Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Carbon Dioxide Related Abstracts

39 Effect of Laser Ablation OTR Films on the Storability of Handaeri – gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai) Jangajji in MA (Modified Atmosphere) Storage

Authors: In-Lee Choi, Sung Mi Hong, Min Jae Jeong, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

Gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri) is grown in the wetland of the deep mountains in Korea and East Asia and has properties that are, inflammation control, whitening, antimutagenic and antigenotoxic. Jangajji is a type of pickle in Korean fermented food which is made by pickling or marinating vegetables in a sauce, such as soy sauce, chili pepper paste, soybean paste, or diluted vinegar for a long period of time. Handaeri-gomchwi jangajii is generally packed a film that has very low or no gas permeability in the Korean domestic market, so packages have a risk of swelling or bursting as a result of internal gas generation during storage or sale This study was conducted to improve secure distribution of Handaeri-gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai) Jangajji using laser ablation OTR (oxygen transmission rate) films. Handaeri-gomchwi cultivated in Yangu, Gangwon province, Republic of Korea (Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai) was processed in to Jangajji using soy sauce. They were packed by different OTR films, and were stored for 90 days in 7℃(10,000 cc, 20,000 cc, 40,000 cc and 80,000 cc O2/m²• day • atm), 20 days in 20℃ (10,000 cc, 30,000 cc, 70,000 cc and 100,000 cc) and compared with the control film(PP film, 1,300cc). The fresh weight loss, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene concentrations of Handaeri–gomchwi packages were measured during storage. On the final day of storage, incidence rate of fungi, pH, salinity, firmness, and off-flavor were measured. The fresh weight loss rate of Handaeri–gomchwi was less than 2.0% in 10,000cc OTR films at two different storage periods and temperatures. At 80,000cc(7℃) and 100,000cc(20℃), carbon dioxide contents were 2.0% and 6.4% respectively, whereas the control treatment had the highest concentration. Which was 35%(20℃) and 15%(7℃) , that resulted the packages to swell during storage. The control treatment Showed the lowest oxygen concentration at 2.5% in 7℃ and 0.8% in 20℃. Packages in 7℃ (0.3-1.7μL/L) showed very lower ethylene concentration than in 20℃(10-25μL/L), they also had no significant relation. On the final storage day, fungi were found in every film at both temperatures, except the 10,000cc, as oxygen permeability increased so did the pH, while the salinity decreased. Firmness and off-flavor Showed the best results at 10,000cc in both temperatures best result at 10,000cc in both temperature. Following the results, 10,000cc film is the most reasonable treat in storing Handaeri–gomchwi. For it had a suitable oxygen transmission rate, which prevents billowing, and maintained good qualities in both temperatures.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, oxygen, Korean pickle, marketable

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38 Biologically Synthesized Palladium Nanoparticles Impregnated Porous Aluminium Catalyst in CO2 Detection

Authors: I. B. Patel, K. A. Mistry, A. H. Prajapati

Abstract:

Biologically synthesized colloidal Pd nanoparticles were impregnated on porous aluminium. In this paper, the obtained Pd/Al2O3 catalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM. The effects of deposited films on the performances of Pd/Al2O3 in adsorption, reduction, and catalytic reaction of CO2 were investigated. The results showed that the deposited films can remarkably improve the dispersion of active components and enhance the reactivity of Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The catalytic performance of Pd/Al2O3 in term of surface reaction is also enhanced in terms of sensitivity (SF = 850) obtained through conventional CBD method.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, palladium nanoparticles, Pd/Al2O3, aluminium catalyst

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37 Effect of Laser Ablation OTR Films on the Storability of Endive and Pak Choi by Baby Vegetables in Modified Atmosphere Condition

Authors: In-Lee Choi, Min Jae Jeong, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

As the consumption trends of vegetables become different from the past, it is increased using vegetable more convenience such as fresh-cut vegetables, sprouts, baby vegetables rather than an existing hole piece of vegetables. Selected baby vegetables have various functional materials but they have short shelf life. This study was conducted to improve storability by using suitable laser ablation OTR (oxygen transmission rate) films. Baby vegetable of endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and pak choi (Brassica rapa chinensis) for this research, around 10 cm height, cultivated in glass greenhouse during 3 weeks. Harvested endive and pak choi were stored at 8 ℃ for 5 days and were packed by PP (Polypropylene) container and covered different types of laser ablation OTR film (DaeRyung Co., Ltd.) such as 1,300 cc, 10,000 cc, 20,000 cc, 40,000 cc /m2•day•atm, and control (perforated film) with heat sealing machine (SC200-IP, Kumkang, Korea). All the samples conducted 5 times replication. Statistical analysis was carried out using a Microsoft Excel 2010 program and results were expressed as standard deviations. The fresh weight loss rate of both baby vegetables were less than 0.3 % in treated films as maximum weight loss rate. On the other hands, control in the final storage day had around 3.0 % weight loss rate and it followed decreasing quantity. Endive had less 2.0 % carbon dioxide contents as maximum contents in 20,000 cc and 40,000 cc. Oxygen contents was maintained between 17 and 20 % in endive, 19 and 20 % in pak choi. Ethylene concentration of both vegetables maintained little lower contents in 20,000 cc treatments than others at final storage day without statistical significance. In the case of hardness, 40,000 cc film was shown little higher value at both baby vegetables without statistical significance. Visual quality was good at 10,000 cc and 20,000 cc in endive and pak choi, and off-flavor was not appeard any off-flavor in both vegetables. Chlorophyll (SPAD-502, Minolta, Japan) value of endive was shown as similar result with initial in all treatments except 20,000 cc as little lower. And chlorophyll value of pak choi decreased in all treatments compared with initial value but was not shown significantly difference each other. Color of leaves (CR-400, Minolta, Japan) changed significantly in 40,000 cc at endive. In an event of pak choi, all the treatments started yellowing by increasing hunter b value, among them control increased substantially. As above the result, 10,000 cc film was most reasonable packaging film for storing at endive and 20,000 cc at pak choi with good quality.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, shelf-life, visual quality, pak choi

