Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Carbon Sequestration Related Abstracts

12 Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Savitri Garivait, Sebastien Bonnet


Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues.

Keywords: Carbon Sequestration, sugarcane, soil organic carbon, soil inorganic carbon, open burning

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11 Exploring Tree Growth Variables Influencing Carbon Sequestration in the Face of Climate Change

Authors: Funmilayo Sarah Eguakun, Peter Oluremi Adesoye


One of the major problems being faced by human society is that the global temperature is believed to be rising due to human activity that releases carbon IV oxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Carbon IV oxide is the most important greenhouse gas influencing global warming and possible climate change. With climate change becoming alarming, reducing CO2 in our atmosphere has become a primary goal of international efforts. Forest landsare major sink and could absorb large quantities of carbon if the trees are judiciously managed. The study aims at estimating the carbon sequestration capacity of Pinus caribaea (pine)and Tectona grandis (Teak) under the prevailing environmental conditions and exploring tree growth variables that influencesthe carbon sequestration capacity in Omo Forest Reserve, Ogun State, Nigeria. Improving forest management by manipulating growth characteristics that influences carbon sequestration could be an adaptive strategy of forestry to climate change. Random sampling was used to select Temporary Sample Plots (TSPs) in the study area from where complete enumeration of growth variables was carried out within the plots. The data collected were subjected to descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that average carbon stored by Pine and Teak are 994.4±188.3 Kg and 1350.7±180.6 Kg respectively. The difference in carbon stored in the species is significant enough to consider choice of species relevant in climate change adaptation strategy. Tree growth variables influence the capacity of the tree to sequester carbon. Height, diameter, volume, wood density and age are positively correlated to carbon sequestration. These tree growth variables could be manipulated by the forest manager as an adaptive strategy for climate change while plantations of high wood density speciescould be relevant for management strategy to increase carbon storage.

Keywords: Climate Change, Adaptation, Carbon Sequestration, growth variables, wood density

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10 Estimation of Carbon Losses in Rice: Wheat Cropping System of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Saeed Qaisrani


The study was conducted to observe carbon and nutrient loss by burning of rice residues on rice-wheat cropping system The rice crop was harvested to conduct the experiment in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factors and 4 replications with a net plot size of 10 m x 20 m. Rice stubbles were managed by two methods i.e. Incorporation & burning of rice residues. Soil samples were taken to a depth of 30 cm before sowing & after harvesting of wheat. Wheat was sown after harvesting of rice by three practices i.e. Conventional tillage, Minimum tillage and Zero tillage to observe best tillage practices. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted on wheat to assess best tillage practice and residues management method with estimation of carbon losses. Data on the following parameters; establishment count, plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, biological yield, fat content, carbohydrate content, protein content, and harvest index were recorded to check wheat quality & ensuring food security in the region. Soil physico-chemical analysis i.e. pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and carbon were done in soil fertility laboratory. Substantial results were found on growth, yield and related parameters of wheat crop. The collected data were examined statistically with economic analysis to estimate the cost-benefit ratio of using different tillage techniques and residue management practices. Obtained results depicted that Zero tillage method have positive impacts on growth, yield and quality of wheat, Moreover, it is cost effective methodology. Similarly, Incorporation is suitable and beneficial method for soil due to more nutrients provision and reduce the need of fertilizers. Burning of rice stubbles has negative impact including air pollution, nutrient loss, microbes died and carbon loss. Recommended the zero tillage technology to reduce carbon losses along with food security in Pakistan.

Keywords: Food Security, Carbon Sequestration, agricultural agronomy, rice-wheat cropping system

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9 Livelihood Security and Mitigating Climate Changes in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh through Agroforestry Systems

