Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Carbon Footprint Related Abstracts

14 An Analysis of Eco-efficiency and GHG Emission of Olive Oil Production in Northeast of Portugal

Authors: M. Feliciano, A. Gonçalves, F. Maia

Abstract:

Olive oil production sector plays an important role in Portuguese economy. It had a major growth over the last decade, increasing its weight in the overall national exports. International market penetration for Mediterranean traditional products is increasingly more demanding, especially in the Northern European markets, where consumers are looking for more sustainable products. Trying to support this growing demand this study addresses olive oil production under the environmental and eco-efficiency perspectives. The analysis considers two consecutive product life cycle stages: olive trees farming; and olive oil extraction in mills. Addressing olive farming, data collection covered two different organizations: a middle-size farm (~12ha) (F1) and a large-size farm (~100ha) (F2). Results from both farms show that olive collection activities are responsible for the largest amounts of Green House Gases (GHG) emissions. In this activities, estimate for the Carbon Footprint per olive was higher in F2 (188g CO2e/kgolive) than in F1 (148g CO2e/kgolive). Considering olive oil extraction, two different mills were considered: one using a two-phase system (2P) and other with a three-phase system (3P). Results from the study of two mills show that there is a much higher use of water in 3P. Energy intensity (EI) is similar in both mills. When evaluating the GHG generated, two conditions are evaluated: a biomass neutral condition resulting on a carbon footprint higher in 3P (184g CO2e/Lolive oil) than in 2P (92g CO2e/Lolive oil); and a non-neutral biomass condition in which 2P increase its carbon footprint to 273g CO2e/Lolive oil. When addressing the carbon footprint of possible combinations among studied subsystems, results suggest that olive harvesting is the major source for GHG.

Keywords: Carbon Footprint, Environmental Indicators, farming subsystem, industrial subsystem, olive oil

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13 Integrating Carbon Footprint into Supply Chain Management of Manufacturing Companies: Sri Lanka

Authors: Shirekha Layangani, Suneth Dharmaparakrama

Abstract:

When the manufacturing industry is concerned the Environment Management System (EMS) is a common term. Currently most organizations have obtained the environmental standard certification, ISO 14001. In the Sri Lankan context even though the organizations adopt Environmental Management, a very limited number of companies tend to calculate their Carbon Footprints. This research discusses the demotivating factors of manufacturing organizations in Sri Lanka to integrate calculation of carbon footprint into their supply chains. Further it also identifies the benefits that manufacturing organizations can gain by implementing calculation of carbon footprint. The manufacturing companies listed under “ISO 14001” certification were considered in this study in order to investigate the problems mentioned above. 100% enumeration was used when the surveys were carried out. In order to gather essential data two surveys were designed to be done among manufacturing organizations that are currently engaged in calculating their carbon footprint and the organizations that have not. The survey among the first set of manufacturing organizations revealed the benefits the organizations were able to gain by implementing calculation of carbon footprint. The latter set organizations revealed the demotivating factors that have influenced not to integrate calculation of carbon footprint into their supply chains. This paper has summarized the results obtained by the surveys and segregated depending on the market share of the manufacturing organizations. Further it has indicated the benefits that can be obtained by implementing carbon footprint calculation, depending on the market share of the manufacturing entity. Finally the research gives suggestions to manufacturing organizations on applicability of adopting carbon footprint calculation depending on the benefits that can be obtained.

