Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

cancer cells Related Abstracts

5 Activation of AMPK-TSC axis is involved in cryptotanshinone inhibition of mTOR signaling in cancer cells

Authors: Yin Lu, Wenxing Chen, Guangying Chen, Shile Huang


Cryptotanshinone (CPT), a fat-soluble tanshinone from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been demonstrated to inhibit mTOR pathway, resulting in inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism how CPT acts on mTOR is unknown. Here, cancer cells expressing rapamycin-resistant mutant mTOR are also sensitive to CPT, while phosphorylation of AMPK and TSC2 was activated, suggesting that CPT inhibition of mTOR maybe due to activating upstream of mTOR, AMPK, but not directly binding to and inhibiting mTOR. Further results indicated that Compound C, inhibitor of AMPK, could partially reversed CPT inhibition effect on cancer cells, and dominant-negative AMPK in cancer cells conferred resistance to CPT inhibition of 4EBP1 and phosphorylation of S6K1, as well as sh-AMPK. Furthermore, compared with MEF cells with AMPK positive, MEF cells with AMPK knock out are less sensitive to CPT by the findings that 4E-BP1 and phosphorylation of S6K1 express comparatively much. Furthermore, downexpression of TSC2 slightly recovered expression of 4EBP1 and phosphorylation of S6K1, while co-immunoprecipitation of TSC2 did not affect expression of TSC1 by CPT. Collectively, the above-mentioned results suggest that CPT inhibited mTOR pathway mostly was due to activation of AMPK-TSC2 pathway rather than specific inhibition of mTOR and then induction of subsequent lethal cellular effect.

Keywords: cancer cells, cryptotanshinone, AMPK, TSC2, mTOR

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4 The Effect of Combined Doxorubicin and Dioscorea esculenta on Apoptosis Induction in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Dina Fatmawati, Sofia Mubarika, Mae Sri Wahyuningsih


Chemotherapy for breast cancer is largely ineffective, but innovative combinations of chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds represent a promising strategy. In our previous study, the combination of Doxorubicin (Dox) and ethanolic extract of Dioscorea esculenta tuber ((EED) was found to have a synergistic effect on T47D human breast cancer cell line. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of the combination on T47D human breast cancer cells and normal fibroblasts cell line and its effects on the expression of Caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (cPARP-1) protein. T47D cell lines and fibroblasts cells were treated with the combination of Dox and EED. Apoptotic effect of the combination was determined using flow cytrometry assay. Protein expressions were determined by immunocytochemistry staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells were significantly higher in T47D cell lines (75%) than that of in fibroblast cells (23%). The expression of Caspase 3 (84.53%) and cPARP-1 (83.36%) were significantly higher in the cancer cell lines than those of normal cells. These results indicate that the combination of doxorubicin and Dioscorea esculenta is a promising candidate for the treatment of breast cancer cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, Immunocytochemistry, cancer cells, doxorubicin, Dioscorea esculenta

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3 The Physiological Effect of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Cancer Cells, Cancer Stem Cells, and Adult Stem Cells

Authors: Jeongyeon Park, Yeo Jun Yoon, Jiyoung Seo, In Seok Moon, Hae Jun Lee, Kiwon Song


Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) is defined as a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. CAPP generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and has potential as a new apoptosis-promoting cancer therapy. With an annular type dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) CAPP-generating device combined with a helium (He) gas feeding system, we showed that CAPP selectively induced apoptosis in various cancer cells while it promoted proliferation of the adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ASC). The apoptotic effect of CAPP was highly selective toward p53-mutated cancer cells. The intracellular ROS was mainly responsible for apoptotic cell death in CAPP-treated cancer cells. CAPP induced apoptosis even in doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell lines, demonstrating the feasibility of CAPP as a potent cancer therapy. With the same device and exposure conditions to cancer cells, CAPP stimulated proliferation of the ASC, a kind of mesenchymal stem cell that is capable of self-renewing and differentiating into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and neurons. CAPP-treated ASCs expressed the stem cell markers and differentiated into adipocytes as untreated ASCs. The increase of proliferation by CAPP in ASCs was offset by a NO scavenger but was not affected by ROS scavengers, suggesting that NO generated by CAPP is responsible for the activated proliferation in ASCs. Usually, cancer stem cells are reported to be resistant to known cancer therapies. When we applied CAPP of the same device and exposure conditions to cancer cells to liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) that express CD133 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) cancer stem cell markers, apoptotic cell death was not examined. Apoptotic cell death of liver CSCs was induced by the CAPP generated from a device with an air-based flatten type DBD. An exposure of liver CSCs to CAPP decreased the viability of liver CSCs to a great extent, suggesting plasma be used as a promising anti-cancer treatment. To validate whether CAPP can be a promising anti-cancer treatment or an adjuvant modality to eliminate remnant tumor in cancer surgery of vestibular schwannoma, we applied CAPP to mouse schwannoma cell line SC4 Nf2 ‑/‑ and human schwannoma cell line HEI-193. A CAPP treatment leads to anti-proliferative effect in both cell lines. We are currently studying the molecular mechanisms of differential physiological effect of CAPP; the proliferation of ASCs and apoptosis of various cancer cells and CSCs.