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36 Investigation of the Catalytic Role of Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation in Sediments

Authors: Ehsan Heidaryan

Abstract:

Gas hydrate sediments are ice like permafrost in deep see and oceans. Methane production in sequestration process and reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a main source of greenhouse gas, has been accentuated recently. One focus is capture, separation, and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. As a hydrate former, carbon dioxide forms hydrates at moderate temperatures and pressures. This phenomenon could be utilized to capture and separate carbon dioxide from flue gases, and also has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide in the deep seabeds. This research investigated the effect of synthetic surfactants on carbon dioxide hydrate formation, catalysis and consequently, methane production from hydrate permafrosts in sediments. It investigated the sequestration potential of carbon dioxide hydrates in ocean sediments. Also, the catalytic effect of biosurfactants in these processes was investigated.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, surfactant, hydrate, sequestration

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35 Characterization of Carbon Dioxide-Rich Flue Gas Sources for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels

Authors: Adesola Orimoloye, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever - present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Catalyst, Membrane, flue gas, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
34 Flue Gas Characterisation for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever-present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Catalyst, Membrane, flue gas, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
33 The Cost of Solar-Centric Renewable Portfolio

Authors: Timothy J. Considine, Edward J. M. Manderson

Abstract:

This paper develops an econometric forecasting system of energy demand coupled with engineering-economic models of energy supply. The framework is used to quantify the impact of state-level renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) achieved predominately with solar generation on electricity rates, electricity consumption, and environmental quality. We perform the analysis using Arizona’s RPS as a case study. We forecast energy demand in Arizona out to 2035, and find by this time the state will require an additional 35 million MWh of electricity generation. If Arizona implements its RPS when supplying this electricity demand, we find there will be a substantial increase in electricity rates (relative to a business-as-usual scenario of reliance on gas-fired generation). Extending the current regime of tax credits can greatly reduce this increase, at the taxpayers’ expense. We find that by 2025 Arizona’s RPS will implicitly abate carbon dioxide emissions at a cost between $101 and $135 per metric ton, and by 2035 abatement costs are between $64 and $112 per metric ton (depending on the future evolution of nature gas prices).

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Solar, electricity demand, renewable portfolio standard

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32 Performance Evaluation of an Inventive Co2 Gas Separation Inorganic Ceramic Membrane System

Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Oyoh Kechinyere, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

Atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions are considered as the greatest environmental challenge the world is facing today. The challenges to control the emissions include the recovery of CO2 from flue gas. This concern has been improved due to recent advances in materials process engineering resulting in the development of inorganic gas separation membranes with excellent thermal and mechanical stability required for most gas separations. This paper therefore evaluates the performance of a highly selective inorganic membrane for CO2 recovery applications. Analysis of results obtained is in agreement with experimental literature data. Further results show the prediction performance of the membranes for gas separation and the future direction of research. The materials selection and the membrane preparation techniques are discussed. Method of improving the interface defects in the membrane and its effect on the separation performance has also been reviewed and in addition advances to totally exploit the potential usage of this innovative membrane.

Keywords: Gas separation, Carbon Dioxide, inorganic ceramic membrane, permselectivity

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31 Unconventional Composite Inorganic Membrane Fabrication for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

Authors: Ngozi Nwogu, Godson Osueke, Mamdud Hossain, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

An unconventional composite inorganic ceramic membrane capable in carbon dioxide emission decline was fabricated and tested at laboratory scale to develop in conformism to various environmental guidelines to mitigate the effect of global warming. A review of the existing membrane technologies for carbon capture including the relevant gas transport mechanisms are presented and discussed. Single gas separation experiments using silica modified ceramic membrane with internal diameter 20mm, outside diameter 25mm and length of 368mm deposited on a macro porous supported reactor.was carried out to investigate individual gas permeation behaviours at different pressures and membrane efficiency after a dip coating method. Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Argon, Oxygen and Methane pure gases were used to investigate their individual permeation rates at various pressures. Results show that the gas flow rate increases with pressure drop. However at above a pressure of 3bar, CO2 permeability ratio to than the other gases indicated control of a more selective surface adsorptive transport mechanism.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Permeability, Composite Membranes, transport mechanisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
30 Effect of Laser Ablation OTR Films and High Concentration Carbon Dioxide for Maintaining the Freshness of Strawberry ‘Maehyang’ for Export in Modified Atmosphere Condition

Authors: Hyuk Sung Yoon, In-Lee Choi, Min Jae Jeong, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

This study was conducted to improve storability by using suitable laser ablation oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films and effectiveness of high carbon dioxide at strawberry 'Maehyang' for export. Strawberries were grown by hydroponic system in Gyeongsangnam-do province. These strawberries were packed by different laser ablation OTR films (Daeryung Co., Ltd.) such as 1,300 cc, 20,000 cc, 40,000 cc, 80,000 cc, and 100,000 cc•m-2•day•atm. And CO2 injection (30%) treatment was used 20,000 cc•m-2•day•atm OTR film and perforated film was as a control. Temperature conditions were applied simulated shipping and distribution conditions from Korea to Singapore, there were stored at 3 ℃ (13 days), 10 ℃ (an hour), and 8 ℃ (7 days) for 20 days. Fresh weight loss rate was under 1% as maximum permissible weight loss in treated OTR films except perforated film as a control during storage. Carbon dioxide concentration within a package for the storage period showed a lower value than the maximum CO2 concentration tolerated range (15 %) in treated OTR films and even the concentration of high OTR film treatment; from 20,000cc to 100,000cc were less than 3%. 1,300 cc had a suitable carbon dioxide range as over 5 % under 15 % at 5 days after storage until finished experiments and CO2 injection treatment was quickly drop the 15 % at storage after 1 day, but it kept around 15 % during storage. Oxygen concentration was maintained between 10 to 15 % in 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments, but other treatments were kept in 19 to 21 %. Ethylene concentration was showed very higher concentration at the CO2 injection treatment than OTR treatments. In the OTR treatments, 1,300 cc showed the highest concentration in ethylene and 20,000 cc film had lowest. Firmness was maintained highest in 1,300cc, but there was not shown any significant differences among other OTR treatments. Visual quality had shown the best result in 20,000 cc that showed marketable quality until 20 days after storage. 20,000 cc and perforated film had better than other treatments in off-odor and the 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments have occurred strong off-odor even after 10 minutes. As a result of the difference between Hunter ‘L’ and ‘a’ values of chroma meter, the 1,300cc and CO2 injection treatments were delayed color developments and other treatments did not shown any significant differences. The results indicate that effectiveness for maintaining the freshness was best achieved at 20,000 cc•m-2•day•atm. Although 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments were in appropriate MA condition, it showed darkening of strawberry calyx and excessive reduction of coloring due to high carbon dioxide concentration during storage. While 1,300cc and CO2 injection treatments were considered as appropriate treatments for exports to Singapore, but the result was shown different. These results are based on cultivar characteristics of strawberry 'Maehyang'.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, shelf-life, visual quality, firmness

