Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Carbon Nanotubes Related Abstracts

52 Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor

Authors: Vanessa Romanovicz, Beatriz A. Berns, Stephen D. Carpenter, Deyse Carpenter


This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET = 3.691m,/g.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Fuel Cell, sugar cane, catalyst support

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51 Effective Water Purification by Impregnated Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Raviteja Chintala


Water shortage in many areas of the world have predominantly increased the demand for efficient methods involved in the production of drinking water, So purification of water invoking cost effective and efficient methods is a challenging field of research. In this regard, Reverse osmosis membrane desalination of both seawater and inland brackish water is currently being deployed in various locations around the world. In the present work an attempt is made to integrate these existing technologies with novel method, Wherein carbon nanotubes at the lab scale are prepared which further replace activated carbon tubes being used traditionally. This has proven to enhance the efficiency of the water filter, Effectively neutralising most of the organic impurities. Furthermore, This ensures the reduction in TDS. Carbon nanotubes have wide range in scope of applications such as composite reinforcements, Field emitters, Sensors, Energy storage and energy conversion devices and catalysts support phases, Because of their unusual mechanical, Electrical, Thermal and structural properties. In particular, The large specific surface area, as well as the high chemical and thermal stability, Makes carbon nanotube an attractive adsorbent in waste water treatment. Carbon nanotubes are effective in eliminating these harmful media from water as an adsorbent. In this work, Candle soot method has been incorporated for the preparation of carbon nanotubes and mixed with activated charcoal in different compositions. The effect of composition change is monitored by using TDS measuring meter. As the composition of Nano carbon increases, The TDS of the water gradually decreases. In order to enhance the life time for carbon filter, Nano tubes are provided with larger surface area.

Keywords: Water, Carbon Nanotubes, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), candle soot

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50 Role of Dispersion of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Compressive Strength of Cement Paste

Authors: Jyoti Bharj, Sarabjit Singh, Subhash Chander, Rabinder Singh


The outstanding mechanical properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have generated great interest for their potential as reinforcements in high performance cementitious composites. The main challenge in research is the proper dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the cement matrix. The present work discusses the role of dispersion of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the compressive strength characteristics of hydrated Portland IS 1489 cement paste. Cement-MWCNT composites with different mixing techniques were prepared by adding 0.2% (by weight) of MWCNTs to Portland IS 1489 cement. Rectangle specimens of size approximately 40mm × 40mm ×160mm were prepared and curing of samples was done for 7, 14, 28, and 35 days. An appreciable increase in compressive strength with both techniques; mixture of MWCNTs with cement in powder form and mixture of MWCNTs with cement in hydrated form 7 to 28 days of curing time for all the samples was observed.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Composite, Portland Cement, compressive strength

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49 Three Dimensional Vibration Analysis of Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Elastic Medium

Authors: M. Shaban, A. Alibeigloo


This paper studies free vibration behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) embedded on elastic medium based on three-dimensional theory of elasticity. To accounting the size effect of carbon nanotubes, nonlocal theory is adopted to shell model. The nonlocal parameter is incorporated into all constitutive equations in three dimensions. The surrounding medium is modeled as two-parameter elastic foundation. By using Fourier series expansion in axial and circumferential direction, the set of coupled governing equations are reduced to the ordinary differential equations in thickness direction. Then, the state-space method as an efficient and accurate method is used to solve the resulting equations analytically. Comprehensive parametric studies are carried out to show the influences of the nonlocal parameter, radial and shear elastic stiffness, thickness-to-radius ratio and radius-to-length ratio.

Keywords: Embedded, Carbon Nanotubes, nonlocal, free vibration

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48 Magnetic Field Induced Mechanical Behavior of Fluid Filled Carbon Nanotube Foam

Authors: Siva Kumar Reddy, Anwesha Mukherjee, Abha Misra


Excellent energy absorption capability in carbon nanotubes (CNT) is shown in their bulk structure that behaves like super compressible foam. Furthermore, a tunable mechanical behavior of CNT foam is achieved using several methods like changing the concentration of precursors, polymer impregnation, non covalent functionalization of CNT microstructure etc. Influence of magnetic field on compressive behavior of magnetic CNT demonstrated an enhanced peak stress and energy absorption capability, which does not require any surface and structural modification of the foam. This presentation discusses the mechanical behavior of micro porous CNT foam that is impregnated in magnetic field responsive fluid. Magnetic particles are dispersed in a nonmagnetic fluid so that alignment of both particles and CNT could play a crucial role in controlling the stiffness of the overall structure. It is revealed that the compressive behavior of CNT foam critically depends on the fluid viscosity as well as magnetic field intensity. Both peak Stress and energy absorption in CNT foam followed a power law behavior with the increase in the magnetic field intensity. However, in the absence of magnetic field, both peak stress and energy absorption capability of CNT foam presented a linear dependence on the fluid viscosity. Hence, this work demonstrates the role magnetic filed in controlling the mechanical behavior of the foams prepared at nanoscale.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Magnetic Field, energy absorption capability and viscosity

