Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

carbamazepine Related Abstracts

7 Therapeutic Drug Monitoring by Dried Blood Spot and LC-MS/MS: Novel Application to Carbamazepine and Its Metabolite in Paediatric Population

Authors: Giancarlo La Marca, Engy Shokry, Fabio Villanelli


Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, with an estimated prevalence of 50 million people worldwide. Twenty five percent of the epilepsy population is represented in children under the age of 15 years. For antiepileptic drugs (AED), there is a poor correlation between plasma concentration and dose especially in children. This was attributed to greater pharmacokinetic variability than adults. Hence, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended in controlling toxicity while drug exposure is maintained. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line AED and the drug of first choice in trigeminal neuralgia. CBZ is metabolised in the liver into carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZE), its major metabolite which is equipotent. This develops the need for an assay able to monitor the levels of both CBZ and CBZE. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of CBZ and CBZE in dried blood spots (DBS). DBS technique overcomes many logistical problems, ethical issues and technical challenges faced by classical plasma sampling. LC-MS/MS has been regarded as superior technique over immunoassays and HPLC/UV methods owing to its better specificity and sensitivity, lack of interference or matrix effects. Our method combines advantages of DBS technique and LC-MS/MS in clinical practice. The extraction process was done using methanol-water-formic acid (80:20:0.1, v/v/v). The chromatographic elution was achieved by using a linear gradient with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water-0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.50 mL/min. The method was linear over the range 1-40 mg/L and 0.25-20 mg/L for CBZ and CBZE respectively. The limit of quantification was 1.00 mg/L and 0.25 mg/L for CBZ and CBZE, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day assay precisions were found to be less than 6.5% and 11.8%. An evaluation of DBS technique was performed, including effect of extraction solvent, spot homogeneity and stability in DBS. Results from a comparison with the plasma assay are also presented. The novelty of the present work lies in being the first to quantify CBZ and its metabolite from only one 3.2 mm DBS disc finger-prick sample (3.3-3.4 µl blood) by LC-MS/MS in a 10 min. chromatographic run.

Keywords: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, LC-MS/MS, carbamazepine, carbamazepine-10, dried blood spots

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6 Carbamazepine Co-crystal Screening with Dicarboxylic Acids Co-Crystal Formers

Authors: S. Abd Rahim, F. A. Rahman, E. M. Nasir, N. A. Ramle


Co-crystal is believed to improve the solubility and dissolution rates and thus, enhanced the bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs particularly during the oral route of administration. With the existing of poorly soluble drugs in pharmaceutical industry, the screening of co-crystal formation using carbamazepine (CBZ) as a model drug compound with dicarboxylic acids co-crystal formers (CCF) namely fumaric (FA) and succinic (SA) acids in ethanol has been studied. The co-crystal formations were studied by varying the mol ratio values of CCF to CBZ to access the effect of CCF concentration on the formation of the co-crystal. Solvent evaporation, slurry, and cooling crystallisations which representing the solution based method co-crystal screening were used. The product crystal from the screening was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD pattern profile analysis has shown that the CBZ co-crystals with FA and SA were successfully formed for all ratios studied. The findings revealed that CBZ-FA co-crystal were formed in two different polymorphs. It was found that CBZ-FA form A and form B were formed from evaporation and slurry crystallisation methods respectively. On the other hand, in cooling crystallisation method, CBZ-FA form A was formed at lower mol ratio of CCF to CBZ and vice versa. This study disclosed that different methods and mol ratios during the co-crystal screening can affect the outcome of co-crystal produced such as polymorphic forms of co-crystal and thereof. Thus, it was suggested that careful attentions is needed during the screening since the co-crystal formation is currently one of the promising approach to be considered in research and development for pharmaceutical industry to improve the poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: Industry, carbamazepine, co-crystal, dicarboxylic acid

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5 Formulation and Evaluation of Solid Dispersion of an Anti-Epileptic Drug Carbamazepine

Authors: Sharmin Akhter, M. Salahuddin, Sukalyan Kumar Kundu, Mohammad Fahim Kadir