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29 Monitoring CO2 and H2S Emission in Live Austrian and UK Concrete Sewer Pipes

Authors: Anna Romanova, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes induced by sulfuric acid is an acknowledged problem and a ticking time-bomb to sewer operators. Whilst the chemical reaction of the corrosion process is well-understood, the indirect roles of other parameters in the corrosion process which are found in sewer environment are not highly reflected on. This paper reports on a field studies undertaken in Austria and United Kingdom, where the parameters of temperature, pH, H2S and CO2 were monitored over a period of time. The study establishes that (i) effluent temperature and pH have similar daily pattern and peak times, When examined in minutes scale, (ii) H2S and CO2 have an identical hourly pattern, (iii) H2S instant or shifted relation to effluent temperature is governed by the root mean square value of CO2.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, concrete corrosion, sewer pipe, hydrogen sulphide, sulfuric acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
28 Ionic Liquids as Corrosion Inhibitors in CO2 Capture Systems

Authors: A. Acidi, A. Abbaci

Abstract:

We present the viability of using thermally stable, practically non-volatile ionic liquids as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous monoethanolamine system. Carbon steel 1020, which widely used as construction material in CO2 capture plants, has been taken as a test material. Corrosion inhibition capacities of typical room-temperature ionic liquids constituting imidazolium cation in concentration range ≤ 3% by weight in CO2 capture applications were investigated. Electrochemical corrosion experiments using the potentiodynamic polarization technique for measuring corrosion current were carried out. The results show that ionic liquids possess ability to suppressing severe operational problems of corrosion in typical CO2 capture plants.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Carbon Dioxide, corrosion rate, carbon steel, monoethanolamine, tafel fit

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
27 Development and Validation of a Carbon Dioxide TDLAS Sensor for Studies on Fermented Dairy Products

Authors: Lorenzo Cocola, Massimo Fedel, Dragiša Savić, Bojana Danilović, Luca Poletto

Abstract:

An instrument for the detection and evaluation of gaseous carbon dioxide in the headspace of closed containers has been developed in the context of Packsensor Italian-Serbian joint project. The device is based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) with a Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS) technique in order to accomplish a non-invasive measurement inside closed containers of fermented dairy products (yogurts and fermented cheese in cups and bottles). The purpose of this instrument is the continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration during incubation and storage of products over a time span of the whole shelf life of the product, in the presence of different microorganisms. The instrument’s optical front end has been designed to be integrated in a thermally stabilized incubator. An embedded computer provides processing of spectral artifacts and storage of an arbitrary set of calibration data allowing a properly calibrated measurement on many samples (cups and bottles) of different shapes and sizes commonly found in the retail distribution. A calibration protocol has been developed in order to be able to calibrate the instrument on the field also on containers which are notoriously difficult to seal properly. This calibration protocol is described and evaluated against reference measurements obtained through an industry standard (sampling) carbon dioxide metering technique. Some sets of validation test measurements on different containers are reported. Two test recordings of carbon dioxide concentration evolution are shown as an example of instrument operation. The first demonstrates the ability to monitor a rapid yeast growth in a contaminated sample through the increase of headspace carbon dioxide. Another experiment shows the dissolution transient with a non-saturated liquid medium in presence of a carbon dioxide rich headspace atmosphere.

Keywords: Measurement, Carbon Dioxide, TDLAS, cups, headspace

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26 Statistically Significant Differences of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Emission in Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana

Abstract:

Experimental results confirmed the temporal variation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration during the working shift of the photocopying process in a small photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The statistically significant differences of target gases were examined with two-way analysis of variance without replication followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. The existence of statistically significant differences was obtained for carbon monoxide emission which is pointed out with F-values (12.37 and 31.88) greater than Fcrit (6.94) in contrary to carbon dioxide emission (F-values of 1.23 and 3.12 were less than Fcrit).  Scheffe's post hoc test indicated that sampling point A (near the photocopier machine) and second time interval contribute the most on carbon monoxide emission.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, analysis of variance, carbon monoxide, photocopying indoor, Scheffe's test

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25 Compositional Dependence of Hydroxylated Indium-Oxide on the Reaction Rate of CO2/H2 Reduction

Authors: Joel Y. Y. Loh, Geoffrey A. Ozin, Charles A. Mims, Nazir P. Kherani

Abstract:

A major goal in the emerging field of solar fuels is to realize an ‘artificial leaf’ – a material that converts light energy in the form of solar photons into chemical energy – using CO2 as a feedstock to generate useful chemical species. Enabling this technology will allow the greenhouse gas, CO2, emitted from energy and manufacturing production exhaust streams to be converted into valuable solar fuels or chemical products. Indium Oxide (In2O3) with surface hydroxyl (OH) groups have been shown to reduce CO2 in the presence of H2 to CO with a reaction rate of 15 μmol gcat−1 h−1. The likely mechanism is via a Frustrated Lewis Pair sites heterolytically splitting H2 to be absorbed and form protonic and hydric sites that can dissociate CO2. In this study, we investigate the dependence of oxygen composition of In2O3 on the CO2 reduction rate. In2O3-x films on quartz fiber paper were DC sputtered with an Indium target and varying O2/Ar plasma mixture. OH surface groups were then introduced by immersing the In2O3-x samples in KOH. We show that hydroxylated In2O3-x reduces more CO2 than non-hydroxylated groups and that a hydroxylated and higher O2/Ar ratio sputtered In2O3-x has a higher reaction rate of 45 μmol gcat-1 h-1. We show by electrical resistivity-temperature curves that H2 is adsorbed onto the surface of In2O3 whereas CO2 itself does not affect the indium oxide surface. We also present activation and ionization energy levels of the hydroxylated In2O3-x under vacuum, CO2 and H2 atmosphere conditions.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Carbon Dioxide, Solar Fuels, indium oxide nanoparticles

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24 Recovery of Boron from Industrial Wastewater by Chemical Oxo-Precipitation

Authors: Yao-Hui Huang, Ming-Chun Yen, Jui-Yen Lin, Yu-Jen Shih

Abstract:

This work investigated the reclamation of boron in industrial wastewaters by a chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) technique at room temperature. In COP, the boric acid was pretreated with H₂O₂, yielding various perborate anions. Afterwards, calcium chloride was used to efficiently remove boron through precipitation of calcium perborate. The important factors included reacted pH and the molar ratio of [Ca]/[B]. Under conditions of pH 11 and [Ca]/[B] of 1, the boron concentration could be reduced immediately from 600 ppm to 50 ppm in 10 minutes. The boron removal was enhanced with a higher [Ca]/[B], which further reduced boron to 20 ppm in 10 minutes. Nevertheless, the dissolution of carbon dioxide potentially affected the efficacy of COP and increased the boron concentration after 10 minutes.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Boron, Hydrogen Peroxide, chemical oxo-precipitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
23 The Effect of Rice Husk Ash on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete

Authors: Binyamien Rasoul

Abstract:

Portland cement is one of the most widely used construction materials in the world today; however, manufacture of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) emission significant amount of CO2 resulting environmental impact. On the other hand, rice husk ash (RHA), which is produce as by product material is generally considered to be an environmental issue as a waste material. This material (RHA) consists of non-crystalline silicon dioxide with high specific surface area and high pozzolanic reactivity. These RHA properties can demonstrate a significant influence in improving the mechanical and durability properties of mortar and concrete. Furthermore, rice husk ash can provide a cost effective and give concrete more sustainability. In this paper, chemical composition, reactive silica and fineness effect was assessed by examining five different types of RHA. Mortars and concrete specimens were molded with 5% to 50% of ash, replacing the Portland cement, and measured their compressive and tensile strength behavior. Beyond it, another two parameters had been considered: the durability of concrete blended RHA, and effect of temperature on the transformed of amorphous structure to crystalline form. To obtain the rice husk ash properties, these different types were subjected to X-Ray fluorescence to determine the chemical composition, while pozzolanic activity obtained by using X-Ray diffraction test. On the other hand, finesses and specific surface area were obtained by used Malvern Mastersizer 2000 test. The measured parameters properties of fresh mortar and concrete obtained by used flow table and slump test. While, for hardened mortar and concrete the compressive and tensile strength determined pulse the chloride ions penetration for concrete using NT Build 492 (Nord Test) – non-steady state migration test (RMT Test). The obtained test results indicated that RHA can be used as a cement replacement material in concrete with considerable proportion up to 50% percentages without compromising concrete strength. The use of RHA in the concrete as blending materials improved the different characteristics of the concrete product. The paper concludes that to exhibits a good compressive strength of OPC mortar or concrete with increase RHA replacement ratio rice husk ash should be consist of high silica content with high pozzolanic activity. Furthermore, with high amount of carbon content (12%) could be improve the strength of concrete when the silica structure is totally amorphous. As well RHA with high amount of crystalline form (25%) can be used as cement replacement when the silica content over 90%. The workability and strength of concrete increased by used of superplasticizer and it depends on the silica structure and carbon content. This study therefore is an investigation of the effect of partially replacing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with Rice hush Ash (RHA) on the mechanical properties and durability of concrete. This paper gives satisfactory results to use RHA in sustainable construction in order to reduce the carbon footprint associated with cement industry.

Keywords: CO2, Carbon Dioxide, OPC, ordinary Portland cement, RHA rice husk ash, W/B water to binder ratio

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22 Factors Affecting Air Surface Temperature Variations in the Philippines

Authors: John Christian Lequiron, Gerry Bagtasa, Olivia Cabrera, Leoncio Amadore, Tolentino Moya

Abstract:

Changes in air surface temperature play an important role in the Philippine’s economy, industry, health, and food production. While increasing global mean temperature in the recent several decades has prompted a number of climate change and variability studies in the Philippines, most studies still focus on rainfall and tropical cyclones. This study aims to investigate the trend and variability of observed air surface temperature and determine its major influencing factor/s in the Philippines. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall trend test was applied to monthly mean temperature of 17 synoptic stations covering 56 years from 1960 to 2015 and a mean change of 0.58 °C or a positive trend of 0.0105 °C/year (p < 0.05) was found. In addition, wavelet decomposition was used to determine the frequency of temperature variability show a 12-month, 30-80-month and more than 120-month cycles. This indicates strong annual variations, interannual variations that coincide with ENSO events, and interdecadal variations that are attributed to PDO and CO2 concentrations. Air surface temperature was also correlated with smoothed sunspot number and galactic cosmic rays, the results show a low to no effect. The influence of ENSO teleconnection on temperature, wind pattern, cloud cover, and outgoing longwave radiation on different ENSO phases had significant effects on regional temperature variability. Particularly, an anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) flow east of the Philippines during the peak and decay phase of El Niño (La Niña) events leads to the advection of warm southeasterly (cold northeasterly) air mass over the country. Furthermore, an apparent increasing cloud cover trend is observed over the West Philippine Sea including portions of the Philippines, and this is believed to lessen the effect of the increasing air surface temperature. However, relative humidity was also found to be increasing especially on the central part of the country, which results in a high positive trend of heat index, exacerbating the effects on human discomfort. Finally, an assessment of gridded temperature datasets was done to look at the viability of using three high-resolution datasets in future climate analysis and model calibration and verification. Several error statistics (i.e. Pearson correlation, Bias, MAE, and RMSE) were used for this validation. Results show that gridded temperature datasets generally follows the observed surface temperature change and anomalies. In addition, it is more representative of regional temperature rather than a substitute to station-observed air temperature.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, ENSO, air surface temperature, galactic cosmic rays, smoothed sunspot number