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47 Effect of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Fuel Cell Membrane Performance

Authors: Rabindranath Jana, Biswajit Maity, Keka Rana


The most promising clean energy source is the fuel cell, since it does not generate toxic gases and other hazardous compounds. Again the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is more user-friendly as it is easy to be miniaturized and suited as energy source for automobiles as well as domestic applications and portable devices. And unlike the hydrogen used for some fuel cells, methanol is a liquid that is easy to store and transport in conventional tanks. The most important part of a fuel cell is its membrane. Till now, an overall efficiency for a methanol fuel cell is reported to be about 20 ~ 25%. The lower efficiency of the cell may be due to the critical factors, e.g. slow reaction kinetics at the anode and methanol crossover. The oxidation of methanol is composed of a series of successive reactions creating formaldehyde and formic acid as intermediates that contribute to slow reaction rates and decreased cell voltage. Currently, the investigation of new anode catalysts to improve oxidation reaction rates is an active area of research as it applies to the methanol fuel cell. Surprisingly, there are very limited reports on nanostructured membranes, which are rather simple to manufacture with different tuneable compositions and are expected to allow only the proton permeation but not the methanol due to their molecular sizing effects and affinity to the membrane surface. We have developed a nanostructured fuel cell membrane from polydimethyl siloxane rubber (PDMS), ethylene methyl co-acrylate (EMA) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The effect of incorporating different proportions of f-MWNTs in polymer membrane has been studied. The introduction of f-MWNTs in polymer matrix modified the polymer structure, and therefore the properties of the device. The proton conductivity, measured by an AC impedance technique using open-frame and two-electrode cell and methanol permeability of the membranes was found to be dependent on the f-MWNTs loading. The proton conductivity of the membranes increases with increase in concentration of f-MWNTs concentration due to increased content of conductive materials. Measured methanol permeabilities at 60oC were found to be dependant on loading of f-MWNTs. The methanol permeability decreased from 1.5 x 10-6 cm²/s for pure film to 0.8 x 10-7 cm²/s for a membrane containing 0.5wt % f-MWNTs. This is due to increasing proportion of f-MWNTs, the matrix becomes more compact. From DSC melting curves it is clear that the polymer matrix with f-MWNTs is thermally stable. FT-IR studies show good interaction between EMA and f-MWNTs. XRD analysis shows good crystalline behavior of the prepared membranes. Significant cost savings can be achieved when using the blended films which contain less expensive polymers.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, fuel cell membrane, polydimethyl siloxane rubber, proton conductivity, methanol permeability

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46 Progressive Loading Effect of Co Over SiO2/Al2O3 Catalyst for Cox Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes Production via Catalytic Decomposition of Methane

Authors: Sushil Kumar Saraswat, K. K. Pant


Co metal supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 catalysts with a metal loading varied from 30 of 70 wt.% were evaluated for decomposition of methane to CO/CO2 free hydrogen and carbon nano materials. The catalytic runs were carried out from 550-800 oC under atmospheric pressure using fixed bed vertical flow reactor. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET surface area analyzer, TPR, XRD, SEM, TEM, and TG analysis. The data showed that 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited remarkable higher activity and stability up to 10 h time-on-stream at 750 oC with respect to H2 production compared to rest of the catalysts. However, the catalytic activity and durability was greatly declined at a higher temperature. The main reason for the catalytic inhibition of Co containing SiO2 catalysts is the higher reduction temperature of Co2SiO4. TEM images illustrate that the carbon materials with various morphologies, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), helical-shaped CNFs, and branched CNFs depending on the catalyst composition and reaction temperature, were obtained. The TG data showed that a higher yield of MWCNTs was achieved over 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst compared to other catalysts.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Hydrogen production, cobalt, methane decomposition

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45 Gas Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotubes: A Review

Authors: Brian Yuliarto, Ni Luh Wulan Septiani


Carbon nanotubes are one of the carbon nanomaterial that very popular in the field of gas sensors. It has unique properties, large surface area and has hollow structure that makes its potentially used as a gas sensor. Several attempts have been made to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of CNTs by modifying CNTs with a noble metals, metal oxides and polymers. From these studies, there are evidents that modification of CNTs with these materials can improve the sensitivity and selectivity of CNTs against some harmful gases. Decorating carbon nano tubes with metal oxides improve CNTs with the highest sensitivity and increased sensitivity of polymer/CNTs is higher than the metal/CNTs. The used of metal in CNTs aims to accelerate the reaction surface and as channel for electrons path from or to the CNTs. The used of metal oxides on CNTs built a p-n junction that can increase sensitivity. While the addition of polymer can increase the charge carriers density in CNTs.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Gas sensors, Sensitivity, modification of CNT

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
44 Study on Carbon Nanostructures Influence on Changes in Static Friction Forces

Authors: Rafał Urbaniak, Robert Kłosowiak, Michał Ciałkowski, Jarosław Bartoszewicz


