Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Carbon Emissions Related Abstracts

7 Reverse Logistics, Green Supply Chain, and Carbon Trading

Authors: Neha Asthana, Vishal Krishna Prasad


Reverse logistics and green supply chain form an interconnected and interwoven network of parameters that contribute to enhancement and incremental exchange in the triple bottom line in the consistently changing and fragmenting markets of the globalizing markets of today. Reverse logistics not only contributes to completing the supply chain in a comprehensive and synchronized manner but also contributes to a significant degree in optimizing green supply chains through procedures such as recycling, refurbishing etc. contributing to waste reduction. Carbon trading, owing to its limitations in the global context and being in a nascent stage seeks plethora of research to determine its full application in synergy with reverse logistics and green supply chain.

Keywords: Reverse Logistics, Green supply chain, Carbon trading, Carbon Emissions

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6 Real-Time Optimisation and Minimal Energy Use for Water and Environment Efficient Irrigation

Authors: Kanya L. Khatri, Ashfaque A. Memon, Rod J. Smith, Shamas Bilal


The viability and sustainability of crop production is currently threatened by increasing water scarcity. Water scarcity problems can be addressed through improved water productivity and the options usually presumed in this context are efficient water use and conversion of surface irrigation to pressurized systems. By replacing furrow irrigation with drip or centre pivot systems, the water efficiency can be improved by up to 30 to 45%. However, the installation and application of pumps and pipes, and the associated fuels needed for these alternatives increase energy consumption and cause significant greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, a balance between the improvement in water use and the potential increase in energy consumption is required keeping in view adverse impact of increased carbon emissions on the environment. When surface water is used, pressurized systems increase energy consumption substantially, by between 65% to 75%, and produce greenhouse gas emissions around 1.75 times higher than that of gravity based irrigation. With gravity based surface irrigation methods the energy consumption is assumed to be negligible. This study has shown that a novel real-time infiltration model REIP has enabled implementation of real-time optimization and control of surface irrigation and surface irrigation with real-time optimization has potential to bring significant improvements in irrigation performance along with substantial water savings of 2.92 ML/ha which is almost equivalent to that given by pressurized systems. Thus real-time optimization and control offers a modern, environment friendly and water efficient system with close to zero increase in energy consumption and minimal greenhouse gas emissions.

Keywords: Real-time, Carbon Emissions, pressurised irrigation, environmentally-friendly, REIP

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5 Environmental Analysis of Urban Communities: A Case Study of Air Pollutant Distribution in Smouha Arteries, Alexandria Egypt

Authors: Sammar Zain Allam


Smart Growth, intelligent cities, and healthy cities cited by WHO world health organization; they all call for clean air and minimizing air pollutants considering human health. Air quality is a thriving matter to achieve ecological cities; towards sustainable environmental development of urban fabric design. Selection criteria depends on the strategic location of our area as it is located at the entry of the city of Alexandria from its agricultural road. Besides, it represents the city center for retail, business, and educational amenities. Our study is analyzing readings of definite factors affecting air quality in a centric area in Alexandria. Our readings will be compared to standard measures of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, suspended particles, and air velocity or air flow. Carbon emissions are pondered in our study, in addition to suspended particles and the air velocity or air flow. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide crystalize the main elements to necessitate environmental and sustainable studies with the appearance of global warming and the glass house effect. Nevertheless, particulate matters are increasing causing breath issues especially to children and elder people; still threatening future generations to meet their own needs; sustainable development definition. Analysis of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, suspended particles together with air velocity or air flow has taken place in our area of study to manifest the relationship between these elements and the urban fabric design and land use distribution. For conclusion, dense urban fabric affecting air flow, and thus result in the concentration of air pollutants in certain zones. The appearance of open space with green areas allow the fading of air pollutants and help in their absorption. Along with dense urban fabric, high rise buildings trap air carriers which contribute to high readings of our elements. Also, street design may facilitate the circulation of air which helps carrying these pollutant away and distribute it to a wider space which decreases its harms and effects.

Keywords: Particulate Matter, Carbon Emissions, Clean Air, air quality measurements, arteries air quality, airflow or air velocity, urban density

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4 Analysis of the CO2 Emissions of Public Passenger Transport in Tianjin City of China

Authors: Tao Zhao, Xianshuo Xu


Low-carbon public passenger transport is an important part of low carbon city. The CO2 emissions of public passenger transport in Tianjin from 1995 to 2010 are estimated with IPCC CO2 counting method, which shows that the total CO2 emissions of Tianjin public passenger transport have gradually become stable at 1,425.1 thousand tons. And then the CO2 emissions of the buses, taxies, and rail transits are calculated respectively. A CO2 emission of 829.9 thousand tons makes taxies become the largest CO2 emissions source among the public passenger transport in Tianjin. Combining with passenger volume, this paper analyzes the CO2 emissions proportion of the buses, taxies, and rail transits compare the passenger transport rate with the proportion of CO2 emissions, as well as the CO2 emissions change of per 10,000 people. The passenger volume proportion of bus among the three public means of transport is 72.62% which is much higher than its CO2 emissions proportion of 36.01%, with the minimum number of CO2 emissions per 10,000 people of 4.90 tons. The countermeasures to reduce CO2 emissions of public passenger transport in Tianjin are to develop rail transit, update vehicles and use alternative fuel vehicles.