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21 Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Absorption in DKI Jakarta Green Space

Authors: Mario Belseran

Abstract:

The issue of climate change become world attention where one of them increase in air temperature due to greenhouse gas emissions. This climate change is caused by gases in the atmosphere, one of which is CO2. DKI Jakarta as the capital has a dense population with a variety of existing land use. Land use that is dominated by settlements resulting in fewer green space, which functions to absorb atmospheric CO2. Image interpretation SPOT-7 is used to determine the greenness level of vegetation on a green space using the vegetation index NDVI, EVI, GNDVI and OSAVI. Measuring the diameter and height of trees were also performed to obtain the value of biomass that will be used as the CO2 absorption value. The CO2 absorption value that spread in Jakarta are classified into three classes: high, medium, and low. The distribution pattern of CO2 absorption value at green space in Jakarta dominance in the medium class with the distribution pattern is located in South Jakarta, East Jakarta, North Jakarta and West Jakarta. The distribution pattern of green space in Jakarta scattered randomly and more dominate in East Jakarta and South Jakarta

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Green Space, vegetation index, DKI Jakarta, SPOT-7

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20 Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide in Spinning Disk Reactor and Its Applications in Cycloaddition of Carbon Dioxide to Epoxides

Authors: Tzu-Wen Liu, Yi-Feng Lin, Yu-Shao Chen

Abstract:

CO_2 is believed to be partly responsible for changes to the global climates. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the past. Recently, how to convert the captured CO_2 into fine chemicals gets lots of attention owing to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and providing greener feedstock for the chemicals industry. A variety of products can be manufactured from carbon dioxide and the most attractive products are cyclic carbonates. Therefore, the kind of catalyst plays an important role in cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides. Magnesium oxide can be an efficiency heterogeneous catalyst for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides because magnesium oxide has both acid and base active sites and can provide the adsorption of carbon dioxide, promoting ring-opening reaction. Spinning disk reactor (SDR) is one of the device of high-gravity technique and has successfully used for synthesis of nanoparticles by precipitation methods because of the high mass transfer rate. Synthesis of nanoparticles in SDR has advantages of low energy consumption and easy to scale up. The aim of this research is to synthesize magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles in SDR as precursors for magnesium oxide. Experimental results showed that the calcination temperature of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium oxide, and the pressure and temperature of cycloaddition reaction had significantly effect on the conversion and selectivity of the reaction.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Catalyst, Cycloaddition, magnesium oxide, spinning disk reactor

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19 Biodiesel Fuel Properties of Mixed Culture Microalgae under Different CO₂ Concentration from Coal Fired Flue Gas

Authors: Ambreen Aslam, Tahira Aziz Mughal, Skye R. Thomas-Hall, Peer M. Schenk

Abstract:

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-derived fuel mainly composed of fatty acid from oleaginous microalgae feedstock. Microalgae produced fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as they can store high levels of lipids without competing for food productivity. After lipid extraction and esterification, fatty acid profile from algae feedstock possessed the abundance of fatty acids with carbon chain length specifically C16 and C18. The qualitative analysis of FAME was done by cultivating mix microalgae consortia under three different CO₂ concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5.5%) from a coal fired flue gas. FAME content (280.3 µg/mL) and productivity (18.69 µg/mL/D) was higher under 1% CO₂ (flue gas) as compare to other treatments. Whereas, Mixed C. (F) supplemented with 5.5% CO₂ (50% flue gas) had higher SFA (36.28%) and UFA (63.72%) which improve the oxidative stability of biodiesel. Subsequently, low Iodine value (136.3 gI₂/100g) and higher Cetane number (52) of Mixed C.+P (F) were found to be in accordance with European (EN 14214) standard under 5.5% CO₂ along with 50mM phosphate buffer. Experimental results revealed that sufficient phosphate reduced FAME productivity but significantly enhance biodiesel quality. This research aimed to develop an integrated approach of utilizing flue gas (as CO₂ source) for significant improvement in biodiesel quality under surplus phosphorus. CO₂ sequestration from industrial flue gas not only reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions but also ensure sustainability and eco-friendliness of the biodiesel production process through microalgae.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, fatty acid profile, fuel properties, biodiesel analysis, coal fired flue gas, FAME productivity, lipid content, mixed culture microalgae

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18 Experimental Study of CO2 Absorption in Different Blend Solutions as Solvent for CO2 Capture

Authors: Rouzbeh Ramezani, Renzo Di Felice

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Nowadays, removal of CO2 as one of the major contributors to global warming using alternative solvents with high CO2 absorption efficiency, is an important industrial operation. In this study, three amines, including 2-methylpiperazine, potassium sarcosinate and potassium lysinate as potential additives, were added to the potassium carbonate solution as a base solvent for CO2 capture. In order to study the absorption performance of CO2 in terms of loading capacity of CO2 and absorption rate, the absorption experiments in a blend of additives with potassium carbonate were carried out using the vapor-liquid equilibrium apparatus at a temperature of 313.15 K, CO2 partial pressures ranging from 0 to 50 kPa and at mole fractions 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. Furthermore, the performance of CO2 absorption in these blend solutions was compared with pure monoethanolamine and with pure potassium carbonate. Finally, a correlation with good accuracy was developed using the nonlinear regression analysis in order to predict CO2 loading capacity.