The Chair of Thermal Engineering at Poznan University of Technology has been conducted research works on the possibilities of using carbon nanostructures in energy and mechanics applications for a couple of years. Those studies have provided results in a form of co-operation with foreign research centres, numerous publications and patent applications. Authors of this paper have studied the influence of multi-walled carbon nanostructures on changes in static friction arising when steel surfaces were moved. Tests were made using the original test stand consisting of automatically controlled inclined plane driven by precise stepper motors. Computer program created in the LabView environment was responsible for monitoring of the stand operation, accuracy of measurements and archiving the obtained results. Such a solution enabled to obtain high accuracy and repeatability of all conducted experiments. Tests and analysis of the obtained results allowed us to determine how additional layers of carbon nanostructures influenced on changes of static friction coefficients. At the same time, we analyzed the potential possibilities of applying nanostructures under consideration in mechanics.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, static friction, dynamic friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
43 A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Nik Hasniza Nik Aman


Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper-indium-gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), copper-zinc-tin-sulphide (CZTS), and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes, nanorods, Thin Film Solar Cells, nanocrystalline

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42 Application of Carbon Nanotubes as Cathodic Corrosion Protection of Steel Reinforcement

Authors: M. F. Perez, Ysmael Verde, B. Escobar, R. Barbosa, J. C. Cruz


Reinforced concrete is one of the most important materials in the construction industry. However, in recent years the durability of concrete structures has been a worrying problem, mainly due to corrosion of reinforcing steel; the consequences of corrosion in all cases lead to shortening of the life of the structure and decrease in quality of service. Since the emergence of this problem, they have implemented different methods or techniques to reduce damage by corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures; as the use of polymeric materials as coatings for the steel rod, spiked inhibitors of concrete during mixing, among others, presenting different limitations in the application of these methods. Because of this, it has been used a method that has proved effective, cathodic protection. That is why due to the properties attributed to carbon nanotubes (CNT), these could act as cathodic corrosion protection. Mounting a three-electrode electrochemical cell, carbon steel as working electrode, saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as the reference electrode, and a graphite rod as a counter electrode to close the system is performed. Samples made were subjected to a cycling process in order to compare the results in the corrosion performance of a coating composed of CNT and the others based on an anticorrosive commercial painting. The samples were tested at room temperature using an electrolyte consisting NaCl and NaOH simulating the typical pH of concrete, ranging from 12.6 to 13.9. Three test samples were made of steel rod, white, with commercial anticorrosive paint and CNT based coating; delimiting the work area to a section of 0.71 cm2. Tests cyclic voltammetry and linear voltammetry electrochemical spectroscopy each impedance of the three samples were made with a window of potential vs SCE 0.7 -1.7 a scan rate of 50 mV / s and 100 mV / s. The impedance values were obtained by applying a sine wave of amplitude 50 mV in a frequency range of 100 kHz to 100 MHz. The results obtained in this study show that the CNT based coating applied to the steel rod considerably decreased the corrosion rate compared to the commercial coating of anticorrosive paint, because the Ecorr was passed increase as the cycling process. The samples tested in all three cases were observed by light microscopy throughout the cycling process and micrographic analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results from electrochemical measurements show that the application of the coating containing carbon nanotubes on the surface of the steel rod greatly increases the corrosion resistance, compared to commercial anticorrosive coating.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Corrosion, steel, anticorrosive

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41 New Highly-Scalable Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Glasses and Ceramics

Authors: Konstantinos G. Dassios, Guillaume Bonnefont, Gilbert Fantozzi, Theodore E. Matikas, Costas Galiotis


We report herein the development and preliminary mechanical characterization of fully-dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced ceramics and glasses based on a completely new methodology termed High Shear Compaction (HSC). The tubes are introduced and bound to the matrix grains by aid of polymeric binders to form flexible green bodies which are sintered and densified by spark plasma sintering to unprecedentedly high densities of 100% of the pure-matrix value. The strategy was validated across a PyrexTM glass / MWCNT composite while no identifiable factors limit application to other types of matrices. Non-destructive evaluation, based on ultrasonics, of the dynamic mechanical properties of the materials including elastic, shear and bulk modulus as well as Poisson’s ratio showed optimum property improvement at 0.5 %wt tube loading while evidence of nanoscale-specific energy dissipative characteristics acting complementary to nanotube bridging and pull-out indicate a high potential in a wide range of reinforcing and multifunctional applications.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Ultrasonics, Ceramic Matrix Composites, toughening

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40 Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile

Authors: Ezgi Ismar


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Carbon Nanotubes, Nanotextiles, Conductive Textiles

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39 Analysis the Different Types of Nano Sensors on Based of Structure and It’s Applications on Nano Electronics