Keywords: Carbon Footprint, environmental management systems (EMS), benefits of carbon footprint, ISO14001

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12 Dynamic Modeling of the Green Building Movement in the U.S.: Strategies to Reduce Carbon Footprint of Residential Building Stock

Authors: Nuri Onat, Omer Tatari, Gokhan Egilmez

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The U.S. buildings consume significant amount of energy and natural resources and they are responsible for approximately 40 % of the greenhouse gases emitted in the United States. Awareness of these environmental impacts paved the way for the adoption of green building movement. The green building movement is a rapidly increasing trend. Green Construction market has generated $173 billion dollars in GDP, supported over 2.4 million jobs, and provided $123 billion dollars in labor earnings. The number of LEED certified buildings is projected to be almost half of the all new, nonresidential buildings by 2015. National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) aims to increase number of net-zero energy buildings (NZB). The ultimate goal is to have all commercial NZB by 2050 in the US (NSTC 2008). Green Building Initiative (GBI) became the first green building organization that is accredited by American National Standards Institute (ANSI), which will also boost number of green buildings certified by Green Globes. However, there is much less focus on greening the residential buildings, although the environmental impacts of existing residential buildings are more than that of commercial buildings. In this regard, current research aims to model the residential green building movement with a dynamic model approach and assess the possible strategies to stabilize the carbon footprint of the U.S. residential building stock. Three aspects of sustainable development are considered in policy making, namely: high performance green building (HPGB) construction, NZB construction and building retrofitting. 19 different policy options are proposed and analyzed. Results of this study explored that increasing the construction rate of HPGBs or NZBs is not a sufficient policy to stabilize the carbon footprint of the residential buildings. Energy efficient building retrofitting options are found to be more effective strategies then increasing HPGBs and NZBs construction. Also, significance of shifting to renewable energy sources for electricity generation is stressed.

Keywords: System Dynamics, Carbon Footprint, Residential Buildings, green building movement

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11 A Comparative Analysis of Carbon Footprints of Households in Different Housing Types and Seasons

Authors: Taehyun Kim

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As a result of rapid urbanization, energy demands for lighting, heating and cooling of households have been concentrated in metropolitan areas. The energy resources for housing in urban areas are dominantly fossil fuel whose uses contribute to increase cost of living and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. To achieve environmentally and economically sustainable residential development, it is important to know how energy use and cost of living can be reduced by planning and design. The purpose of this study is to examine which type of building requires less energy for housing. To do so, carbon footprint (CF) quiz survey was employed which estimates the amount of carbon dioxide required to support households’ consumption of energy uses for housing. The housing carbon footprints (HCF) of 500 households of Seoul, Korea in summer and winter were estimated and compared in three major types of housing: single-family (detached), row-house and apartment. In addition, its differences of HCF were estimated between tower and flat type of apartment. The results of T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) provide statistical evidence that housing type is related to housing energy use. Average HCF of detached house was higher than other housing types. Between two types of apartment, tower type shows higher HCF than flat type in winter. These findings may provide new perspectives on CF application in sustainable architecture and urban design.

Keywords: Carbon Footprint, energy use, analysis of variance, housing type

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10 Carbon Footprint of Blowmoulded Plastic Parts-Case Study on Automotive Industry

Authors: Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Mădălina Elena Mavrodin, Gabriela Andreea Despescu

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Long term trend of global warming has brought a very deep interest in climate change, which is due most likely to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. 0f these, particular attention is paid to carbon dioxide, which has led in desire for obtaining carbon footprint products. Automotive industry is one of the world’s most important economic sectors with a great impact over the environment through all range of activities. Its impact over the environment has been studied, researcher trying as much as possible to reduce it and to offer environmental friendly solution for the using, but also manufacturing cars. In the global endeavour to meet the international commitments in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, many companies integrate environmental issues into their management systems, with potential effects in their entire production chains. Several tools and calculators have been developed to measure the environmental impact of a product in the life cycle perspective of the whole product chain. There were a lot of ways to obtain the carbon footprint of driving a car, but the total carbon footprint of a car includes also the carbon footprint of all the components and accessories. In the automotive industry, one of the challenges is to calculate the carbon footprint of a car from ‘cradle to grave’; this meaning not only for driving the car, but also manufacturing it, so there can be an overview over the entire process of production.