Keywords: Global Warming, Carbon Dioxide, CO2 Capture, absorption rate, loading capacity

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17 Abatement of NO by CO on Pd Catalysts: Influence of the Support in Oxyfuel Combustion Conditions

Authors: Joudia Akil, Stephane Siffert, Laurence Pirault-Roy, Renaud Cousin, Christophe Poupin

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The CO2 emitted from anthropic activities is perceived as a constraint in industrial activity due to taxes, stringent environmental regulations, impact on global warming… To limit these CO2 emissions, reuse of CO2 represents a promising alternative, with important applications in chemical industry and for power generation. However, CO2 valorization process requires a gas as pure as possible Oxyfuel-combustion that enables obtaining a CO2 rich stream, with water vapor (10%) is then interesting. Nevertheless to decrease the amount of the by-products found with the CO2 (especially CO and NOx which are harmful to the environment) a catalytic treatment must be applied. Nowadays three-way catalysts are well-developed material for simultaneous conversion of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The use of Pd attracted considerable attention on the basis of economic factors (the high cost and scarcity of Pt and Rh). This explains the large number of studies concerning the CO-NO reaction on Pd in the recent years. In the present study, we will compare a series of Pd materials supported on different oxides for CO2 purification from the oxyfuel combustion system, by reducing NO with CO in an oxidizing environment containing CO2 rich stream and presence of 8.2% of water. Al2O3, CeO2, MgO, SiO2 and TiO2 were used as support materials of the catalysts. 1wt% Pd/Support catalysts were obtained by wet impregnation on supports with a precursor of palladium [Pd(acac)2]. The obtained samples were subsequently characterized by H2 chemisorption, BET surface area and TEM. Finally, their catalytic performances were evaluated in CO2 purification which is carried out in a fixed-bed flow reactor containing 150 mg of catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The flow of the reactant gases is composed of: 20% CO2, 10% O2, 0.5% CO, 0.02% NO and 8.2% H2O (He as eluent gas) with a total flow of 200mL.min−1, in the same GHSV. The catalytic performance of the Pd catalysts for CO2 purification revealed that: -The support material has a strong influence on the catalytic activity of 1wt.% Pd supported catalysts. depending of the nature of support, the Pd-based catalysts activity changes. -The highest reduction of NO with CO is obtained in the following ranking: TiO2>CeO2>Al2O3. -The supports SiO2 and MgO should be avoided for this reaction, -Total oxidation of CO occurred over different materials, -CO2 purification can reach 97%, -The presence of H2O has a positive effect on the NO reduction due to the production of the reductant H2 from WGS reaction H2O+CO → H2+CO2

Keywords: Environmental Chemistry, Carbon Dioxide, heterogeneous catalysis, oxyfuel combustion

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16 Effect of Water Addition on Catalytic Activity for CO2 Purification from Oxyfuel Combustion

Authors: Joudia Akil, Stephane Siffert, Laurence Pirault-Roy, Renaud Cousin, Christophe Poupin

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Oxyfuel combustion is a promising method that enables to obtain a CO2 rich stream, with water vapor ( ̴10%), unburned components such as CO and NO, which must be cleaned before the use of CO2. Our objective is then the final treatment of CO and NO by catalysis. Three-way catalysts are well-developed material for simultaneous conversion of NO, CO and hydrocarbons. Pt and/or Rh ensure a quasi-complete removal of NOx, CO and HC and there is also a growing interest in partly replacing Pt with less-expensive Pd. The use of alumina and ceria as support ensures, respectively, the stabilization of such species in active state and discharging or storing oxygen to control the oxidation of CO and HC and the reduction of NOx. In this work, we will compare different metals (Pd, Rh and Pt) supported on Al2O3 and CeO2, for CO2 purification from oxyfuel combustion. The catalyst must reduce NO by CO in an oxidizing environment, in the presence of CO2 rich stream and resistant to water. In this study, Al2O3 and CeO2 were used as support materials of the catalysts. 1wt% M/Support where M = Pd, Rh or Pt catalysts were obtained by wet impregnation on supports with a precursor of palladium [Pd(acac)2], rhodium [Rh(NO3)3] and platinum [Pt(NO2)2(NO3)2]. Materials were characterized by BET surface area, H2 chemisorption, and TEM. Catalytic activity was evaluated in CO2 purification which is carried out in a fixed-bed flow reactor containing 150 mg of catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The flow of the reactant gases is composed of: 20% CO2, 10% O2, 0.5% CO, 0.02% NO and 8.2% H2O (He as eluent gas) with a total flow of 200 mL.min−1, with same GHSV (2.24x104 h-1). The catalytic performances of the samples were investigated with and without water. It shows that the total oxidation of CO occurred over the different materials. This study evidenced an important effect of the nature of the metals, supports and the presence or absence of H2O during the reduction of NO by CO in oxyfuel combustions conditions. Rh based catalysts show that the addition of water has a very positive influence especially on the Rh catalyst on CeO2. Pt based catalysts keep a good activity despite the addition of water on the both supports studied. For the NO reduction, addition of water act as a poison with Pd catalysts. The interesting results of Rh based catalysts with water can be explained by a production of hydrogen through the water gas shift reaction. The produced hydrogen acts as a more effective reductant than CO for NO removal. Furthermore, in TWCs, Rh is the main component responsible for NOx reduction due to its especially high activity for NO dissociation. Moreover, cerium oxide is a promotor for WGSR.