Authors: Hefzollah Mohammadiyan, Mohammad Bagher Heidari, Ensiyeh Hajeb


In this paper investigates and analyses the structure of nano sensors will be discussed. The structure can be classified based of nano sensors: quantum points, carbon nanotubes and nano tools, which details into each other and in turn are analyzed. Then will be fully examined to the Carbon nanotubes as chemical and mechanical sensors. The following discussion, be examined compares the advantages and disadvantages as different types of sensors and also it has feature and a wide range of applications in various industries. Finally, the structure and application of Chemical sensor transistors and the sensors will be discussed in air pollution control.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Chemical Sensors, Mechanical sensors, quantum points, chemical sensor transistors, single walled nanotube (SWNT), atomic force microscope (AFM)

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38 A Review on Thermal Conductivity of Bio-Based Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Gloria A. Adewumi, Andrew C. Eloka-Eboka, Freddie L. Inambao


Bio-based carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received considerable research attention due to their comparative advantages of high level stability, simplistic use, low toxicity and overall environmental friendliness. New potentials for improvement in heat transfer applications are presented due to their high aspect ratio, high thermal conductivity and special surface area. Phonons have been identified as being responsible for thermal conductivities in carbon nanotubes. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of heat conduction in CNTs involves investigating the difference between the varieties of phonon modes and knowing the kinds of phonon modes that play the dominant role. In this review, a reference to a different number of studies is made and in addition, the role of phonon relaxation rate mainly controlled by boundary scattering and three-phonon Umklapp scattering process was investigated. Results show that the phonon modes are sensitive to a number of nanotube conditions such as: diameter, length, temperature, defects and axial strain. At a low temperature (<100K) the thermal conductivity increases with increasing temperature. A small nanotube size causes phonon quantization which is evident in the thermal conductivity at low temperatures.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Thermal Conductivity, phonons, Umklapp process

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37 Induction Melting as a Fabrication Route for Aluminum-Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite

Authors: Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Mansoor


Increasing demands of contemporary applications for high strength and lightweight materials prompted the development of metal-matrix composites (MMCs). After the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991 (revealing an excellent set of mechanical properties) became one of the most promising strengthening materials for MMC applications. Additionally, the relatively low density of the nanotubes imparted high specific strengths, making them perfect strengthening material to reinforce MMCs. In the present study, aluminum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Al-MWCNTs) composite was prepared in an air induction furnace. The dispersion of the nanotubes in molten aluminum was assisted by inherent string action of induction heating at 790°C. During the fabrication process, multifunctional fluxes were used to avoid oxidation of the nanotubes and molten aluminum. Subsequently, the melt was cast in to a copper mold and cold rolled to 0.5 mm thickness. During metallographic examination using a scanning electron microscope, it was observed that the nanotubes were effectively dispersed in the matrix. The mechanical properties of the composite were significantly increased as compared to pure aluminum specimen i.e. the yield strength from 65 to 115 MPa, the tensile strength from 82 to 125 MPa and hardness from 27 to 30 HV for pure aluminum and Al-CNTs composite, respectively. To recognize the associated strengthening mechanisms in the nanocomposites, three foremost strengthening models i.e. shear lag model, Orowan looping and Hall-Petch have been critically analyzed; experimental data were found to be closely satisfying the shear lag model.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, nanocomposite, induction melting, strengthening mechanism

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36 Synthesis and Preparation of Carbon Ferromagnetic Nanocontainers for Cancer Therapy

Authors: L. Szymanski, Z. Kolacinski, Z. Kamiński, G. Raniszewski, J. Fraczyk, L. Pietrzak


In the article the development and demonstration of method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nano containers. Methodology of the production carbon - ferromagnetic nanocontainers includes: the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical and physical characterization, increasing the content of ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. Biochemical functionalization of ferromagnetic nanocontainers is necessary in order to increase the binding selectively with receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. Multi-step modification procedure was finally used to attach folic acid on the surface of ferromagnetic nanocontainers. Folic acid is ligand of folate receptors which is overexpresion in tumor cells. The presence of ligand should ensure the specificity of the interaction between ferromagnetic nanocontainers and tumor cells. The chemical functionalization contains several step: oxidation reaction, transformation of carboxyl groups into more reactive ester or amide groups, incorporation of spacer molecule (linker), attaching folic acid. Activation of carboxylic groups was prepared with triazine coupling reagent (preparation of superactive ester attached on the nanocontainers). The spacer molecules were designed and synthesized. In order to ensure biocompatibillity of linkers they were built from amino acids or peptides. Spacer molecules were synthesized using the SPPS method. Synthesis was performed on 2-Chlorotrityl resin. The linker important feature is its length. Due to that fact synthesis of peptide linkers containing from 2 to 4 -Ala- residues was carried out. Independent synthesis of the conjugate of foilic acid with 6-aminocaproic acid was made. Final step of synthesis was connecting conjugat with spacer molecules and attaching it on the ferromagnetic nanocontainer surface. This article contains also information about special CVD and microvave plasma system to produce nanotubes and ferromagnetic nanocontainers. The first tests in the device for hyperthermal RF generator will be presented. The frequency of RF generator was in the ranges from 10 to 14Mhz and from 265 to 621kHz.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, ligands, hyperthermia, synthesis of carbon nanotubes