Authors: Md Shafiqul Bari, Md Shafiqul Islam Sikdar


This paper summarizes the current knowledge on Agroforestry practices in the Barind tract of Bangladesh. The part of greater Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Rangpur and Bogra district of Bangladesh is geographically identified as the Barind tract. The hard red soil of these areas is very significant in comparison to that of the other parts of the country. A typical dry climate with comparatively high temperature prevails in the Barind area. Scanty rainfall and excessive extraction of groundwater have created an alarming situation among the Barind people and others about irrigation to the rice field. In addition, the situation may cause an adverse impact on the people whose livelihood largely depends on agriculture. The groundwater table has been declined by at least 10 to 15 meters in some areas of the Barind tract during the last 20 years. Due to absent of forestland in the Barind tract, the soil organic carbon content can decrease more rapidly because of the higher rate of decomposition. The Barind soils are largely carbon depleted but can be brought back to carbon-carrying capacity by bringing under suitable Agroforestry systems. Agroforestry has tremendous potential for carbon sequestration not only in above C biomass but also root C biomass in deeper soil depths. Agroforestry systems habitually conserve soil organic carbon and maintain a great natural nutrient pool. Cultivation of trees with arable crops under Agroforestry systems help in improving soil organic carbon content and sequestration carbon, particularly in the highly degraded Barind lands. Agroforestry systems are a way of securing the growth of cash crops that may constitute an alternative source of income in moments of crisis. Besides being a source of fuel wood, a greater presence of trees in cropping system contributes to decreasing temperatures and to increasing rainfall, thus contrasting the negative environmental impact of climate changes. In order to fulfill the objectives of this study, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment was survey on the impact of existing agroforestry system on the livelihood security in the Barind tract of Bangladesh and the second one was the role of agroforestry system on the improvement of soil properties in a multilayered coconut orchard. Agroforestry systems have been generated a lot of employment opportunities in the Barind area. More crops mean involvement of more people in various activities like involvements in dairying, sericulture, apiculture and additional associated agro-based interventions. Successful adoption of Agroforestry practices in the Barind area has shown that the Agroforestry practitioners of this area were very sound positioned economically, and had added social status too. However, from the findings of the present study, it may be concluded that the majority rural farmers of the Barind tract of Bangladesh had a very good knowledge and medium extension contact related to agroforestry production system. It was also observed that 85 per cent farmers followed agroforestry production system and received benefits to a higher extent. Again, from the research study on orchard based mutistoried agroforestry cropping system, it was evident that there was an important effect of agroforestry cropping systems on the improvement of soil chemical properties. As a result, the agroforestry systems may be helpful to attain the development objectives and preserve the biosphere core.

Keywords: Climate Changes, Carbon Sequestration, agroforestry systems, Barind tract

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8 Storage of Organic Carbon in Chemical Fractions in Acid Soil as Influenced by Different Liming

Authors: Kristina Amaleviciute, Ieva Jokubauskaite, Alvyra Slepetiene, Inga Liaudanskiene, Danute Karcauskiene


Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the key soil quality and ecological stability indicator, therefore, carbon accumulation in stable forms not only supports and increases the organic matter content in the soil, but also has a positive effect on the quality of soil and the whole ecosystem. Soil liming is one of the most common ways to improve the carbon sequestration in the soil. Determination of the optimum intensity and combinations of liming in order to ensure the optimal carbon quantitative and qualitative parameters is one of the most important tasks of this work. The field experiments were carried out at the Vezaiciai Branch of Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (LRCAF) during the 2011–2013 period. The effect of liming with different intensity (at a rate 0.5 every 7 years and 2.0 every 3-4 years) was investigated in the topsoil of acid moraine loam Bathygleyic Dystric Glossic Retisol. Chemical analyses were carried out at the Chemical Research Laboratory of Institute of Agriculture, LRCAF. Soil samples for chemical analyses were taken from the topsoil after harvesting. SOC was determined by the Tyurin method modified by Nikitin, measuring with spectrometer Cary 50 (VARIAN) at 590 nm wavelength using glucose standards. SOC fractional composition was determined by Ponomareva and Plotnikova version of classical Tyurin method. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was analyzed using an ion chromatograph SKALAR in water extract at soil-water ratio 1:5. Spectral properties (E4/E6 ratio) of humic acids were determined by measuring the absorbance of humic and fulvic acids solutions at 465 and 665 nm. Our study showed a negative statistically significant effect of periodical liming (at 0.5 and 2.0 liming rates) on SOC content in the soil. The content of SOC was 1.45% in the unlimed treatment, while in periodically limed at 2.0 liming rate every 3–4 years it was approximately by 0.18 percentage points lower. It was revealed that liming significantly decreased the DOC concentration in the soil. The lowest concentration of DOC (0.156 g kg-1) was established in the most intensively limed (2.0 liming rate every 3–4 years) treatment. Soil liming exerted an increase of all humic acids and fulvic acid bounded with calcium fractions content in the topsoil. Soil liming resulted in the accumulation of valuable humic acids. Due to the applied liming, the HR/FR ratio, indicating the quality of humus increased to 1.08 compared with that in unlimed soil (0.81). Intensive soil liming promoted the formation of humic acids in which groups of carboxylic and phenolic compounds predominated. These humic acids are characterized by a higher degree of condensation of aromatic compounds and in this way determine the intensive organic matter humification processes in the soil. The results of this research provide us with the clear information on the characteristics of SOC change, which could be very useful to guide the climate policy and sustainable soil management.