Keywords: Countermeasures, China, Carbon Emissions, public passenger transport

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3 The Carbon Emission Seesaw Effect

Authors: Adel Elomri


The notion of carbon footprinting is ever more widespread as companies are becoming increasingly aware that tackling carbon emissions and being seen to do so is a key issue to face governments, customers and other stakeholders’ pressures towards delivering environmentally friendly services and activities. In this contest, many firms are taking self-initiatives to reduce their own carbon emissions while some other are constrained to obey to different regulations/policies (e.g. carbon tax or carbon Cap) designed by higher authorities targeting a low-carbon environment. Using buyer-vendor framework, this paper provides some insights on how effective are these self-initiatives and regulatory policies when only concerning firms at the individual level and not the whole supply chain they are part of. We show that when firms individually engage in reducing their direct carbon emissions either under self-initiatives or regulatory policy, an opposite expected outcome resulting in a higher global supply chain emission can occur. This effect is referred to as the carbon seesaw effect. Moreover, we show that coordinating or centralizing the supply chain -contrary to what one may think at first- is not often the appropriate solution to get rid of this effect.

Keywords: Carbon Emissions, Sustainable Operations, supply chain coordination, EOQ

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2 Transport Mode Selection under Lead Time Variability and Emissions Constraint

Authors: Chiranjit Das, Sanjay Jharkharia


This study is focused on transport mode selection under lead time variability and emissions constraint. In order to reduce the carbon emissions generation due to transportation, organization has often faced a dilemmatic choice of transport mode selection since logistic cost and emissions reduction are complementary with each other. Another important aspect of transportation decision is lead-time variability which is least considered in transport mode selection problem. Thus, in this study, we provide a comprehensive mathematical based analytical model to decide transport mode selection under emissions constraint. We also extend our work through analysing the effect of lead time variability in the transport mode selection by a sensitivity analysis. In order to account lead time variability into the model, two identically normally distributed random variables are incorporated in this study including unit lead time variability and lead time demand variability. Therefore, in this study, we are addressing following questions: How the decisions of transport mode selection will be affected by lead time variability? How lead time variability will impact on total supply chain cost under carbon emissions? To accomplish these objectives, a total transportation cost function is developed including unit purchasing cost, unit transportation cost, emissions cost, holding cost during lead time, and penalty cost for stock out due to lead time variability. A set of modes is available to transport each node, in this paper, we consider only four transport modes such as air, road, rail, and water. Transportation cost, distance, emissions level for each transport mode is considered as deterministic and static in this paper. Each mode is having different emissions level depending on the distance and product characteristics. Emissions cost is indirectly affected by the lead time variability if there is any switching of transport mode from lower emissions prone transport mode to higher emissions prone transport mode in order to reduce penalty cost. We provide a numerical analysis in order to study the effectiveness of the mathematical model. We found that chances of stock out during lead time will be higher due to the higher variability of lead time and lad time demand. Numerical results show that penalty cost of air transport mode is negative that means chances of stock out zero, but, having higher holding and emissions cost. Therefore, air transport mode is only selected when there is any emergency order to reduce penalty cost, otherwise, rail and road transport is the most preferred mode of transportation. Thus, this paper is contributing to the literature by a novel approach to decide transport mode under emissions cost and lead time variability. This model can be extended by studying the effect of lead time variability under some other strategic transportation issues such as modal split option, full truck load strategy, and demand consolidation strategy etc.

Keywords: Carbon Emissions, inventory theoretic model, lead time variability, transport mode selection

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1 Study on the Relationship between the Urban Geography and Urban Agglomeration to the Effects of Carbon Emissions

Authors: Peng-Shao Chen, Yen-Jong Chen


In recent years, global warming, the dramatic change in energy prices and the exhaustion of natural resources illustrated that energy-related topic cannot be ignored. Despite the relationship between the cities and CO₂ emissions has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been paid to differences in the geographical location of the city. However, the geographical climate has a great impact on lifestyle from city to city, such as the type of buildings, the major industry of the city, etc. Therefore, the paper instigates empirically the effects of kinds of urban factors and CO₂ emissions with consideration of the different geographic, climatic zones which cities are located. Using the regression model and a dataset of urban agglomeration in East Asia cities with over one million population, including 2005, 2010, and 2015 three years, the findings suggest that the impact of urban factors on CO₂ emissions vary with the latitude of the cities. Surprisingly, all kinds of urban factors, including the urban population, the share of GDP in service industry, per capita income, and others, have different level of impact on the cities locate in the tropical climate zone and temperate climate zone. The results of the study analyze the impact of different urban factors on CO₂ emissions in urban area with different geographical climate zones. These findings will be helpful for the formulation of relevant policies for urban planners and policy makers in different regions.

Keywords: Urban geography, Urban Agglomeration, Carbon Emissions, urban factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 143