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35 Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Polymer Based PVDF-TrFE Composites with CNT Fillers

Authors: J. Belovickis, V. Samulionis, J. Banys, M. V. Silibin, A. V. Solnyshkin, A. V. Sysa


Ferroelectric polymers exhibit good flexibility, processability and low cost of production. Doping of ferroelectric polymers with nanofillers may modify its dielectric, elastic or piezoelectric properties. Carbon nanotubes are one of the ingredients that can improve the mechanical properties of polymer based composites. In this work, we report on both the ultrasonic and the dielectric properties of the copolymer polyvinylidene fluoride/tetrafluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) of the composition 70/30 mol% with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT). Experimental study of ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity in these composites has been performed over wide temperature range (100 K – 410 K) using an ultrasonic automatic pulse-echo tecnique. The temperature dependences of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation showed anomalies attributed to the glass transition and paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition. Our investigations showed mechanical losses to be dependent on the volume fraction of the CNTs within the composites. The existence of broad hysteresis of the ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity within the nanocomposites is presented between cooling and heating cycles. By the means of dielectric spectroscopy, it is shown that the dielectric properties may be tuned by varying the volume fraction of the CNT fillers.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Polymer composites, PVDF-TrFE, ultrasonic spectroscopy

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34 High-Yield Synthesis of Nanohybrid Shish-Kebab of Polyethylene on Carbon NanoFillers

Authors: Dilip Depan, Austin Simoneaux, William Chirdon, Ahmed Khattab


In this study, we present a novel approach to synthesize polymer nanocomposites with nanohybrid shish-kebab architecture (NHSK). For this low-density and high density polyethylene (PE) was crystallized on various carbon nano-fillers using a novel and convenient method to prepare high-yield NHSK. Polymer crystals grew epitaxially on carbon nano-fillers using a solution crystallization method. The mixture of polymer and carbon fillers in xylene was flocculated and precipitated in ethanol to improve the product yield. Carbon nanofillers of varying diameter were also used as a nucleating template for polymer crystallization. The morphology of the prepared nanocomposites was characterized scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to quantify the amount of crystalline polymer. Interestingly, whatever the diameter of the carbon nanofiller is, the lamellae of PE is always perpendicular to the long axis of nanofiller. Surface area analysis was performed using BET. Our results indicated that carbon nanofillers of varying diameter can be used to effectively nucleate the crystallization of polymer. The effect of molecular weight and concentration of the polymer was discussed on the basis of chain mobility and crystallization capability of the polymer matrix. Our work shows a facile, rapid, yet high-yield production method to form polymer nanocomposites to reveal application potential of NHSK architecture.

Keywords: Crystallization, Morphology, Carbon Nanotubes, Polyethylene, nanohybrid shish-kebab

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33 Self-Sensing Concrete Nanocomposites for Smart Structures

Authors: A. D'Alessandro, F. Ubertini, A. L. Materazzi


In the field of civil engineering, Structural Health Monitoring is a topic of growing interest. Effective monitoring instruments permit the control of the working conditions of structures and infrastructures, through the identification of behavioral anomalies due to incipient damages, especially in areas of high environmental hazards as earthquakes. While traditional sensors can be applied only in a limited number of points, providing a partial information for a structural diagnosis, novel transducers may allow a diffuse sensing. Thanks to the new tools and materials provided by nanotechnology, new types of multifunctional sensors are developing in the scientific panorama. In particular, cement-matrix composite materials capable of diagnosing their own state of strain and tension, could be originated by the addition of specific conductive nanofillers. Because of the nature of the material they are made of, these new cementitious nano-modified transducers can be inserted within the concrete elements, transforming the same structures in sets of widespread sensors. This paper is aimed at presenting the results of a research about a new self-sensing nanocomposite and about the implementation of smart sensors for Structural Health Monitoring. The developed nanocomposite has been obtained by inserting multi walled carbon nanotubes within a cementitious matrix. The insertion of such conductive carbon nanofillers provides the base material with piezoresistive characteristics and peculiar sensitivity to mechanical modifications. The self-sensing ability is achieved by correlating the variation of the external stress or strain with the variation of some electrical properties, such as the electrical resistance or conductivity. Through the measurement of such electrical characteristics, the performance and the working conditions of an element or a structure can be monitored. Among conductive carbon nanofillers, carbon nanotubes seem to be particularly promising for the realization of self-sensing cement-matrix materials. Some issues related to the nanofiller dispersion or to the influence of the nano-inclusions amount in the cement matrix need to be carefully investigated: the strain sensitivity of the resulting sensors is influenced by such factors. This work analyzes the dispersion of the carbon nanofillers, the physical properties of the fresh dough, the electrical properties of the hardened composites and the sensing properties of the realized sensors. The experimental campaign focuses specifically on their dynamic characterization and their applicability to the monitoring of full-scale elements. The results of the electromechanical tests with both slow varying and dynamic loads show that the developed nanocomposite sensors can be effectively used for the health monitoring of structures.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Structural health monitoring, self-sensing nanocomposites, smart cement-matrix sensors

