Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Carbon capture and storage Related Abstracts

6 Integrated Simulation and Optimization for Carbon Capture and Storage System

Authors: Sungho Kim, Jong Min Lee, Taekyoon Park, Ung Lee, Chonghun Han, Seokgoo Lee

Abstract:

CO2 capture and storage/sequestration (CCS) is a key technology for addressing the global warming issue. This paper proposes an integrated model for the whole chain of CCS, from a power plant to a reservoir. The integrated model is further utilized to determine optimal operating conditions and study responses to various changes in input variables.

Keywords: Simulation, Optimization, Carbon capture and storage, CCS, caron dioxide

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5 Solubility of Water in CO2 Mixtures at Pipeline Operation Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Ahmad, Sander Gersen, Erwin Wilbers

Abstract:

Carbon capture, transport and underground storage have become a major solution to reduce CO2 emissions from power plants and other large CO2 sources. A big part of this captured CO2 stream is transported at high pressure dense phase conditions and stored in offshore underground depleted oil and gas fields. CO2 is also transported in offshore pipelines to be used for enhanced oil and gas recovery. The captured CO2 stream with impurities may contain water that causes severe corrosion problems, flow assurance failure and might damage valves and instrumentations. Thus, free water formation should be strictly prevented. The purpose of this work is to study the solubility of water in pure CO2 and in CO2 mixtures under real pipeline pressure (90-150 bar) and temperature operation conditions (5-35°C). A set up was constructed to generate experimental data. The results show the solubility of water in CO2 mixtures increasing with the increase of the temperature or/and with the increase in pressure. A drop in water solubility in CO2 is observed in the presence of impurities. The data generated were then used to assess the capabilities of two mixture models: the GERG-2008 model and the EOS-CG model. By generating the solubility data, this study contributes to determine the maximum allowable water content in CO2 pipelines.

Keywords: Fluids Engineering, Carbon capture and storage, water solubility, equation of states

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4 Modeling Flow and Deposition Characteristics of Solid CO2 during Choked Flow of CO2 Pipeline in CCS

Authors: Teng lin, Li Yuxing, Han Hui, Zhao Pengfei, Zhang Datong

Abstract:

With the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS), the flow assurance of CO2 transportation becomes more important, particularly for supercritical CO2 pipelines. The relieving system using the choke valve is applied to control the pressure in CO2 pipeline. However, the temperature of fluid would drop rapidly because of Joule-Thomson cooling (JTC), which may cause solid CO2 form and block the pipe. In this paper, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model, using the modified Lagrangian method, Reynold's Stress Transport model (RSM) for turbulence and stochastic tracking model (STM) for particle trajectory, was developed to predict the deposition characteristic of solid carbon dioxide. The model predictions were in good agreement with the experiment data published in the literature. It can be observed that the particle distribution affected the deposition behavior. In the region of the sudden expansion, the smaller particles accumulated tightly on the wall were dominant for pipe blockage. On the contrary, the size of solid CO2 particles deposited near the outlet usually was bigger and the stacked structure was looser. According to the calculation results, the movement of the particles can be regarded as the main four types: turbulent motion close to the sudden expansion structure, balanced motion at sudden expansion-middle region, inertial motion near the outlet and the escape. Furthermore the particle deposits accumulated primarily in the sudden expansion region, reattachment region and outlet region because of the four type of motion. Also the Stokes number had an effect on the deposition ratio and it is recommended for Stokes number to avoid 3-8St.

Keywords: Carbon capture and storage, Deposition, carbon dioxide pipeline, gas-particle flow

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3 Advanced Exergetic Analysis: Decomposition Method Applied to a Membrane-Based Hard Coal Oxyfuel Power Plant

Authors: Renzo Castillo, George Tsatsaronis

Abstract:

