Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Cancer Therapy Related Abstracts

9 Synthesis of PVA/γ-Fe2O3 Used in Cancer Treatment by Hyperthermia

Authors: Sajjad Seifi Mofarah, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, Shokooh Moghadam, Javad Tavakoli

Abstract:

In recent years a new method of combination treatment for cancer has been developed and studied that has led to significant advancements in the field of cancer therapy. Hyperthermia is a traditional therapy that, along with a creation of a medically approved level of heat with the help of an alternating magnetic AC current, results in the destruction of cancer cells by heat. This paper gives details regarding the production of the spherical nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 in order to be used for medical purposes such as tumor treatment by hyperthermia. To reach a suitable and evenly distributed temperature, the nanocomposite with core-shell morphology and spherical form within a 100 to 200 nanometer size was created using phase separation emulsion, in which the magnetic nano-particles γ-Fe2O3 with an average particle size of 20 nano-meters and with different percentages of 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 were covered by polyvinyl alcohol. The main concern in hyperthermia and heat treatment is achieving desirable specific absorption rate (SAR) and one of the most critical factors in SAR is particle size. In this project all attempts has been done to reach minimal size and consequently maximum SAR. The morphological analysis of the spherical structure of the nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 was achieved by SEM analyses and the study of the chemical bonds created was made possible by FTIR analysis. To investigate the manner of magnetic nanocomposite particle size distribution a DLS experiment was conducted. Moreover, to determine the magnetic behavior of the γ-Fe2O3 particle and the nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 in different concentrations a VSM test was conducted. To sum up, creating magnetic nanocomposites with a spherical morphology that would be employed for drug loading opens doors to new approaches in developing nanocomposites that provide efficient heat and a controlled release of drug simultaneously inside the magnetic field, which are among their positive characteristics that could significantly improve the recovery process in patients.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Cancer Therapy, hyperthermia, drug releasing

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
8 Design of RF Generator and Its Testing in Heating of Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles

Authors: D. Suman, M. Venkateshwara Rao

Abstract:

Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body, which is affecting millions of people leading to death. Even though there have been tremendous developments taken place over the last few decades the effective therapy for cancer is still not a reality. The existing techniques of cancer therapy are chemotherapy and radio therapy which are having their limitations in terms of the side effects, patient discomfort, radiation hazards and the localization of treatment. This paper describes a novel method for cancer therapy by using RF-hyperthermia application of nanoparticles. We have synthesized ferromagnetic nanoparticles and characterized by using XRD and TEM. These nanoparticles after the biocompatibility studies will be injected in to the body with a suitable tracer element having affinity to the specific tumor site. When RF energy is applied to the nanoparticles at the tumor site it produces heat of excess room temperature and nearly 41-45°C is sufficient to kill the tumor cells. We have designed a RF source generator provided with a temperature feedback controller to control the radiation induced temperature of the tumor site. The temperature control is achieved through a negative feedback mechanism of the thermocouple and a relay connected to the power source of the RF generator. This method has advantages in terms of its effect like localized therapy, less radiation, and no side effects. It has several challenges in designing the RF source provided with coils suitable for the tumour site, biocompatibility of the nanomaterials, cooling system design for the RF coil. If we can overcome these challenges this method will be a huge benefit for the society.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Cancer Therapy, hyperthermia, RF source generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
7 An Activatable Theranostic for Targeted Cancer Therapy and Imaging

Authors: Hyunseung Lee, Eun-Joong Kim, Sankarprasad Bhuniya, Kwan Soo Hong, Jong Seung Kim, Sukhendu Maiti, Jonathan L. Sessler

Abstract:

A new theranostic strategy is described. It is based on the use of an “all in one” prodrug, namely the biotinylated piperazine-rhodol conjugate 4a. This conjugate, which incorporates the anticancer drug SN-38, undergoes self-immolative cleavage when exposed to biological thiols. This leads to the tumor-targeted release of the active SN-38 payload along with fluorophore 1a. This release is made selective as the result of the biotin functionality. Fluorophore 1a is 32-fold more fluorescent than prodrug 4a. It permits the delivery and release of the SN-38 payload to be monitored easily in vitro and in vivo, as inferred from cell studies and ex vivo analyses of mice xenografts derived HeLa cells, respectively. Prodrug 4a also displays anticancer activity in the HeLa cell murine xenograft tumor model. On the basis of these findings we suggest that the present strategy, which combines within a single agent the key functions of targeting, release, imaging, and treatment, may have a role to play in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Keywords: Cancer Therapy, Fluorescence, Theranostic, prodrug

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
6 Wound Healing Dressing and Some Composites Such as Zeolite, TiO2, Chitosan and PLGA as New Alternative for Melanoma Therapy: A Review

Authors: L. Almeida, L. B. Naves

Abstract:

The development of Drugs Delivery System (DDS), has been wildly investigated in the last decades. In this paper, first a general overview of traditional and modern wound dressing is presented. This is followed by a review of what scientist have done in the medical environment, focusing the possibility to develop a new alternative for DDS through transdermal pathway, aiming to treat melanoma skin cancer.