Keywords: Manufacture, Greenhouse gases, Carbon Footprint, global warming potential, plastic air ducts

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9 Carbon Footprint of Educational Establishments: The Case of the University of Alicante

Authors: Juan A. Ferriz-Papi, Maria R. Mula-Molina

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Environmental concerns are increasingly obtaining higher priority in sustainability agenda of educational establishments. This is important not only for its environmental performance in its own right as an organization, but also to present a model for its students. On the other hand, universities play an important role on research and innovative solutions for measuring, analyzing and reducing environmental impacts for different activities. The assessment and decision-making process during the activity of educational establishments is linked to the application of robust indicators. In this way, the carbon footprint is a developing indicator for sustainability that helps understand the direct impact on climate change. But it is not easy to implement. There is a large amount of considering factors involved that increases its complexity, such as different uses at the same time (research, lecturing, administration), different users (students, staff) or different levels of activity (lecturing, exam or holidays periods). The aim of this research is to develop a simplified methodology for calculating and comparing carbon emissions per user at university campus considering two main aspects for carbon accountings: Building operations and transport. Different methodologies applied in other Spanish university campuses are analyzed and compared to obtain a final proposal to be developed in this type of establishments. First, building operation calculation considers the different uses and energy sources consumed. Second, for transport calculation, the different users and working hours are calculated separately, as well as their origin and traveling preferences. For every transport, a different conversion factor is used depending on carbon emissions produced. The final result is obtained as an average of carbon emissions produced per user. A case study is applied to the University of Alicante campus in San Vicente del Raspeig (Spain), where the carbon footprint is calculated. While the building operation consumptions are known per building and month, it does not happen with transport. Only one survey about the habit of transport for users was developed in 2009/2010, so no evolution of results can be shown in this case. Besides, building operations are not split per use, as building services are not monitored separately. These results are analyzed in depth considering all factors and limitations. Besides, they are compared to other estimations in other campuses. Finally, the application of the presented methodology is also studied. The recommendations concluded in this study try to enhance carbon emission monitoring and control. A Carbon Action Plan is then a primary solution to be developed. On the other hand, the application developed in the University of Alicante campus cannot only further enhance the methodology itself, but also render the adoption by other educational establishments more readily possible and yet with a considerable degree of flexibility to cater for their specific requirements.

Keywords: Climate Change, Transport, Built Environment, Carbon Footprint, building operations

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8 A Consumption-Based Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment of Carbon Footprints in California: High Footprints in Small Urban Households

Authors: Jukka Heinonen

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Higher density reduces distances, private car dependency and thus reduces greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). As a result, increased density has been given a central role among urban development targets. However, it is not just travel behavior that changes along with density. Rather, the consumption patterns, or overall lifestyles, change along with changing urban structure, particularly with changing housing types and consumption opportunities. Furthermore, elevated consumption of services, more frequent flying and less intra-household sharing have been shown to potentially outweigh the gains from reduced driving in more dense urban settlements. In this study, the geography of carbon footprints (CFs) in California is analyzed paying close attention to the household size differences and the resulting economies-of-scale advantages and disadvantages. A hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) framework is employed together with consumer expenditure data to assess the CFs. According to the study, small urban households have the highest CFs in California. Their transport related emissions are significantly lower than those of the residents of less urbanized areas, but higher emissions from other consumption categories, together with the low degree of sharing of goods, overweigh the gains. Two functional units, per capita and per household, are used to analyze the CFs and to demonstrate the importance of household size. The lifestyle impacts visible through the consumption data are also discussed. The study suggests that there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the premises of low-carbon human settlements.