Keywords: Environmental Chemistry, Carbon Dioxide, heterogeneous catalysis

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15 Diffuse CO₂ Degassing to Study Blind Geothermal Systems: The Acoculco, Puebla (Mexico) Case Study

Authors: Mirna Guevara, Edgar Santoyo, Daniel Perez-Zarate, Erika Almirudis

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The Acoculco caldera located in Puebla (Mexico) has been preliminary identified as a blind hot-dry rock geothermal system. Two drilled wells suggest the existence of high temperatures >300°C and non-conventional tools are been applied to study this system. A comprehensive survey of soil-gas (CO₂) flux measurements (1,500 sites) was carried out during the dry seasons over almost two years (2015 and 2016). Isotopic analyses of δ¹³CCO₂ were performed to discriminate the origin source of the CO2 fluxes. The soil CO2 flux measurements were made in situ by the accumulation chamber method, whereas gas samples for δ13CCO2 were selectively collected from the accumulation chamber with evacuated gas vials via a septum. Two anomalous geothermal zones were identified as a result of these campaigns: Los Azufres (19°55'29.4'' N; 98°08'39.9'' W; 2,839 masl) and Alcaparrosa (19°55'20.6'' N; 98°08'38.3'' W; 2,845 masl). To elucidate the origin of the C in soil CO₂ fluxes, the isotopic signature of δ¹³C was used. Graphical Statistical Analysis (GSA) and a three end-member mixing diagram were used to corroborate the presence of distinctive statistical samples, and trends for the diffuse gas fluxes. Spatial and temporal distributions of the CO₂ fluxes were studied. High CO₂ emission rates up to 38,217 g/m2/d and 33,706 g/m2/d were measured for the Los Azufres and Alcaparrosa respectively; whereas the δ¹³C signatures showed values ranging from -3.4 to -5.5 o/oo for both zones, confirming their magmatic origin. This study has provided a valuable framework to set the direction of further exploration campaigns in the Acoculco caldera. Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge the funding received from CeMIE-Geo P09 project (SENER-CONACyT).

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Geothermal Exploration, accumulation chamber method, diffusive degassing

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14 Dry Reforming of Methane Using Metal Supported and Core Shell Based Catalyst

Authors: Vinu Viswanath, Lawrence Dsouza, Ugo Ravon

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Syngas typically and intermediary gas product has a wide range of application of producing various chemical products, such as mixed alcohols, hydrogen, ammonia, Fischer-Tropsch products methanol, ethanol, aldehydes, alcohols, etc. There are several technologies available for the syngas production. An alternative to the conventional processes an attractive route of utilizing carbon dioxide and methane in equimolar ratio to generate syngas of ratio close to one has been developed which is also termed as Dry Reforming of Methane technology. It also gives the privilege to utilize the greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. The dry reforming process is highly endothermic, and indeed, ΔG becomes negative if the temperature is higher than 900K and practically, the reaction occurs at 1000-1100K. At this temperature, the sintering of the metal particle is happening that deactivate the catalyst. However, by using this strategy, the methane is just partially oxidized, and some cokes deposition occurs that causing the catalyst deactivation. The current research work was focused to mitigate the main challenges of dry reforming process such coke deposition, and metal sintering at high temperature.To achieve these objectives, we employed three different strategies of catalyst development. 1) Use of bulk catalysts such as olivine and pyrochlore type materials. 2) Use of metal doped support materials, like spinel and clay type material. 3) Use of core-shell model catalyst. In this approach, a thin layer (shell) of redox metal oxide is deposited over the MgAl2O4 /Al2O3 based support material (core). For the core-shell approach, an active metal is been deposited on the surface of the shell. The shell structure formed is a doped metal oxide that can undergo reduction and oxidation reactions (redox), and the core is an alkaline earth aluminate having a high affinity towards carbon dioxide. In the case of metal-doped support catalyst, the enhanced redox properties of doped CeO2 oxide and CO2 affinity property of alkaline earth aluminates collectively helps to overcome coke formation. For all of the mentioned three strategies, a systematic screening of the metals is carried out to optimize the efficiency of the catalyst. To evaluate the performance of them, the activity and stability test were carried out under reaction conditions of temperature ranging from 650 to 850 ̊C and an operating pressure ranging from 1 to 20 bar. The result generated infers that the core-shell model catalyst showed high activity and better stable DR catalysts under atmospheric as well as high-pressure conditions. In this presentation, we will show the results related to the strategy.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, supports, dry reforming, core shell catalyst

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13 Harnessing Renewable Energy as a Strategy to Combating Climate Change in Sub Saharan Africa

Authors: Gideon Nyuimbe Gasu

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Sub Saharan Africa is at a critical point, experiencing rapid population growth, particularly in urban areas and young growing force. At the same time, the growing risk of catastrophic global climate change threatens to weaken food production system, increase intensity and frequency of drought, flood, and fires and undermine gains on development and poverty reduction. Although the region has the lowest per capital greenhouse gas emission level in the world, it will need to join global efforts to address climate change, including action to avoid significant increases and to encourage a green economy. Thus, there is a need for the concept of 'greening the economy' as was prescribed at Rio Summit of 1992. Renewable energy is one of the criterions to achieve this laudable goal of maintaining a green economy. There is need to address climate change while facilitating continued economic growth and social progress as energy today is critical to economic growth. Fossil fuels remain the major contributor of greenhouse gas emission. Thus, cleaner technologies such as carbon capture storage, renewable energy have emerged to be commercially competitive. This paper sets out to examine how to achieve a low carbon economy with minimal emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases which is one of the outcomes of implementing a green economy. Also, the paper examines the different renewable energy sources such as nuclear, wind, hydro, biofuel, and solar voltaic as a panacea to the looming climate change menace. Finally, the paper assesses the different renewable energy and energy efficiency as a propeller to generating new sources of income and jobs and in turn reduces carbon emission. The research shall engage qualitative, evaluative and comparative methods. The research will employ both primary and secondary sources of information. The primary sources of information shall be drawn from the sub Saharan African region and the global environmental organizations, energy legislation, policies and related industries and the judicial processes. The secondary sources will be made up of some books, journal articles, commentaries, discussions, observations, explanations, expositions, suggestions, prescriptions and other material sourced from the internet on renewable energy as a panacea to climate change. All information obtained from these sources will be subject to content analysis. The research result will show that the entire planet is warming as a result of the activities of mankind which is clear evidence that the current development is fundamentally unsustainable. Equally, the study will reveal that a low carbon development pathway in the sub Saharan African region should be embraced to minimize emission of greenhouse gases such as using renewable energy rather than coal, oil, and gas. The study concludes that until adequate strategies are devised towards the use of renewable energy the region will continue to add and worsen the current climate change menace and other adverse environmental conditions.