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32 Optical Ignition of Nanoenergetic Materials with Tunable Explosion Reactivity

Authors: Ji Hoon Kim, Jong Man Kim, Hyung Woo Lee, Soo Hyung Kim


The applications of nanoenergetic materials (nEMs) could be extended by developing more convenient and reliable ignition methods. However, the underwater ignition of nEMs is a significant challenge because water perturbs the reactants prior to ignition and also quenches the subsequent combustion reaction of nEMs upon ignition. In this study, we developed flash and laser-ignitable nEMs for underwater explosion. This was achieved by adding various carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the optical igniter into an nEM matrix, composed of Al/CuO nanoparticles. The CNTs absorb the irradiated optical energy and rapidly convert it into thermal energy, and then the thermal energy is concentrated to ignite the core catalysts and neighboring nEMs. The maximum burn rate was achieved by adding 1 wt% CNTs into the nEM matrix. The burn rate significantly decreased with increasing amount of CNTs (≥ 2 wt%), indicating that the optical ignition and controlled-explosion reactivity of nEMs are possible by incorporating an appropriate amount of CNTs.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, nanoenergetic materials, optical ignition, tunable explosion

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31 Torsional Vibration of Carbon Nanotubes via Nonlocal Gradient Theories

Authors: Mustafa Arda, Metin Aydogdu


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have many possible application areas because of their superior physical properties. Nonlocal Theory, which unlike the classical theories, includes the size dependency. Nonlocal Stress and Strain Gradient approaches can be used in nanoscale static and dynamic analysis. In the present study, torsional vibration of CNTs was investigated according to nonlocal stress and strain gradient theories. Effects of the small scale parameters to the non-dimensional frequency were obtained. Results were compared with the Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Lattice Dynamics. Strain Gradient Theory has shown more weakening effect on CNT according to the Stress Gradient Theory. Combination of both theories gives more acceptable results rather than the classical and stress or strain gradient theory according to Lattice Dynamics.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, stress, strain, torsional vibration, nonlocal gradient theory

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30 Investigation on the Capacitive Deionization of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes (F-CNTs) and Silver-Decorated F-CNTs for Water Softening

Authors: Khrizelle Angelique Sablan, Rizalinda De Leon, Jaeyoung Lee, Joey Ocon


The impending water shortage drives us to find alternative sources of water. One of the possible solutions is desalination of seawater. There are numerous processes by which it can be done and one if which is capacitive deionization. Capacitive deionization is a relatively new technique for water desalination. It utilizes the electric double layer for ion adsorption. Carbon-based materials are commonly used as electrodes for capacitive deionization. In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were treated in a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acid. The silver addition was also facilitated to incorporate antimicrobial action. The acid-treated carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) and silver-decorated f-CNTs ([email protected]) were used as electrode materials for seawater deionization and compared with CNT and acid-treated CNT. The synthesized materials were characterized using TEM, EDS, XRD, XPS and BET. The electrochemical performance was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, and the deionization performance was tested on a single cell with water containing 64mg/L NaCl. The results showed that the synthesized [email protected] H could have better performance than CNT and a-CNT with a maximum ion removal efficiency of 50.22% and a corresponding adsorption capacity of 3.21 mg/g. It also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. However, the said material lacks stability as the efficiency decreases with repeated usage of the electrode.

Keywords: Desalination, Carbon Nanotubes, Silver, capacitive deionization, acid functionalization

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29 Destruction of Colon Cells by Nanocontainers of Ferromagnetic

Authors: Lukasz Szymanski, Zbigniew Kolacinski, Grzegorz Raniszewski, Slawomir Wiak, Lukasz Pietrzak, Dariusz Koza, Karolina Przybylowska-Sygut, Ireneusz Majsterek, Zbigniew Kaminski, Justyna Fraczyk, Malgorzata Walczak, Beata Kolasinska, Adam Bednarek, Joanna Konka


The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of electromagnetic field from the range of radio frequencies on the desired nanoparticles for cancer therapy. In the article, the development and demonstration of the method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nanocontainers. The methodology of the production carbon - ferromagnetic nanocontainers (FNCs) includes: The synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical, and physical characterization, increasing the content of a ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. The ferromagnetic nanocontainers were synthesised in CVD and microwave plasma system. Biochemical functionalization of ferromagnetic nanocontainers is necessary in order to increase the binding selectively with receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. Multi-step modification procedure was finally used to attach folic acid on the surface of ferromagnetic nanocontainers. Pristine ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes are not suitable for application in medicine and biotechnology. Appropriate functionalization of ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes allows to receiving materials useful in medicine. Finally, a product contains folic acids on the surface of FNCs. The folic acid is a ligand of folate receptors – α which is overexpressed on the surface of epithelial tumours cells. It is expected that folic acids will be recognized and selectively bound by receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. In our research, FNCs were covalently functionalized in a multi-step procedure. Ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes were oxidated using different oxidative agents. For this purpose, strong acids such as HNO3, or mixture HNO3 and H2SO4 were used. Reactive carbonyl and carboxyl groups were formed on the open sides and at the defects on the sidewalls of FNCs. These groups allow further modification of FNCs as a reaction of amidation, reaction of introduction appropriate linkers which separate solid surface of FNCs and ligand (folic acid). In our studies, amino acid and peptide have been applied as ligands. The last step of chemical modification was reaction-condensation with folic acid. In all reaction as coupling reagents were used derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine. The first trials in the device for hyperthermal RF generator have been done. The frequency of RF generator was in the ranges from 10 to 14Mhz and from 265 to 621kHz. Obtained functionalized nanoparticles enabled to reach the temperature of denaturation tumor cells in given frequencies.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, ligands, hyperthermia, cancer colon cells