Keywords: Carbon Footprint, Life Cycle Assessment, consumption, Lifestyle, household size, economies-of-scale

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7 Analyzing Spatio-Structural Impediments in the Urban Trafficscape of Kolkata, India

Authors: Teesta Dey

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Integrated Transport development with proper traffic management leads to sustainable growth of any urban sphere. Appropriate mass transport planning is essential for the populous cities in third world countries like India. The exponential growth of motor vehicles with unplanned road network is now the common feature of major urban centres in India. Kolkata, the third largest mega city in India, is not an exception of it. The imbalance between demand and supply of unplanned transport services in this city is manifested in the high economic and environmental costs borne by the associated society. With the passage of time, the growth and extent of passenger demand for rapid urban transport has outstripped proper infrastructural planning and causes severe transport problems in the overall urban realm. Hence Kolkata stands out in the world as one of the most crisis-ridden metropolises. The urban transport crisis of this city involves severe traffic congestion, the disparity in mass transport services on changing peripheral land uses, route overlapping, lowering of travel speed and faulty implementation of governmental plans as mostly induced by rapid growth of private vehicles on limited road space with huge carbon footprint. Therefore the paper will critically analyze the extant road network pattern for improving regional connectivity and accessibility, assess the degree of congestion, identify the deviation from demand and supply balance and finally evaluate the emerging alternate transport options as promoted by the government. For this purpose, linear, nodal and spatial transport network have been assessed based on certain selected indices viz. Road Degree, Traffic Volume, Shimbel Index, Direct Bus Connectivity, Average Travel and Waiting Tine Indices, Route Variety, Service Frequency, Bus Intensity, Concentration Analysis, Delay Rate, Quality of Traffic Transmission, Lane Length Duration Index and Modal Mix. Total 20 Traffic Intersection Points (TIPs) have been selected for the measurement of nodal accessibility. Critical Congestion Zones (CCZs) are delineated based on one km buffer zones of each TIP for congestion pattern analysis. A total of 480 bus routes are assessed for identifying the deficiency in network planning. Apart from bus services, the combined effects of other mass and para transit modes, containing metro rail, auto, cab and ferry services, are also analyzed. Based on systematic random sampling method, a total of 1500 daily urban passengers’ perceptions were studied for checking the ground realities. The outcome of this research identifies the spatial disparity among the 15 boroughs of the city with severe route overlapping and congestion problem. North and Central Kolkata-based mass transport services exceed the transport strength of south and peripheral Kolkata. Faulty infrastructural condition, service inadequacy, economic loss and workers’ inefficiency are the most dominant reasons behind the defective mass transport network plan. Hence there is an urgent need to revive the extant road based mass transport system of this city by implementing a holistic management approach by upgrading traffic infrastructure, designing new roads, better cooperation among different mass transport agencies, better coordination of transport and changing land use policies, large increase in funding and finally general passengers’ awareness.

Keywords: Carbon Footprint, critical congestion zones, direct bus connectivity, integrated transport development

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6 Environmental Impact of Pallets in the Supply Chain: Including Logistics and Material Durability in a Life Cycle Assessment Approach

Authors: Joana Almeida, Kendall Reid, Jonas Bengtsson

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Pallets are devices that are used for moving and storing freight and are nearly omnipresent in supply chains. The market is dominated by timber pallets, with plastic being a common alternative. Either option underpins the use of important resources (oil, land, timber), the emission of greenhouse gases and additional waste generation in most supply chains. This study uses a dynamic approach to the life cycle assessment (LCA) of pallets. It demonstrates that what ultimately defines the environmental burden of pallets in the supply chain is how often the length of its lifespan, which depends on the durability of the material and on how pallets are utilized. This study proposes a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pallets in supply chains supported by an algorithm that estimates pallet durability in function of material resilience and of logistics. The LCA runs from cradle-to-grave, including raw material provision, manufacture, transport and end of life. The scope is representative of timber and plastic pallets in the Australian and South-East Asia markets. The materials included in this analysis are: -tropical mixed hardwood, unsustainably harvested in SE Asia; -certified softwood, sustainably harvested; -conventional plastic, a mix of virgin and scrap plastic; -recycled plastic pallets, 100% mixed plastic scrap, which are being pioneered by Re > Pal. The logistical model purports that more complex supply chains and rougher handling subject pallets to higher stress loads. More stress shortens the lifespan of pallets in function of their composition. Timber pallets can be repaired, extending their lifespan, while plastic pallets cannot. At the factory gate, softwood pallets have the lowest carbon footprint. Re > pal follows closely due to its burden-free feedstock. Tropical mixed hardwood and plastic pallets have the highest footprints. Harvesting tropical mixed hardwood in SE Asia often leads to deforestation, leading to emissions from land use change. The higher footprint of plastic pallets is due to the production of virgin plastic. Our findings show that manufacture alone does not determine the sustainability of pallets. Even though certified softwood pallets have lower carbon footprint and their lifespan can be extended by repair, the need for re-supply of materials and disposal of waste timber offsets this advantage. It also leads to most waste being generated among all pallets. In a supply chain context, Re > Pal pallets have the lowest footprint due to lower replacement and disposal needs. In addition, Re > Pal are nearly ‘waste neutral’, because the waste that is generated throughout their life cycle is almost totally offset by the scrap uptake for production. The absolute results of this study can be confirmed by progressing the logistics model, improving data quality, expanding the range of materials and utilization practices. Still, this LCA demonstrates that considering logistics, raw materials and material durability is central for sustainable decision-making on pallet purchasing, management and disposal.

