Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Capacitance Related Abstracts

4 BaFe12O19/Polythiophene Nanocomposite as Electrochemical Supercapacitor Electrode

Authors: A. Bahadoran, H. Farokhi

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the absorbance and magnetic properties of a novel nanocomposite based on conducting polymer, carbon black and barium hexaferrite in epoxy resin on the E-glass fibre substrate. The highly conductive nanocomposite was provided by in-situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of carbon black (C) and barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) as electromagnetic absorbance material. The structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). SEM images showed the uniformly coated PAni on the surface of carbon black and barium hexaferrite. XRD peaks also verified the presence of carbon black and barium hexaferrite in the nanocomposite. The microwave characteristics determined from the magnetic and dielectric properties of the elastomeric composites obtained from scattering data by fitting the samples in a waveguide, where measured in the frequency in X-band frequency range, the range of 8 to 12 GHz. The reflection losses were evaluated to be less than −5dB over the whole X-band frequency (8–12 GHz) for the thickness of 1.4mm.

Keywords: Magnetic Materials, Capacitance, conductive polymer, electrochemical cell

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3 Nondestructive Electrochemical Testing Method for Prestressed Concrete Structures

Authors: Tomoko Fukuyama, Osamu Senbu

Abstract:

Prestressed concrete is used a lot in infrastructures such as roads or bridges. However, poor grout filling and PC steel corrosion are currently major issues of prestressed concrete structures. One of the problems with nondestructive corrosion detection of PC steel is a plastic pipe which covers PC steel. The insulative property of pipe makes a nondestructive diagnosis difficult; therefore a practical technology to detect these defects is necessary for the maintenance of infrastructures. The goal of the research is a development of an electrochemical technique which enables to detect internal defects from the surface of prestressed concrete nondestructively. Ideally, the measurements should be conducted from the surface of structural members to diagnose non-destructively. In the present experiment, a prestressed concrete member is simplified as a layered specimen to simulate a current path between an input and an output electrode on a member surface. The specimens which are layered by mortar and the prestressed concrete constitution materials (steel, polyethylene, stainless steel, or galvanized steel plates) were provided to the alternating current impedance measurement. The magnitude of an applied electric field was 0.01-volt or 1-volt, and the frequency range was from 106 Hz to 10-2 Hz. The frequency spectrums of impedance, which relate to charge reactions activated by an electric field, were measured to clarify the effects of the material configurations or the properties. In the civil engineering field, the Nyquist diagram is popular to analyze impedance and it is a good way to grasp electric relaxation using a shape of the plot. However, it is slightly not suitable to figure out an influence of a measurement frequency which is reciprocal of reaction time. Hence, Bode diagram is also applied to describe charge reactions in the present paper. From the experiment results, the alternating current impedance method looks to be applicable to the insulative material measurement and eventually prestressed concrete diagnosis. At the same time, the frequency spectrums of impedance show the difference of the material configuration. This is because the charge mobility reflects the variety of substances and also the measuring frequency of the electric field determines migration length of charges which are under the influence of the electric field. However, it could not distinguish the differences of the material thickness and is inferred the difficulties of prestressed concrete diagnosis to identify the amount of an air void or a layer of corrosion product by the technique.

Keywords: Prestressed Concrete, Capacitance, conductance, susceptance

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2 Estimation of Mobility Parameters and Threshold Voltage of an Organic Thin Film Transistor Using an Asymmetric Capacitive Test Structure

Authors: Rajesh Agarwal

Abstract:

Carrier mobility at the organic/insulator interface is essential to the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The present work describes estimation of field dependent mobility (FDM) parameters and the threshold voltage of an OTFT using a simple, easy to fabricate two terminal asymmetric capacitive test structure using admittance measurements. Conventionally, transfer characteristics are used to estimate the threshold voltage in an OTFT with field independent mobility (FIDM). Yet, this technique breaks down to give accurate results for devices with high contact resistance and having field dependent mobility. In this work, a new technique is presented for characterization of long channel organic capacitor (LCOC). The proposed technique helps in the accurate estimation of mobility enhancement factor (γ), the threshold voltage (V_th) and band mobility (µ₀) using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in OTFT. This technique also helps to get rid of making short channel OTFT or metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for making C-V measurements. To understand the behavior of devices and ease of analysis, transmission line compact model is developed. The 2-D numerical simulation was carried out to illustrate the correctness of the model. Results show that proposed technique estimates device parameters accurately even in the presence of contact resistance and field dependent mobility. Pentacene/Poly (4-vinyl phenol) based top contact bottom-gate OTFT’s are fabricated to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique. Small signal of frequency varying from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and gate potential ranging from +40 V to -40 V have been applied to the devices for measurement.

Keywords: Mobility, Organic, Capacitance, thin film transistor

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1 Open Reading Frame Marker-Based Capacitive DNA Sensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Potable Water

Authors: Utpal Roy, Rehan Deshmukh, Sunil Bhand

Abstract:

We report the label-free electrochemical detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895) in potable water using a DNA probe as a sensing molecule targeting the open reading frame marker. Indium tin oxide (ITO) surface was modified with organosilane and, glutaraldehyde was applied as a linker to fabricate the DNA sensor chip. Non-Faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) behavior was investigated at each step of sensor fabrication using cyclic voltammetry, impedance, phase, relative permittivity, capacitance, and admittance. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed significant changes in surface topographies of DNA sensor chip fabrication. The decrease in the percentage of pinholes from 2.05 (Bare ITO) to 1.46 (after DNA hybridization) suggested the capacitive behavior of the DNA sensor chip. The results of non-Faradic EIS studies of DNA sensor chip showed a systematic declining trend of the capacitance as well as the relative permittivity upon DNA hybridization. DNA sensor chip exhibited linearity in 0.5 to 25 pg/10mL for E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The limit of detection (LOD) at 95% confidence estimated by logistic regression was 0.1 pg DNA/10mL of E. coli O157:H7 (equivalent to 13.67 CFU/10mL) with a p-value of 0.0237. Moreover, the fabricated DNA sensor chip used for detection of E. coli O157:H7 showed no significant cross-reactivity with closely and distantly related bacteria such as Escherichia coli MTCC 3221, Escherichia coli O78:H11 MTCC 723 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 736. Consequently, the results obtained in our study demonstrated the possible application of developed DNA sensor chips for E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 in real water samples as well.

Keywords: Capacitance, DNA sensor, Escherichia coli O157:H7, open reading frame marker

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