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28 Low- and High-Temperature Methods of CNTs Synthesis for Medicine

Authors: Grzegorz Raniszewski, Zbigniew Kolacinski, Lukasz Szymanski, Slawomir Wiak, Lukasz Pietrzak, Dariusz Koza


One of the most promising area for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) application is medicine. One of the most devastating diseases is cancer. Carbon nanotubes may be used as carriers of a slowly released drug. It is possible to use of electromagnetic waves to destroy cancer cells by the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In our research we focused on thermal ablation by ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs). In the cancer cell hyperthermia functionalized carbon nanotubes are exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic field. Properly functionalized Fe-CNTs join the cancer cells. Heat generated in nanoparticles connected to nanotubes warm up nanotubes and then the target tissue. When the temperature in tumor tissue exceeds 316 K the necrosis of cancer cells may be observed. Several techniques can be used for Fe-CNTs synthesis. In our work, we use high-temperature methods where arc-discharge is applied. Low-temperature systems are microwave plasma with assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) and hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD). In the arc discharge system, the plasma reactor works with a pressure of He up to 0,5 atm. The electric arc burns between two graphite rods. Vapors of carbon move from the anode, through a short arc column and forms CNTs which can be collected either from the reactor walls or cathode deposit. This method is suitable for the production of multi-wall and single-wall CNTs. A disadvantage of high-temperature methods is a low purification, short length, random size and multi-directional distribution. In MPCVD system plasma is generated in waveguide connected to the microwave generator. Then containing carbon and ferromagnetic elements plasma flux go to the quartz tube. The additional resistance heating can be applied to increase the reaction effectiveness and efficiency. CNTs nucleation occurs on the quartz tube walls. It is also possible to use substrates to improve carbon nanotubes growth. HPCVD system involves both chemical decomposition of carbon containing gases and vaporization of a solid or liquid source of catalyst. In this system, a tube furnace is applied. A mixture of working and carbon-containing gases go through the quartz tube placed inside the furnace. As a catalyst ferrocene vapors can be used. Fe-CNTs may be collected then either from the quartz tube walls or on the substrates. Low-temperature methods are characterized by higher purity product. Moreover, carbon nanotubes from tested CVD systems were partially filled with the iron. Regardless of the method of Fe-CNTs synthesis the final product always needs to be purified for applications in medicine. The simplest method of purification is an oxidation of the amorphous carbon. Carbon nanotubes dedicated for cancer cell thermal ablation need to be additionally treated by acids for defects amplification on the CNTs surface what facilitates biofunctionalization. Application of ferromagnetic nanotubes for cancer treatment is a promising method of fighting with cancer for the next decade. Acknowledgment: The research work has been financed from the budget of science as a research project No. PBS2/A5/31/2013

Keywords: Cancer, Carbon Nanotubes, CVD, arc discharge, thermal ablation

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27 Vibration Control of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites Beam Resting on Elastic Foundation

Authors: Gholamhosein Khosravi, Mohammad Azadi, Hamidreza Ghezavati


In this paper, vibration of a nonlinear composite beam is analyzed and then an active controller is used to control the vibrations of the system. The beam is resting on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation. The composite beam is reinforced by single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the rule of mixture, the material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are determined. The beam is cantilever and the free end of the beam is under follower force. Piezoelectric layers are attached to the both sides of the beam to control vibrations as sensors and actuators. The governing equations of the FG-CNTRC beam are derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory Lagrange- Rayleigh-Ritz method. The simulation results are presented and the effects of some parameters on stability of the beam are analyzed.