Keywords: Waste, Carbon Footprint, Life Cycle Assessment, Recycled Plastic

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5 Carbon Footprint and Exergy Destruction Footprint in White Wine Production Line

Authors: Seda Genç, Mahmut Genc

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Wine is the most popular alcoholic drink in the World with 274.4 million of hectoliter annual production in the year of 2015. The wine industry is very important for some regions as well as creating significant value in their economies. This industry is very sensitive to the global warming since viticulture highly depends on climate and geographical region. Sustainability concept is a crucial issue for the wine industry and sustainability performances of wine production processes should be determined. Although wine production industry is an energy intensive sector as a whole, the most energy intensive products are widely used both in the viti and vinicultural process. In this study, gate-to-gate LCA approach in energy resource utilization and global warming potential impacts for white wine production line were attempted and carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint were calculated, accordingly. As a result, carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint values were calculated to be 1.75 kg CO2eq and 365.3kW, respectively.

Keywords: Carbon Footprint, Exergy analysis, exergy destruction footprint, white wine

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4 Carbon Footprint Assessment and Application in Urban Planning and Geography

Authors: Taehyun Kim, Hyunjoo Park

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Human life, activity, and culture depend on the wider environment. Cities offer economic opportunities for goods and services, but cannot exist in environments without food, energy, and water supply. Technological innovation in energy supply and transport speeds up the expansion of urban areas and the physical separation from agricultural land. As a result, division of urban agricultural areas causes more energy demand for food and goods transport between the regions. As the energy resources are leaking all over the world, the impact on the environment crossing the boundaries of cities is also growing. While advances in energy and other technologies can reduce the environmental impact of consumption, there is still a gap between energy supply and demand by current technology, even in technically advanced countries. Therefore, reducing energy demand is more realistic than relying solely on the development of technology for sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to introduce the application of carbon footprint assessment in fields of urban planning and geography. In urban studies, carbon footprint has been assessed at different geographical scales, such as nation, city, region, household, and individual. Carbon footprint assessment for a nation and a city is available by using national or city level statistics of energy consumption categories. By means of carbon footprint calculation, it is possible to compare the ecological capacity and deficit among nations and cities. Carbon footprint also offers great insight on the geographical distribution of carbon intensity at a regional level in the agricultural field. The study shows the background of carbon footprint applications in urban planning and geography by case studies such as figuring out sustainable land-use measures in urban planning and geography. For micro level, footprint quiz or survey can be adapted to measure household and individual carbon footprint. For example, first case study collected carbon footprint data from the survey measuring home energy use and travel behavior of 2,064 households in eight cities in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Second case study analyzed the effects of the net and gross population densities on carbon footprint of residents at an intra-urban scale in the capital city of Seoul, Korea. In this study, the individual carbon footprint of residents was calculated by converting the carbon intensities of home and travel fossil fuel use of respondents to the unit of metric ton of carbon dioxide (tCO₂) by multiplying the conversion factors equivalent to the carbon intensities of each energy source, such as electricity, natural gas, and gasoline. Carbon footprint is an important concept not only for reducing climate change but also for sustainable development. As seen in case studies carbon footprint may be measured and applied in various spatial units, including but not limited to countries and regions. These examples may provide new perspectives on carbon footprint application in planning and geography. In addition, additional concerns for consumption of food, goods, and services can be included in carbon footprint calculation in the area of urban planning and geography.