Keywords: Carbon Sequestration, soil organic carbon, acid soil, long–term liming

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7 Indoor and Outdoor Forest Farming for Year-Round Food and Medicine Production, Carbon Sequestration, Soil-Building, and Climate Change Mitigation

Authors: Jerome Osentowski


The objective at Central Rocky Mountain Permaculture Institute has been to put in practice a sustainable way of life while growing food, medicine, and providing education. This has been done by applying methods of farming such as agroforestry, forest farming, and perennial polycultures. These methods have been found to be regenerative to the environment through carbon sequestration, soil-building, climate change mitigation, and the provision of food security. After 30 years of implementing carbon farming methods, the results are agro-diversity, self-sustaining systems, and a consistent provision of food and medicine. These results are exhibited through polyculture plantings in an outdoor forest garden spanning roughly an acre containing about 200 varieties of fruits, nuts, nitrogen-fixing trees, and medicinal herbs, and two indoor forest garden greenhouses (one Mediterranean and one Tropical) containing about 50 varieties of tropical fruits, beans, herbaceous plants and more. While the climate zone outside the greenhouse is 6, the tropical forest garden greenhouse retains an indoor climate zone of 11 with near-net-zero energy consumption through the use of a climate battery, allowing the greenhouse to serve as a year-round food producer. The effort to source food from the forest gardens is minimal compared to annual crop production. The findings at Central Rocky Mountain Permaculture Institute conclude that agroecological methods are not only beneficial but necessary in order to revive and regenerate the environment and food security.

Keywords: Food Security, Agroforestry, Agroecology, Carbon Sequestration, Greenhouse, Forest Farming, carbon farming, climate battery, forest garden, near-net-zero, perennial polycultures

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6 Carbon Stock Estimation of Urban Forests in Selected Public Parks in Addis Ababa

Authors: Meseret Habtamu, Mekuria Argaw


Urban forests can help to improve the microclimate and air quality. Urban forests in Addis Ababa are important sinks for GHGs as the number of vehicles and the traffic constrain is steadily increasing. The objective of this study was to characterize the vegetation types in selected public parks and to estimate the carbon stock potential of urban forests by assessing carbon in the above, below ground biomass, in the litter and soil. Species which vegetation samples were taken using a systematic transect sampling within value DBH ≥ 5cm were recorded to measure the above, the below ground biomass and the amount of C stored. Allometric models (Y= 34.4703 - 8.0671(DBH) + 0.6589(DBH2) were used to calculate the above ground and Below ground biomass (BGB) = AGB × 0.2 and sampling of soil and litter was based on quadrates. There were 5038 trees recorded from the selected study sites with DBH ≥ 5cm. Most of the Parks had large number of indigenous species, but the numbers of exotic trees are much larger than the indigenous trees. The mean above ground and below ground biomass is 305.7 ± 168.3 and 61.1± 33.7 respectively and the mean carbon in the above ground and below ground biomass is 143.3±74.2 and 28.1 ± 14.4 respectively. The mean CO2 in the above ground and below ground biomass is 525.9 ± 272.2 and 103.1 ± 52.9 respectively. The mean carbon in dead litter and soil carbon were 10.5 ± 2.4 and 69.2t ha-1 respectively. Urban trees reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through sequestration which is important for climate change mitigation, they are also important for recreational, medicinal value and aesthetic and biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: Climate Change, Biodiversity, Carbon Sequestration, urban forests

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5 Carbon Sequestration under Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in the Vicinity of Black Sea, Trabzon, Turkey