High-temperature ceramic membranes for air separation represents an important option to reduce the significant efficiency drops incurred in state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation for high tonnage oxygen production required in oxyfuel power stations. This study is focused on the thermodynamic analysis of two power plant model designs: the state-of-the-art supercritical 600ᵒC hard coal plant (reference power plant Nordrhein-Westfalen) and the membrane-based oxyfuel concept implemented in this reference plant. In the latter case, the oxygen is separated through a mixed-conducting hollow fiber perovskite membrane unit in the three-end operation mode, which has been simulated under vacuum conditions on the permeate side and at high-pressure conditions on the feed side. The thermodynamic performance of each plant concept is assessed by conventional exergetic analysis, which determines location, magnitude and sources of efficiency losses, and advanced exergetic analysis, where endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts of exergy destruction are calculated at the component and full process level. These calculations identify thermodynamic interdependencies among components and reveal the real potential for efficiency improvements. The endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction portions are calculated by the decomposition method, a recently developed straightforward methodology, which is suitable for complex power stations with a large number of process components. Lastly, an improvement priority ranking for relevant components, as well as suggested changes in process layouts are presented for both power stations.

Keywords: Exergy, Carbon capture and storage, Ceramic Membranes, perovskite, oxyfuel combustion

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2 Sensitivity Analysis of the Heat Exchanger Design in Net Power Oxy-Combustion Cycle for Carbon Capture

Authors: Hirbod Varasteh, Hamidreza Gohari Darabkhani

Abstract:

The global warming and its impact on climate change is one of main challenges for current century. Global warming is mainly due to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) and carbon dioxide (CO2) is known to be the major contributor to the GHG emission profile. Whilst the energy sector is the primary source for CO2 emission, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are believed to be the solution for controlling this emission. Oxyfuel combustion (Oxy-combustion) is one of the major technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. For gas turbines, several Oxy-combustion power cycles (Oxyturbine cycles) have been investigated by means of thermodynamic analysis. NetPower cycle is one of the leading oxyturbine power cycles with almost full carbon capture capability from a natural gas fired power plant. In this manuscript, sensitivity analysis of the heat exchanger design in NetPower cycle is completed by means of process modelling. The heat capacity variation and supercritical CO2 with gaseous admixtures are considered for multi-zone analysis with Aspen Plus software. It is found that the heat exchanger design has a major role to increase the efficiency of NetPower cycle. The pinch-point analysis is done to extract the composite and grand composite curve for the heat exchanger. In this paper, relationship between the cycle efficiency and the minimum approach temperature (∆Tmin) of the heat exchanger has also been evaluated.  Increase in ∆Tmin causes a decrease in the temperature of the recycle flue gases (RFG) and an overall decrease in the required power for the recycled gas compressor. The main challenge in the design of heat exchangers in power plants is a tradeoff between the capital and operational costs. To achieve lower ∆Tmin, larger size of heat exchanger is required. This means a higher capital cost but leading to a better heat recovery and lower operational cost. To achieve this, ∆Tmin is selected from the minimum point in the diagrams of capital and operational costs. This study provides an insight into the NetPower Oxy-combustion cycle’s performance analysis and operational condition based on its heat exchanger design.

Keywords: Carbon capture and storage, Zero Emission, supercritical carbon dioxide, oxy-combustion, netpower cycle, oxy turbine cycles, heat exchanger design, oxy-fuel power plant, pinch point analysis

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1 A Robust Theoretical Elastoplastic Continuum Damage T-H-M Model for Rock Surrounding a Wellbore

Authors: Nikolaos Reppas, Yilin Gui, Ben Wetenhall, Colin Davie

Abstract:

Injection of CO2 inside wellbore can induce different kind of loadings that can lead to thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical changes on the surrounding rock. A dual-porosity theoretical constitutive model will be presented for the stability analysis of the wellbore during CO2 injection. An elastoplastic damage response will be considered. A bounding yield surface will be presented considering damage effects on sandstone. The main target of the research paper is to present a theoretical constitutive model that can help industries to safely store CO2 in geological rock formations and forecast any changes on the surrounding rock of the wellbore. The fully coupled elasto-plastic damage Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical theoretical model will be validated from existing experimental data for sandstone after simulating some scenarios by using FEM on MATLAB software.

Keywords: Rock Mechanics, Carbon capture and storage, constitutive model, THM effects on rock

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