Relatively insoluble candidate drug like carbamazepine (CBZ) often exhibit incomplete or erratic absorption; and hence wide consideration is given to improve aqueous solubility of such compound. Solid dispersions were formulated with an aim of improving aqueous solubility, oral bioavailability and the rate of dissolution of Carbamazepine using different hydrophyllic polymer like Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 6000, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 4000, kollidon 30, HPMC 6 cps, poloxamer 407 and povidone k 30. Solid dispersions were prepared with different drug to polymer weight ratio by the solvent evaporation method where methanol was used as solvent. Drug-polymer physical mixtures were also prepared to compare the rate of dissolution. Effects of different polymer were studied for solid dispersion formulation as well as physical mixtures. These formulations were characterized in the solid state by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Solid state characterization indicated CBZ was present as fine particles and entrapped in carrier matrix of PEG 6000 and PVP K30 solid dispersions. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies showed the stability of CBZ and absence of well-defined drug-polymer interactions. In contrast to the very slow dissolution rate of pure CBZ, dispersions of drug in polymers considerably improved the dissolution rate. This can be attributed to increased wettability and dispersibility, as well as decreased crystallinity and increase in amorphous fraction of drug. Solid dispersion formulations containing PEG 6000 and Povidone K 30 showed maximum drug release within one hour at the ratio of 1:1:1. Even physical mixtures of CBZ prepared with both carriers also showed better dissolution profiles than those of pure CBZ. In conclusions, solid dispersions could be a promising delivery of CBZ with improved oral bioavailability and immediate release profiles.

Keywords: SEM, FTIR, water solubility, carbamazepine, poloxamer 407, solid dispersion, kollidon 30, HPMC 6 CPS, PEG 6000, PEG 4000, povidone k 30

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4 The Influence of Carbamazepine on the Activity of CYP3A4 in Patients with Alcoholism

Authors: Valery V. Smirnov, Mikhail S. Zastrozhin, Dmitry A. Sychev, Ludmila M. Savchenko, Evgeny A. Bryun, Mark O. Nechaev


Cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme 3A4 takes part in the biotransformation of medical drugs. The activity of CYP isoenzymes depends on genetic (polymorphisms of genes which encoded it) and phenotypic factors (a kind of food, a concomitant drug therapy). The aim of the study was to evaluate a carbamazepine effect on the CYP3A4 activity in patients with alcohol addiction. The study included 25 men with alcohol dependence, who received haloperidol during the exacerbation of the addiction. CYP3A4 activity was assessed by urinary 6-beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratios measured by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The study modeled a graph and an equation of the logarithmic regression, that reflects the dependence of CYP3A4 activity on a dose of carbamazepine: y = 5,5 * 9,1 * 10-5 * x2. The study statistically significant demonstrates the effect of carbamazepine on CYP2D6 isozyme activity in patients with alcohol addiction.

Keywords: Biotransformation, Alcohol abuse, carbamazepine, CYP3A4

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3 Biodegradation of Carbamazepine and Diclofenac by Bacterial Strain Labrys Portucalensis

Authors: P. M. L. Castro, V. S. Bessa, I. S. Moreira, S. Murgolo, C. Piccirillo, G. Mascolo


The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been a topic of increasing concern. Pharmaceuticals are not completely mineralized in the human body and are released on the sewage systems as the pharmaceutical itself and as their “biologically active” metabolites through excretion, as well as by improper elimination and disposal. Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not designed to remove these emerging pollutants and they are thus released into the environment. The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory diclofenac (DCF) are two widely used pharmaceuticals, frequently detected in water bodies, including rivers and groundwater, in concentrations ranging from ng L 1 to mg L 1. These two compounds were classified as medium to high-risk pollutants in WWTP effluents and surface waters. Also, CBZ has been suggested as a molecular marker of wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater and the European Union included DCF in the watch list of substances Directive to be monitored. In the present study, biodegradation of CBZ and DCF by the bacterial strain Labrys portucalensis F11, a strain able to degrade other pharmaceutical compounds, was assessed; tests were performed with F11 as single carbon and energy source, as well as in presence of 5.9mM of sodium acetate. In assays supplemented with 2.0 and 4.0 µM of CBZ, the compound was no longer detected in the bulk medium after 24hr and 5days, respectively. Complete degradation was achieved in 21 days for 11.0 µM and in 23 days for 21.0 µM. For the highest concentration tested (43.0 µM), 95% of degradation was achieved in 30days. Supplementation with acetate increased the degradation rate of CBZ, for all tested concentrations. In the case of DCF, when supplemented as a single carbon source, approximately 70% of DCF (1.7, 3.3, 8.4, 17.5 and 34.0 µM) was degraded in 30days. Complete degradation was achieved in the presence of acetate for all tested concentrations, at higher degradation rates. The detection of intermediates produced during DCF biodegradation was performed by UPLC-QTOF/MS/MS, which allowed the identification of a range of metabolites. Stoichiometric liberation of chorine occurred and no metabolites were detected at the end of the biodegradation assays suggesting a complete mineralization of DCF. Strain Labrys portucalensis F11 proved to be able to degrade these two top priority environmental contaminants and may be potentially useful for biotechnological applications/environment remediation.