Keywords: Geography, Urban Planning, Carbon Footprint, Case study

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3 The Carbon Footprint Model as a Plea for Cities towards Energy Transition: The Case of Algiers Algeria

Authors: Hachaichi Mohamed Nour El-Islem, Baouni Tahar

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Environmental sustainability rather than a trans-disciplinary and a scientific issue, is the main problem that characterizes all modern cities nowadays. In developing countries, this concern is expressed in a plethora of critical urban ills: traffic congestion, air pollution, noise, urban decay, increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions which blemish cities’ landscape and might threaten citizens’ health and welfare. As in the same manner as developing world cities, the rapid growth of Algiers’ human population and increasing in city scale phenomena lead eventually to increase in daily trips, energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In addition, the lack of proper and sustainable planning of the city’s infrastructure is one of the most relevant issues from which Algiers suffers. The aim of this contribution is to estimate the carbon deficit of the City of Algiers, Algeria, using the Ecological Footprint Model (carbon footprint). In order to achieve this goal, the amount of CO2 from fuel combustion has been calculated and aggregated into five sectors (agriculture, industry, residential, tertiary and transportation); as well, Algiers’ biocapacity (CO2 uptake land) has been calculated to determine the ecological overshoot. This study shows that Algiers’ transport system is not sustainable and is generating more than 50% of Algiers total carbon footprint which cannot be sequestered by the local forest land. The aim of this research is to show that the Carbon Footprint Assessment might be a relevant indicator to design sustainable strategies/policies striving to reduce CO2 by setting in motion the energy consumption in the transportation sector and reducing the use of fossil fuels as the main energy input.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Carbon Footprint, biocapacity, ecological footprint assessment

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2 Role of Sequestration of CO2 Due to the Carbonation in Total CO2 Emission Balance in Concrete Life

Authors: P. P. Woyciechowski

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Calculation of the carbon footprint of cement concrete is a complex process including consideration of the phase of primary life (components and concrete production processes, transportation, construction works, maintenance of concrete structures) and secondary life, including demolition and recycling. Taking into consideration the effect of concrete carbonation can lead to a reduction in the calculated carbon footprint of concrete. In this paper, an example of CO2 balance for small bridge elements made of Portland cement reinforced concrete was done. The results include the effect of carbonation of concrete in a structure and of concrete rubble after demolition. It was shown that important impact of carbonation on the balance is possible only when rubble carbonation is possible. It was related to the fact that only the sequestration potential in the secondary phase of concrete life has significant value.

Keywords: Carbon Footprint, balance of carbon dioxide in nature, concrete carbonation, the sequestration potential of concrete

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1 Container Chaos: The Impact of a Casual Game on Learning and Behavior

Authors: Lori L. Scarlatos, Ryan Courtney

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This paper explores the impact that playing a casual game can have on a player's learning and subsequent behavior. A casual mobile game, Container Chaos, was created to teach undergraduate students about the carbon footprint of various disposable beverage containers. Learning was tested with a short quiz, and behavior was tested by observing which beverage containers players choose when offered a drink and a snack. The game was tested multiple times, under a variety of different circumstances. Findings of these tests indicate that, with extended play over time, players can learn new information and sometimes even change their behavior as a result. This has implications for how other casual games can be used to teach concepts and possibly modify behavior.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Behavior, Carbon Footprint, Material Sciences, casual games

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