).

Keywords: cement composites, carbonation, nanofibrillated cellulose, eucalyptus pulp

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8 Carbonation of Wollastonite (001) competing Hydration: Microscopic Insights from Ion Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory

Authors: Peter Thissen


In this work, we report about the influence of the chemical potential of water on the carbonation reaction of wollastonite (CaSiO3) as model surface of cement and concrete. Total energy calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) combined with kinetic barrier predictions based on nudge elastic band (NEB) method show that the exposure of the water-free wollastonite surface to CO2 results in a barrier-less carbonation. CO2 reacts with the surface oxygen and forms carbonate (CO32-) complexes together with a major reconstruction of the surface. The reaction comes to a standstill after one carbonate monolayer has been formed. In case one water monolayer is covering the wollastonite surface, the carbonation is no more barrier-less, yet ending in a localized monolayer. Covered with multilayers of water, the thermodynamic ground state of the wollastonite completely changes due to a metal-proton exchange reaction (MPER, also called early stage hydration) and Ca2+ ions are partially removed from solid phase into the H2O/wollastonite interface. Mobile Ca2+ react again with CO2 and form carbonate complexes, ending in a delocalized layer. By means of high resolution time-of-flight secondary-ion mass-spectroscopy images (ToF-SIMS), we confirm that hydration can lead to a partially delocalization of Ca2+ ions on wollastonite surfaces. Finally, we evaluate the impact of our model surface results by means of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) spectroscopy combined with careful discussion about the competing reactions of carbonation vs. hydration.

Keywords: Hydration, carbonation, Calcium-silicate, metal-proton exchange reaction

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7 Modelling the Effects of External Factors Affecting Concrete Carbonation

Authors: Abhishek Mangal, Kunal Tongaria, S. Mandal, Devendra Mohan


Carbonation of reinforced concrete structures has emerged as one of the major challenges for Civil engineers across the world. With increasing emissions from various activities, carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has been eve rising, enhancing its penetration in porous concrete, reaching steel bars and ultimately leading to premature failure. Several literatures have been published dealing with the various interdependent variables related to carbonation. However, with innumerable variability a generalization of these data proves to be a troublesome task. This paper looks into this carbonation anomaly in concrete structures caused by various external variables such as relative humidity, concentration of CO2, curing period and ambient temperature. Significant discussions and comparisons have been presented on the basis of various studies conducted with an aim to predict the depth of carbonation as a function of these multidimensional parameters using various numerical and statistical modelling techniques.

Keywords: carbonation, relative humidity, curing, exposure conditions

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6 A Parametric Study on Effects of Internal Factors on Carbonation of Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Abhishek Mangal, Kunal Tongaria, S. Mandal, Devendra Mohan


The carbonation of concrete is a phenomenon which is a function of various interdependent parameters. Therefore, in spite of numerous literature and database, the useful generalization is not an easy task. These interdependent parameters can be grouped under the category of internal and external factors. This paper focuses on the internal parameters which govern and increase the probability of the ingress of deleterious substances into concrete. The mechanism of effects of internal parameters such as microstructure for with and without supplementary cementing materials (SCM), water/binder ratio, the age of concrete etc. has been discussed. This is followed by the comparison of various proposed mathematical models for the deterioration of concrete. Based on existing laboratory experiments as well as field results, this paper concludes the present understanding of mechanism, modeling and future research needs in this field.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, carbonation, diffusion coefficient, microstructure of concrete

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5 Carbonation and Mechanical Performance of Reactive Magnesia Based Formulations

Authors: Cise Unluer


Reactive MgO hydrates to form brucite (Mg(OH)2, magnesium hydroxide), which can then react with CO2 and additional water to form a range of strength providing hydrated magnesium carbonates (HMCs) within cement-based formulations. The presented work focuses on the use of reactive MgO in a range of concrete mixes, where it carbonates by absorbing CO2 and gains strength accordingly. The main goal involves maximizing the amount of CO2 absorbed within construction products, thereby reducing the overall environmental impact of the designed formulations. Microstructural analyses including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) are used in addition to porosity, permeability and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) testing to understand the performance mechanisms. XRD Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR), acid digestion and TG/DTA are utilized to quantify the amount of CO2 sequestered, with the goal of achieving 100% carbonation through careful mix design, leading to a range of carbon neutral products with high strengths. As a result, samples stronger than those containing Portland cement (PC) were produced, revealing the link between the mechanical performance and microstructural development of the developed formulations with the amount of CO2 sequestered.

Keywords: Sustainability, compressive strength, carbonation, reactive MgO cement

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4 Production of Cement-Free Construction Materials via Fly Ash Carbonation

Authors: Zhenhua Wei, Gabriel Falzone, Bu Wang, Laurent Pilon, Gaurav Sant


The production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a CO₂ intensive process. Specifically, cement clinkering reactions require not only substantial energy in the form of heat, but also result in the release of CO₂, from limestone decarbonation and the combustion of fuel. To overcome this CO₂ intensive process, clinkering-free cementation is demonstrated by the carbonation of fly ash; i.e., a by-product of coal combustion. It is shown that in moist environments and at sub-boiling temperatures, calcium-rich fly ashes readily react with gas-phase CO₂ to provide cementation. After seven days of CO₂ exposure at 75°C, such formulations achieve a compressive strength on the order of 35 MPa and take-up 9% CO₂ (by mass of the solid). On the other hand, calcium-deficient fly ashes, due to their lack of alkalinity (i.e., abundance of mobile Ca or Mg), show little if any potential for CO₂ uptake and strength gain. The role of the CO₂ concentration and processing temperature are discussed and linked to the progress of reactions, and the development of microstructure. The outcomes demonstrate a means for enabling clinkering-free cementation while enabling beneficial utilization of CO₂ and fly ash; i.e., two abundant but underutilized industrial by-products.

