Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

carbon monoxide Related Abstracts

6 Climate Change Effects of Vehicular Carbon Monoxide Emission from Road Transportation in Part of Minna Metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: H. M. Liman, Y. M. Suleiman A. A. David


Poor air quality often considered one of the greatest environmental threats facing the world today is caused majorly by the emission of carbon monoxide into the atmosphere. The principal air pollutant is carbon monoxide. One prominent source of carbon monoxide emission is the transportation sector. Not much was known about the emission levels of carbon monoxide, the primary pollutant from the road transportation in the study area. Therefore, this study assessed the levels of carbon monoxide emission from road transportation in the Minna, Niger State. The database shows the carbon monoxide data collected. MSA Altair gas alert detector was used to take the carbon monoxide emission readings in Parts per Million for the peak and off-peak periods of vehicular movement at the road intersections. Their Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates were recorded in the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). Bar chart graphs were plotted by using the emissions level of carbon dioxide as recorded on the field against the scientifically established internationally accepted safe limit of 8.7 Parts per Million of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. Further statistical analysis was also carried out on the data recorded from the field using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and Microsoft excel to show the variance of the emission levels of each of the parameters in the study area. The results established that emissions’ level of atmospheric carbon monoxide from the road transportation in the study area exceeded the internationally accepted safe limits of 8.7 parts per million. In addition, the variations in the average emission levels of CO between the four parameters showed that morning peak is having the highest average emission level of 24.5PPM followed by evening peak with 22.84PPM while morning off peak is having 15.33 and the least is evening off peak 12.94PPM. Based on these results, recommendations made for poor air quality mitigation via carbon monoxide emissions reduction from transportation include Introduction of the urban mass transit would definitely reduce the number of traffic on the roads, hence the emissions from several vehicles that would have been on the road. This would also be a cheaper means of transportation for the masses and Encouraging the use of vehicles using alternative sources of energy like solar, electric and biofuel will also result in less emission levels as the these alternative energy sources other than fossil fuel originated diesel and petrol vehicles do not emit especially carbon monoxide.

Keywords: Road Transportation, carbon monoxide, climate change emissions, vehicular

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5 Statistically Significant Differences of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Emission in Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana


Experimental results confirmed the temporal variation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration during the working shift of the photocopying process in a small photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The statistically significant differences of target gases were examined with two-way analysis of variance without replication followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. The existence of statistically significant differences was obtained for carbon monoxide emission which is pointed out with F-values (12.37 and 31.88) greater than Fcrit (6.94) in contrary to carbon dioxide emission (F-values of 1.23 and 3.12 were less than Fcrit).  Scheffe's post hoc test indicated that sampling point A (near the photocopier machine) and second time interval contribute the most on carbon monoxide emission.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, analysis of variance, carbon monoxide, photocopying indoor, Scheffe's test

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4 Personal Exposure to Respirable Particles and Other Selected Gases among Cyclists near and Away from Busy Roads of Perth Metropolitan Area

Authors: Anu Shrestha, Krassi Rumchev, Ben Mullins, Yun Zhao, Linda Selvey


Cycling is often promoted as a means of reducing vehicular congestion, noise and greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in urban areas. It is also indorsed as a healthy means of transportation in terms of reducing the risk of developing a range of physical and psychological conditions. However, people who cycle regularly may not be aware that they can become exposed to high levels of Vehicular Air Pollutants (VAP) emitted by nearby traffics and therefore experience adverse health effects as a result. The study will highlight the present scenario of ambient air pollution level in different cycling routes in Perth and also highlight significant contribution to the understanding of health risks that cyclist may face from exposure to particulate air pollution. Methodology: This research was conducted in Perth, Western Austral and consisted of two groups of cyclists cycling near high (2 routes) and low (two routes) vehicular traffic roads, at high and low levels of exertion, during the cold and warm seasons. A sample size of 123 regular cyclists who cycled at least 80 km/week, aged 20-55, and non-smoker were selected for this study. There were altogether 100 male and 23 female who were asked to choose one or more routes among four different routes, and each participant cycled the route for warm or cold or both seasons. Cyclist who reported cardiovascular and other chronic health conditions (excluding asthma) were not invited into the study. Exposures to selected air pollutants were assessed by undertaking background and personal measurements alone with the measurement of heart and breathe rate of each participant. Finding: According to the preliminary study findings, the cyclists who used cycling route close to high traffic route were exposed to higher levels of measured air pollutants Nitrogen Oxide (NO₂) =0.12 ppm, sulfur dioxide (SO₂)=0.06 ppm and carbon monoxide (CO)=0.25 PPM compared to those who cycled away from busy roads. However, we measured high concentrations of particulate air pollution near one of the low traffic route which we associate with the close proximity to ferry station. Concluding Statement: As a conclusion, we recommend that cycling routes should be selected away from high traffic routes. If possible, we should also consider that if the cycling route is surrounded by the dense populated infrastructures, it can trap the pollutants and always facilitate in increasing inhalation of particle count among the cyclists.