Authors: Mohammed Abaoli Abafogi, Sinem Satiroglu, M. Misir


The current study has addressed the effect of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry on carbon sequestration. Eight sample plots were collected from Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry using random sampling method. The diameter of all trees in each plot with ≥ 2cm at 1.3m DBH was measured by using a calliper. Average diameter, aboveground biomass, and carbon stock were calculated for each plot. Comparative data for natural forestland was used for C was taken from KTU, and the soil C was converted from the biomass conversion equation. Biomass carbon was significantly higher in the Natural forest (68.02Mgha⁻¹) than in the Hazelnut agroforestry (16.89Mgha⁻¹). SOC in Hazelnut agroforestry, Natural forest, and arable agricultural land were 7.70, 385.85, and 0.00 Mgha⁻¹ respectively. Biomass C, on average accounts for only 0.00% of the total C in arable agriculture, and 11.02% for the Hazelnut agroforestry while 88.05% for Natural forest. The result shows that the conversion of arable crop field to Hazelnut agroforestry can sequester a large amount of C in the soil as well as in the biomass than Arable agricultural lands.

Keywords: Carbon Sequestration, soil organic carbon, arable agriculture, biomass carbon, hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry

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4 Carbon Sequestration in Spatio-Temporal Vegetation Dynamics

Authors: Nothando Gwazani, K. R. Marembo


An increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO₂) from fossil fuel and land use change necessitates identification of strategies for mitigating threats associated with global warming. Oceans are insufficient to offset the accelerating rate of carbon emission. However, the challenges of oceans as a source of reducing carbon footprint can be effectively overcome by the storage of carbon in terrestrial carbon sinks. The gases with special optical properties that are responsible for climate warming include carbon dioxide (CO₂), water vapors, methane (CH₄), nitrous oxide (N₂O), nitrogen oxides (NOₓ), stratospheric ozone (O₃), carbon monoxide (CO) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s). Amongst these, CO₂ plays a crucial role as it contributes to 50% of the total greenhouse effect and has been linked to climate change. Because plants act as carbon sinks, interest in terrestrial carbon sequestration has increased in an effort to explore opportunities for climate change mitigation. Removal of carbon from the atmosphere is a topical issue that addresses one important aspect of an overall strategy for carbon management namely to help mitigate the increasing emissions of CO₂. Thus, terrestrial ecosystems have gained importance for their potential to sequester carbon and reduce carbon sink in oceans, which have a substantial impact on the ocean species. Field data and electromagnetic spectrum bands were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.2, QGIS 2.8 and ERDAS IMAGINE 2015 to examine the vegetation distribution. Satellite remote sensing data coupled with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was employed to assess future potential changes in vegetation distributions in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The observed 5-year interval analysis examines the amount of carbon absorbed using vegetation distribution. In 2015, the numerical results showed low vegetation distribution, therefore increased the acidity of the oceans and gravely affected fish species and corals. The outcomes suggest that the study area could be effectively utilized for carbon sequestration so as to mitigate ocean acidification. The vegetation changes measured through this investigation suggest an environmental shift and reduced vegetation carbon sink, and that threatens biodiversity and ecosystem. In order to sustain the amount of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystems, the identified ecological factors should be enhanced through the application of good land and forest management practices. This will increase the carbon stock of terrestrial ecosystems thereby reducing direct loss to the atmosphere.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Carbon Sequestration, vegetation dynamics, terrestrial carbon sink

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3 Carbon Stock of the Moist Afromontane Forest in Gesha and Sayilem Districts in Kaffa Zone: An Implication for Climate Change Mitigation

Authors: Admassu Addi, Sebesebe Demissew, Teshome Soromessa, Zemede Asfaw


This study measures the carbon stock of the Moist Afromontane Gesha-Sayilem forest found in Gesha and Sayilem District in southwest Ethiopia. A stratified sampling method was used to identify the number of sampling point through the Global Positioning System. A total of 90 plots having nested plots to collect tree species and soil data were demarcated. The results revealed that the total carbon stock of the forest was 362.4 t/ha whereas the above ground carbon stock was 174.95t/ha, below ground litter, herbs, soil, and dead woods were 34.3,1.27, 0.68, 128 and 23.2 t/ha (up to 30 cm depth) respectively. The Gesha- Sayilem Forest is a reservoir of high carbon and thus acts as a great sink of the atmospheric carbon. Thus conservation of the forest through introduction REDD+ activities is considered an appropriate action for mitigating climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Carbon Sequestration, Ethiopia, carbon stock, allometric