Keywords: Melanoma, Wound Healing, Cancer Therapy, dressing polymers

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
5 Upconversion Nanoparticles for Imaging and Controlled Photothermal Release of Anticancer Drug in Breast Cancer

Authors: Yong ZHANG, Rishav Shrestha

Abstract:

The Anti-Stoke upconversion process has been used extensively for bioimaging and is recently being used for photoactivated therapy in cancer utilizing upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs). The UCNs have an excitation band at 980nm; 980nm laser excitation used to produce UV/Visible emissions also produce a heating effect. Light-to-heat conversion has been observed in nanoparticles(NPs) doped with neodymium(Nd) or ytterbium(Yb)/erbium(Er) ions. Despite laser-induced heating in Rare-earth doped NPs being proven to be a relatively efficient process, only few attempts to use them as photothermal agents in biosystems have been made up to now. Gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes are the most researched and developed for photothermal applications. Both have large heating efficiency and outstanding biocompatibility. However, they show weak fluorescence which makes them harder to track in vivo. In that regard, UCNs are attractive due to their excellent optical features in addition to their light-to-heat conversion and excitation by NIR, for imaging and spatiotemporally releasing drugs. In this work, we have utilized a simple method to coat Nd doped UCNs with thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM on which 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OH-T) is loaded. Such UCNs demonstrate a high loading efficiency and low leakage of 4-OH-T. Encouragingly, the release of 4-OH-T can be modulated by varying the power and duration of the NIR. Such UCNs were then used to demonstrate imaging and controlled photothermal release of 4-OH-T in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Keywords: controlled release, Cancer Therapy, Upconversion Nanoparticles, photothermal release

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
4 New Approach for Melanoma Skin Cancer Controled Releasing Drugs for Neutron Capture Therapy: A Review

Authors: Lucas Bernardes Naves, Luis Almeida

Abstract:

The paper includes a review concerning the use of some composites including poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PGLA), zeolite and Gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA) loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs) in order to establish a new alternative for the treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer. The main goal of this paper it to make a review of what scientist have done in the last few years, as well as to propose a less invasive therapy for skin cancer, by using Hydrocolloid, based on PLGA coated with Gd-nanoCPs for Neutron Capture Therapy.

Keywords: Melanoma, Wound Healing, Cancer Therapy, dressing polymers

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
3 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sonali Patil, Sachinkumar Patil, Shitalkumar Patil

Abstract:

Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, Application, magnetic nanoparticles, Cancer Therapy, hyperthermia

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
2 Targeted Delivery of Sustained Release Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Jamboor K. Vishwanatha

Abstract:

Among the potent anti-cancer agents, curcumin has been found to be very efficacious against various cancer cells. Despite multiple medicinal benefits of curcumin, poor water solubility, poor physiochemical properties and low bioavailability continue to pose major challenges in developing a formulation for clinical efficacy. To improve its potential application in the clinical area, we formulated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. The PLGA nanoparticles were formulated using solid-oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method and then characterized for percent yield, encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, particle size, drug distribution within nanoparticles and drug polymer interaction. Our studies showed the successful formation of smooth and spherical curcumin loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a high percent yield of about 92.01±0.13% and an encapsulation efficiency of 90.88±0.14%. The mean particle size of the nanoparticles was found to be 145nm. The in vitro drug release profile showed 55-60% drug release from the nanoparticles over a period of 24 hours with continued sustained release over a period of 8 days. Exposure to curcumin loaded nanoparticles resulted in reduced cell viability of cancer cells compared to normal cells. We used a novel non-covalent insertion of a homo-bifunctional spacer for targeted delivery of curcumin to various cancer cells. Functionalized nanoparticles for antibody/targeting agent conjugation was prepared using a cross-linking ligand, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3), which has reactive carboxyl group to conjugate efficiently to the primary amino groups of the targeting agents. In our studies, we demonstrated successful conjugation of antibodies, Annexin A2 or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), to curcumin loaded PLGA nanoparticles for targeting to prostate and breast cancer cells. The percent antibody attachment to PLGA nanoparticles was found to be 92.8%. Efficient intra-cellular uptake of the targeted nanoparticles was observed in the cancer cells. These results have emphasized the potential of our multifunctional curcumin nanoparticles to improve the clinical efficacy of curcumin therapy in patients with cancer.

Keywords: Cancer Therapy, Curcumin, sustained release, polymeric nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1 Synthesis of Size-Tunable and Stable Iron Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment

Authors: Ambika Selvaraj

Abstract:

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IO) of < 20nm (superparamagnetic) become promising tool in cancer therapy, and integrated nanodevices for cancer detection and screening. The obstacles include particle heterogeneity and cost. It can be overcome by developing monodispersed nanoparticles in economical approach. We have successfully synthesized < 7 nm IO by low temperature controlled technique, in which Fe0 is sandwiched between stabilizer and Fe2+. Size analysis showed the excellent size control from 31 nm at 33°C to 6.8 nm at 10°C. Resultant monodispersed IO were found to be stable for > 50 reuses, proved its applicability in biomedical applications.

Keywords: Biomedical Applications, Cancer Therapy, low temperature synthesis, hybrid iron nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 217