Keywords: Air Pollution, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, cyclists' health, nitrogen oxide, respirable particulate matters

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3 Ethanol in Carbon Monoxide Intoxication: Focus on Delayed Neuropsychological Sequelae

Authors: Hyuk-Hoon Kim, Young Gi Min


Background: In carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication, the pathophysiology of delayed neurological sequelae (DNS) is very complex and remains poorly understood. And predicting whether patients who exhibit resolved acute symptoms have escaped or will experience DNS represents a very important clinical issue. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been conducted to assess the severity of brain damage as an objective method to predict prognosis. And co-ingestion of a second poison in patients with intentional CO poisoning occurs in almost one-half of patients. Among patients with co-ingestions, 66% ingested ethanol. We assessed the effects of ethanol on neurologic sequelae prevalence in acute CO intoxication by means of abnormal lesion in brain MR. Method: This study was conducted retrospectively by collecting data for patients who visited an emergency medical center during a period of 5 years. The enrollment criteria were diagnosis of acute CO poisoning and the measurement of the serum ethanol level and history of taking a brain MR during admission period. Official readout data by radiologist are used to decide whether abnormal lesion is existed or not. The enrolled patients were divided into two groups: patients with abnormal lesion and without abnormal lesion in Brain MR. A standardized extraction using medical record was performed; Mann Whitney U test and logistic regression analysis were performed. Result: A total of 112 patients were enrolled, and 68 patients presented abnormal brain lesion on MR. The abnormal brain lesion group had lower serum ethanol level (mean, 20.14 vs 46.71 mg/dL) (p-value<0.001). In addition, univariate logistic regression analysis showed the serum ethanol level (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98 -1.00) was independently associated with the development of abnormal lesion in brain MR. Conclusion: Ethanol could have neuroprotective effect in acute CO intoxication by sedative effect in stressful situation and mitigative effect in neuro-inflammatory reaction.

Keywords: Magnetic Resonance, Ethanol, carbon monoxide, delayed neuropsychological sequelae, intoxication

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2 Investigation of Main Operating Parameters Affecting Gas Turbine Efficiency and Gas Releases

Authors: Farhat Hajer, Khir Tahar, Ammar Ben Brahim


This work presents a study on the influence of the main operating variables on the gas turbine cycle. A numerical simulation of a gas turbine cycle is performed for a real net power of 100 MW. A calculation code is developed using EES software. The operating variables are taken in conformity with the local environmental conditions adopted by the Tunisian Society of Electricity and Gas. Results show that the increase of ambient temperature leads to an increase of Tpz and NOx emissions rate and a decrease of cycle efficiency and UHC emissions. The CO emissions decrease with the raise of residence time, while NOx emissions rate increases and UHC emissions rate decreases. Furthermore, both of cycle efficiency and NOx emissions increase with the increase of the pressure ratio.

Keywords: Efficiency, Emissions, Gas Turbine, NOx, carbon monoxide, UHC

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1 Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Distribution under the Sky-Train Stations

Authors: Suranath Chomcheon, Nathnarong Khajohnsaksumeth, Benchawan Wiwatanapataphee


Carbon monoxide is one of the harmful gases which have colorless, odorless, and tasteless. Too much carbon monoxide taken into the human body causes the reduction of oxygen transportation within human body cells leading to many symptoms including headache, nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and death. Carbon monoxide is considered as one of the air pollution indicators. It is mainly released as soot from the exhaust pipe of the incomplete combustion of the vehicle engine. Nowadays, the increase in vehicle usage and the slowly moving of the vehicle struck by the traffic jam has created a large amount of carbon monoxide, which accumulated in the street canyon area. In this research, we study the effect of parameters such as wind speed and aspect ratio of the height building affecting the ventilation. We consider the model of the pollutant under the Bangkok Transit System (BTS) stations in a two-dimensional geometrical domain. The convention-diffusion equation and Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes equation is used to describe the concentration and the turbulent flow of carbon monoxide. The finite element method is applied to obtain the numerical result. The result shows that our model can describe the dispersion patterns of carbon monoxide for different wind speeds.

Keywords: Air Pollution, finite element, carbon monoxide, street canyon

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