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, biodegradation, diclofenac, carbamazepine

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2 Photochemical Behaviour of Carbamazepine in Natural Waters

Authors: Fanny Desbiolles, Laure Malleret, Isabelle Laffont-Schwob, Christophe Tiliacos, Anne Piram, Mohamed Sarakha, Pascal Wong-Wah-Chung


Pharmaceuticals in the environment have become a very hot topic in the recent years. This interest is related to the large amounts dispensed and to their release in urine or faeces from treated patients, resulting in their ubiquitous presence in water resources and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents. Thereby, many studies focused on the prediction of pharmaceuticals’ behaviour, to assess their fate and impacts in the environment. Carbamazepine is a widely consumed psychotropic pharmaceutical, thus being one of the most commonly detected drugs in the environment. This organic pollutant was proved to be persistent, especially with respect to its non-biodegradability, rendering it recalcitrant to usual biological treatment processes. Consequently, carbamazepine is very little removed in WWTP with a maximum abatement rate of 5 % and is then often released in natural surface waters. To better assess the environmental fate of carbamazepine in aqueous media, its photochemical transformation was undertaken in four natural waters (two French rivers, the Berre salt lagoon, Mediterranean Sea water) representative of coastal and inland water types. Kinetic experiments were performed in the presence of light using simulated solar irradiation (Xe lamp 300W). Formation of short-lifetime species was highlighted using chemical trap and laser flash photolysis (nanosecond). Identification of transformation by-products was assessed by LC-QToF-MS analyses. Carbamazepine degradation was observed after a four-day exposure and an abatement of 20% maximum was measured yielding to the formation of many by-products. Moreover, the formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) was evidenced in waters using terephthalic acid as a probe, considering the photochemical instability of its specific hydroxylated derivative. Correlations were implemented using carbamazepine degradation rate, estimated hydroxyl radical formation and chemical contents of waters. In addition, laser flash photolysis studies confirmed •OH formation and allowed to evidence other reactive species, such as chloride (Cl2•-)/bromine (Br2•-) and carbonate (CO3•-) radicals in natural waters. Radicals mainly originate from dissolved phase and their occurrence and abundance depend on the type of water. Rate constants between reactive species and carbamazepine were determined by laser flash photolysis and competitive reactions experiments. Moreover, LC-QToF-MS analyses of by-products help us to propose mechanistic pathways. The results will bring insights to the fate of carbamazepine in various water types and could help to evaluate more precisely potential ecotoxicological effects.

Keywords: Natural Waters, Photodegradation, carbamazepine, kinetic and mechanistic approaches

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1 Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in an Urban Lake

Authors: P. Le Coustumer, J. D. Villanueva, N. Peyraube, I. Allan, G. D. Salvosa, M. Reid, C. Harman, K. D. Salvosa, J. M. V. Castro, M. V. O. Espaldon, J. B. Sevilla-Nastor


The main objectives of this research are to (1) assess the occurrence of the pharmaceutical compounds and (2) present the environmental challenges posed by the existence of these pharmaceutical compounds in the surface water. These pharmaceuticals were measured in Napindan Lake, Philippines. This lake is not only a major tributary of the Pasig River (an estuary) and Laguna Lake (freshwater). It also joins these two important surface waters of the National Capital Region. Pharmaceutical compounds such as Atenolol, Carbamazepine, and two other over the counter medicines: Cetirizine, and Ibuprofen were measured in Napindan Lake. Atenolol is a beta blocker that helps in lowering hypertensions. Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant used as treatment for epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Cetirizine is an antihistamine that can relieve allergies. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug normally used to relieve pains. Three different climatological conditions with corresponding hydro physico chemical characteristics were considered. First, was during a dry season with a simultaneous dredging. Second was during a transition period from dry to wet season. Finally, the third was during a continuous wet event. Based from the results of the study, most of these pharmaceuticals can be found in Napindan Lake. This is a proof that these pharmaceutical compounds are being released to a natural surface water. Even though climatological conditions were different, concentrations of these pharmaceuticals can still be detected. This implies that there is an incessant supply of these pharmaceutical compounds in Napindan Lake. Chronic exposure to these compounds even at low concentrations can lead to possible environmental and health risks. Given this information and since consistent occurrence of these compounds can be expected, the main challenge, at present, is on how to control the sources of these pharmaceutical compounds. Primarily, there is a need to manage the disposal of the pharmaceutical compounds. Yet, the main question is how to? This study would like to present the challenges and institutional roles in helping manage the pharmaceutical disposals in a developing country like the Philippines.

Keywords: Surface Water, ibuprofen, Atenolol, carbamazepine, urban lake, institutional roles, Cetirizine, Napindan Lake, Pharmaceutical compound disposal management

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