Keywords: Vibration Control, Carbon Nanotubes, elastic foundation, piezoelectric layers

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26 Thermophysical Properties of Water-Based Carboxylated Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Nanofluids

Authors: Ahmad Amiri, Hamed Khajeh Arzani, Md. Salim Newaz Kazi, Bee Teng Chew


Obviously, the behavior of thermophysical properties of covalently functionalized MWNT-based water nanofluids cannot be predicted from the predicted models. We present a study of the specific heat capacity, effective thermal conductivity, density and viscosity of coolants containing functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT-COOH) with carboxyl groups at different temperatures. After synthesizing of MWNT-COOH-based water, measurements on the prepared coolants were made at various concentrations by different experimental methods. While thermal conductivity of nanofluids illustrated a significant increase, the specific heat capacity of the samples showed a downward behavior with increasing temperature. The viscosity was investigated in different shear rates and temperatures. Interestingly, the specific heat capacity of all prepared nanofluids was decreased with increasing concentration. Also, the density of the MWNT-COOH-based water nanofluids increased and decreased smoothly with increasing MWNT-COOH concentration and temperature, respectively.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Density, viscosity, Heat Capacity, Thermal Conductivity, coolant

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25 Controlling Dimensions and Shape of Carbon Nanotubes Using Nanoporous Anodic Alumina under Different Conditions

Authors: Amine Mezni, Merfat Algethami, Ali Aldalbahi, Arwa Alrooqi, Abel Santos, Dusan Losic, Sarah Alharthi, Tariq Altalhi


In situ synthesis of carbon nanotubes featuring different diameters (10-200 nm), lengths (1 to 100 µm) and periodically nanostructured shape was performed in a custom designed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) under different conditions. The morphology of the resulting CNTs/NAA composites and free-standing CNTs were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results confirm that highly ordered arrays of CNTs with precise control of nanotube dimensions in the range 20-200 nm with tube length in the range < 1 µm to > 100 μm and with periodically shaped morphology can be fabricated using nanostructured NAA templates prepared by anodization. This technique allows us to obtain tubes open at one / both ends with a uniform diameter along the pore length without using any metal catalyst. Our finding suggests that this fabrication strategy for designing new CNTs membranes and structures can be significant for emerging applications as molecular separation/transport, optical biosensing, and drug delivery.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, CVD approach, composites membrane, nanoporous anodic alumina

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24 Flexible, Hydrophobic and Mechanical Strong Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride): Carbon Nanotube Composite Films for Strain-Sensing Applications

Authors: Sudheer Kumar Gundati, Umasankar Patro


Carbon nanotube (CNT) – polymer composites have been extensively studied due to their exceptional electrical and mechanical properties. In the present study, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) – multi-walled CNT composites were prepared by melt-blending technique using pristine (ufCNT) and a modified dilute nitric acid-treated CNTs (fCNT). Due to this dilute acid-treatment, the fCNTs were found to show significantly improved dispersion and retained their electrical property. The fCNT showed an electrical percolation threshold (PT) of 0.15 wt% in the PVDF matrix as against 0.35 wt% for ufCNT. The composites were made into films of thickness ~0.3 mm by compression-molding and the resulting composite films were subjected to various property evaluations. It was found that the water contact angle (WCA) of the films increased with CNT weight content in composites and the composite film surface became hydrophobic (e.g., WCA ~104° for 4 wt% ufCNT and 111.5° for 0.5 wt% fCNT composites) in nature; while the neat PVDF film showed hydrophilic behavior (WCA ~68°). Significant enhancements in the mechanical properties were observed upon CNT incorporation and there is a progressive increase in the tensile strength and modulus with increase in CNT weight fraction in composites. The composite films were tested for strain-sensing applications. For this, a simple and non-destructive method was developed to demonstrate the strain-sensing properties of the composites films. In this method, the change in electrical resistance was measured using a digital multimeter by applying bending strain by oscillation. It was found that by applying dynamic bending strain, there is a systematic change in resistance and the films showed piezo-resistive behavior. Due to the high flexibility of these composite films, the change in resistance was reversible and found to be marginally affected, when large number of tests were performed using a single specimen. It is interesting to note that the composites with CNT content notwithstanding their type near the percolation threshold (PT) showed better strain-sensing properties as compared to the composites with CNT contents well-above the PT. On account of the excellent combination of the various properties, the composite films offer a great promise as strain-sensors for structural health-monitoring.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Mechanical Properties, water contact angle, electrical percolation threshold, poly(vinylidene fluoride), strain-sensor

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23 Optimization of Carbon Nanotube Content of Asphalt Nanocomposites with Regard to Resistance to Permanent Deformation

Authors: João V. Staub de Melo, Glicério Trichês, Liseane P. Thives


This paper presents the results of the development of asphalt nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high resistance to permanent deformation, aiming to increase the performance of asphalt surfaces in relation to the rutting problem. Asphalt nanocomposites were prepared with the addition of different proportions of CNTs (1%, 2% and 3%) in relation to the weight of asphalt binder. The base binder used was a conventional binder (50-70 penetration) classified as PG 58-22. The optimum percentage of CNT addition in the asphalt binder (base) was determined through the evaluation of the rheological and empirical characteristics of the nanocomposites produced. In order to evaluate the contribution and the effects of the nanocomposite (optimized) in relation to the rutting, the conventional and nanomodified asphalt mixtures were tested in a French traffic simulator (Orniéreur). The results obtained demonstrate the efficient contribution of the asphalt nanocomposite containing CNTs to the resistance to permanent deformation of the asphalt mixture.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Carbon Nanotubes, asphalt mixtures, permanent deformation, asphalt nanocomposites

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