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2 Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Stock Potential of Major Forest Types in the Foot Hills of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India

Authors: B. Palanikumaran, N. Kanagaraj, M. Sangareswari, V. Sailaja, Kapil Sihag


The present study aimed to estimate the carbon sequestration potential of major forest types present in the foothills of Nilgiri biosphere reserve. The total biomass carbon stock was estimated in tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest and tropical moist deciduous forest as 14.61 t C ha⁻¹ 75.16 t C ha⁻¹ and 187.52 t C ha⁻¹ respectively. The density and basal area were estimated in tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest, tropical moist deciduous forest as 173 stems ha⁻¹, 349 stems ha⁻¹, 391 stems ha⁻¹ and 6.21 m² ha⁻¹, 31.09 m² ha⁻¹, 67.34 m² ha⁻¹ respectively. The soil carbon stock of different forest ecosystems was estimated, and the results revealed that tropical moist deciduous forest (71.74 t C ha⁻¹) accounted for more soil carbon stock when compared to tropical dry deciduous forest (31.80 t C ha⁻¹) and tropical thorn forest (3.99 t C ha⁻¹). The tropical moist deciduous forest has the maximum annual leaf litter which was 12.77 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ followed by 6.44 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ litter fall of tropical dry deciduous forest. The tropical thorn forest accounted for 3.42 t ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ leaf litter production. The leaf litter carbon stock of tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest and tropical moist deciduous forest found to be 1.02 t C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ 2.28 t⁻¹ C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ and 5.42 t C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ respectively. The results explained that decomposition percent at the soil surface in the following order.tropical dry deciduous forest (77.66 percent) > tropical thorn forest (69.49 percent) > tropical moist deciduous forest (63.17 percent). Decomposition percent at soil subsurface was studied, and the highest decomposition percent was observed in tropical dry deciduous forest (80.52 percent) followed by tropical moist deciduous forest (77.65 percent) and tropical thorn forest (72.10 percent). The decomposition percent was higher at soil subsurface. Among the three forest type, tropical moist deciduous forest accounted for the highest bacterial (59.67 x 105cfu’s g⁻¹ soil), actinomycetes (74.87 x 104cfu’s g⁻¹ soil) and fungal (112.60 x10³cfu’s g⁻¹ soil) population. The overall observation of the study helps to conclude that, the tropical moist deciduous forest has the potential of storing higher carbon content as biomass with the value of 264.68 t C ha⁻¹ and microbial populations.

Keywords: Carbon Sequestration, carbon stock, basal area, Nilgiri biosphere reserve

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1 Potential of Pyrolytic Tire Char Use in Agriculture

Authors: M. L. Moyo


Concerns about climate change, food productivity, and the ever-increasing cost of commercial fertilizer products is forcing have spurred interest in the production of alternatives or substitutes for commercial fertilizer products. In this study, the potential of pyrolytic tire char (PT-char) to improve soil productivity was investigated. The use of carbonized biomass, which is commonly termed biochar or biofertilizer and exhibits similar properties to PT-char in agriculture is not new, with historical evidence pointing to the use of charcoal for soil improvement by indigenous Amazon people for several centuries. Due to minimal market value or use of PT-char, huge quantities are currently stockpiled in South Africa. This successively reduces revenue and decreases investments in waste tire recycling efforts as PT-char constitutes 40 % weight of the total waste tire pyrolysis products. The physicochemical analysis results reported in this study showed that PT-char contains a low concentration of essential plant elements (P and K) and, therefore, cannot be used for increasing nutrient availability in soils. A low presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd), which may be harmful to the environment at high application rates was also observed. In addition, the results revealed that PT-char contains very high levels of Zn, a widely known phytotoxicity causing agents in plants. However, the study also illustrated that PT-char is made up of a highly aromatic and condensed carbon structure. PT-char is therefore highly stable, less prone to microbial degradation, and has a low chemical reactivity in soils. Considering these characteristics, PT-char meets the requirements for use as a carbon sequestration agent, which may be useful in mitigating climate change.

Keywords: Agriculture, Physicochemical analysis, Carbon Sequestration, Soil Amendment, pyrolytic tire char

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