Keywords: Concrete, fly ash, Strength, carbonation

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3 Properties and Microstructure of Scaled-Up MgO Concrete Blocks Incorporating Fly Ash or Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

Authors: L. Pu, C. Unluer


MgO cements have the potential to sequester CO2 in construction products, and can be partial or complete replacement of PC in concrete. Construction block is a promising application for reactive MgO cements. Main advantages of blocks are: (i) suitability for sequestering CO2 due to their initially porous structure; (ii) lack of need for in-situ treatment as carbonation can take place during fabrication; and (iii) high potential for commercialization. Both strength gain and carbon sequestration of MgO cements depend on carbonation process. Fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) are pozzolanic material and are proved to improve many of the performance characteristics of the concrete, such as strength, workability, permeability, durability and corrosion resistance. A very limited amount of work has been reported on the production of MgO blocks on a large scale so far. A much more extensive study, wherein blocks with different mix design is needed to verify the feasibility of commercial production. The changes in the performance of the samples were evaluated by compressive strength testing. The properties of the carbonation products were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/ field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and the degree of carbonation was obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), XRD and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results of this study enabled the understanding the relationship between lab-scale samples and scale-up blocks based on their mechanical performance and microstructure. Results indicate that for both scaled-up and lab-scale samples, MgO samples always had the highest strength results, followed by MgO-fly ash samples and MgO-GGBS had relatively lowest strength. The lower strength of MgO with fly ash/GGBS samples at early stage is related to the relatively slow hydration process of pozzolanic materials. Lab-scale cubic samples were observed to have higher strength results than scaled-up samples. The large size of the scaled-up samples made it more difficult to let CO2 to reach inner part of the samples and less carbonation products formed. XRD, TGA and FESEM/EDX results indicate the existence of brucite and HMCs in MgO samples, M-S-H, hydrotalcite in the MgO-fly ash samples and C-S-H, hydrotalctie in the MgO-GGBS samples. Formation of hydration products (M-S-H, C-S-H, hydrotalcite) and carbonation products (hydromagnecite, dypingite) increased with curing duration, which is the reason of increasing strength. This study verifies the advantage of large-scale MgO blocks over common PC blocks and the feasibility of commercial production of MgO blocks.

Keywords: fly ash, CO2, carbonation, reactive MgO, ground granulated blast-furnace slag

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2 Comparison of Water Curing and Carbonation Curing on Mortar Mix Incorporating Cement Kiln Dust

Authors: Devender Sharma, Shweta Goyal


Sustainable development is a key to protect the environment for a secure future. Accelerated carbonation curing is a comparatively new technique for curing of concrete which involves sequestration of carbon dioxide gas into the precast concrete, resulting in improvement of the properties of concrete. This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the effect of carbonation curing on cement mortars incorporating cement kiln dust (CKD) as partial replacement of cement. The mortar specimens were prepared by replacing cement with CKD in varying percentages of 0-50% by the weight of cement. The specimens were subjected to 12 hour carbonation curing, followed by sealed packing till testing age. The results were compared with the normal curing procedure, in which the specimens were water cured till the testing age. Compressive strength and microstructure of the mix were studied. It was noted that on increasing the percentage of CKD up to 10% by the weight of the cement, no considerable change was observed in the compressive strength. But as the percentage of CKD was further increased, there was a decrease in compressive strength, with strength decreasing up to 40% when 50% of the cement was replaced with CKD. The decrease in strength is due to the lesser lime content in CKD as compared to cement. High ettringite formation was observed in mixes with high percentages of CKD, thus indicating a decrease in the compressive strength. With carbonation curing, an early age strength gain was observed in mortars, even with higher percentages of CKD. The early strength of the carbonation cured mixes was found to be greater than water cured mixes irrespective of the percentage of CKD. 7 days and 28 days compressive strength of the mix was comparable for both the carbonation cured and water cured specimen. The increase in compressive strength can be attributed to the conversion of unstable Ca(OH)2 into stable CaCO3, which causes densification of the mix. CaCO3 precipitation and greater CSH gel formation was clearly observed in the SEM images of carbonation cured specimen, indicating higher compressive strength. Thus, carbonation curing can be used as an efficient method to enhance the properties of concrete.

Keywords: Microstructure, compressive strength, carbonation, cement kiln dust

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1 Development of Zero-Cement Binder Activated by Carbonation

Authors: Sung-Won Yoo, Young Cheol Choi, Eun-Jin Moon, Sang-Hwa Jung, In-Hwan Yang


Stainless steel slag (STS) is a by-product generated from the stainless steel refining process. The recycling of STS produced in Korea for construction applications is limited due to its poor hydraulic properties. On the other hand, STS has high carbonation reactivity to CO2 as it contains gamma-C2S content. This material is ideal for mineral carbonation which is one of the techniques proposed for carbon emission reduction. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of developing a zero-cement STS binder activated by carbonation as alternative cementitious material. The quantitative analyses for CO2 uptake of STS powder and STS blended cement were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the compressive strength and microstructure of STS pastes after CO2 curing were evaluated. Test results showed that STS can be activated by carbonation to gain a sufficient strength as alternative cementitious material.

Keywords: carbonation, gamma-C2S, CO2 uptake, stainless steel slag

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