Keywords: Climate Change, Renewable Energy, Carbon Dioxide, legislation/law

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12 Efficient Solid Oxide Electrolysers for Syn-Gas Generation Using Renewable Energy

Authors: G. Kaur, A. P. Kulkarni, S. Giddey

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Production of fuels and chemicals using renewable energy is a promising way for large-scale energy storage and export. Solid oxide electrolysers (SOEs) integrated with renewable source of energy can produce 'Syngas' H₂/CO from H₂O/CO₂ in the desired ratio for further conversion to liquid fuels. As only a waste CO₂ from industrial and power generation processes is utilized in these processes, this approach is CO₂ neutral compared to using fossil fuel feedstock. In addition, the waste heat from industrial processes or heat from solar thermal concentrators can be effectively utilised in SOEs to further reduce the electrical requirements by up to 30% which boosts overall energy efficiency of the process. In this paper, the electrochemical performance of various novel steam/CO₂ reduction electrodes (cathode) would be presented. The efficiency and lifetime degradation data for single cells and a stack would be presented along with the response of cells to variable electrical load input mimicking the intermittent nature of the renewable energy sources. With such optimisation, newly developed electrodes have been tested for 500+ hrs with Faraday efficiency (electricity to fuel conversion efficiency) up to 95%, and thermal efficiency in excess of 70% based upon energy content of the syngas produced.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, energy storage, Carbon Dioxide, Fuel Production, electrochemical system, steam conversion

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11 Technology for Biogas Upgrading with Immobilized Algae Biomass

Authors: Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski, Miroslaw Krzemieniewski, Agata Glowacka-Gil, Paulina Rusanowska, Magdalena Zielinska, Agnieszka Cydzik-Kwiatkowska

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Technologies of biogas upgrading are now perceived as competitive solution combustion and production of electricity and heat. Biomethane production will ensure broader application as energy carrier than biogas. Biomethane can be used as fuel in internal combustion engines or introduced into the natural gas transmission network. Therefore, there is a need to search for innovative, economically and technically justified methods for biogas enrichment. The aim of this paper is to present a technology solution for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass. Reactor for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass can be used for removing CO₂ from the biogas, flue gases and the waste gases especially coming from different industry sectors, e.g. from the food industry from yeast production process, biogas production systems, liquid and gaseous fuels combustion systems, hydrocarbon processing technology. The basis for the technological assumptions of presented technology were laboratory works and analyses that tested technological variants of biogas upgrading. The enrichment of biogas with a methane content of 90-97% pointed to technological assumptions for installation on a technical scale. Reactor for biogas upgrading with algae biomass is characterized by a significantly lower cubature in relation to the currently used solutions which use CO₂ removal processes. The invention, by its structure, assumes achieving a very high concentration of biomass of algae through its immobilization in capsules. This eliminates the phenomenon of lowering the pH value, i.e. acidification of the environment in which algae grow, resulting from the introduction of waste gases at a high CO₂ concentration. The system for introducing light into algae capsules is characterized by a higher degree of its use, due to lower losses resulting from the phenomenon of absorption of light energy by water. The light from the light source is continuously supplied to the formed biomass of algae or cyanobacteria in capsules by the light tubes. The light source may be sunlight or a light generator of a different wavelength of light from 300 nm to 800 nm. A portion of gas containing CO₂, accumulated in the tank and conveyed by the pump is periodically introduced into the housing of the photobioreactor tank. When conveying the gas that contains CO₂, it penetrates the algal biomass in capsules through the outer envelope, displacing, from the algal biomass, gaseous metabolic products which are discharged by the outlet duct for gases. It contributes to eliminating the negative impact of this factor on CO₂ binding processes. As a result of the cyclic dosing of gases containing carbon dioxide, gaseous metabolic products of algae are displaced and removed outside the technological system. Technology for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass is suitable for the small biogas plant. The advantages of this technology are high efficiency as well as useful algae biomass which can be used mainly as animal feed, fertilizers and in the power industry. The construction of the device allows effective removal of carbon dioxide from gases at a high CO₂ concentration.

Keywords: Biogas, Carbon Dioxide, Microalgae, upgrading, immobilised biomass

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10 Carbon Dioxide Removal from Off Gases in a Self-Priming Submerged Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, Amit Verma, B. C. Meikap

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Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is the most abundant waste produced by human activities. It is estimated to be one of the major contributors of greenhouse effect and also considered as a major air pollutant formed by burning of fossil fuels. The main sources of emissions are flue gas from thermal power plants and process industries. It is also a contributor of acid rain. Its exposure through inhalation can lead to health risks. Therefore, control of CO₂ emission in the environment is very necessary. The main focus of this study is on the removal of carbon dioxide from off gases using a self-priming venturi scrubber in submerged conditions using sodium hydroxide as the scrubbing liquid. A self-priming submerged venturi scrubber is an efficient device to remove gaseous pollutants. In submerged condition, venturi scrubber remains submerged in the liquid tank and the liquid enters at the throat section of venturi scrubber due to the pressure difference which includes the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the gas. The inlet polluted air stream enters through converging section which moves at very high velocity in the throat section and atomizes the liquid droplets. This leads to absorption of CO₂ from the off gases in scrubbing liquid which resulted in removal of CO₂ gas from the off gases. Detailed investigation on the scrubbing of carbon dioxide has been done in this literature. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocities, liquid levels in outer cylinder and CO₂ inlet concentrations to study the carbon dioxide removal efficiency. Experimental results give more than 95% removal efficiency of CO₂ in the self priming venturi scrubber which can meet the environmental emission limit of CO₂ to save the human life.

Keywords: Pollution control, Carbon Dioxide, self-priming venturi scrubber, scrubbing

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