Keywords: apoptosis, cancer cells, Adult Stem Cells, proliferation, cold atmospheric pressure plasma

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2 Effects of Starvation, Glucose Treatment and Metformin on Resistance in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells

Authors: Nehir Nebioglu


Chemotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cancer. Doxorubicin is an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug that is classified as an anthracycline antibiotic. Antitumor antibiotics consist of natural products produced by species of the soil fungus Streptomyces. These drugs act in multiple phases of the cell cycle and are known cell-cycle specific. Although DOX is a precious clinical antineoplastic agent, resistance is also a problem that limits its utility besides cardiotoxicity problem. The drug resistance of cancer cells results from multiple factors including individual variation, genetic heterogeneity within a tumor, and cellular evolution. The mechanism of resistance is thought to involve, in particular, ABCB1 (MDR1, Pgp) and ABCC1 (MRP1) as well as other transporters. Several studies on DOX-resistant cell lines have shown that resistance can be overcome by an inhibition of ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCC2. This study attempts to understand the effects of different concentration levels of glucose treatment and starvation on the proliferation of Doxorubicin resistant cancer cells lines. To understand the effect of starvation, K562/Dox and K562 cell lines were treated with 0, 5 nM, 50 nM, 500 nM, 5 uM and 50 uM Dox concentrations in both starvation and normal medium conditions. In addition to this, to interpret the effect of glucose treatment, different concentrations (0, 1 mM, 5 mM, 25 mM) of glucose were applied to Dox-treated (with 0, 5 nM, 50 nM, 500 nM, 5 uM and 50 uM) K562/Dox and K652 cell lines. All results show significant decreasing in the cell count of K562/Dox, when cells were starved. However, while proliferation of K562/Dox lines decrease is associated with the increasingly applied Dox concentration, K562/Dox starved ones remain at the same proliferation level. Thus, the results imply that an amount of K562/Dox lines gain starvation resistance and remain resistant. Furthermore, for K562/Dox, there is no clear effect of glucose treatment in terms of cell proliferation. In the presence of a moderate level of glucose (5 mM), proliferation increases compared to other concentration of glucose for each different Dox application. On the other hand, a significant increase in cell proliferation in moderate level of glucose is only observed in 5 uM Dox concentration. The moderate concentration level of Dox can be examined in further studies. For the high amount of glucose (25 mM), cell proliferation levels are lower than moderate glucose application. The reason could be high amount of glucose may not be absorbable by cells. Also, in the presence of low amount of glucose, proliferation is decreasing in an orderly manner of increase in Dox concentration. This situation can be explained by the glucose depletion -Warburg effect- in the literature.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, Drug Resistance, cancer cells, doxorubicin

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1 An in silico Approach for Exploring the Intercellular Communication in Cancer Cells

Authors: M. Cardenas-Garcia, P. P. Gonzalez-Perez


Intercellular communication is a necessary condition for cellular functions and it allows a group of cells to survive as a population. Throughout this interaction, the cells work in a coordinated and collaborative way which facilitates their survival. In the case of cancerous cells, these take advantage of intercellular communication to preserve their malignancy, since through these physical unions they can send signs of malignancy. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the formation of intercellular communications, being also involved in a large number of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, cell survival, and cell death. The modeling and simulation of cellular signaling systems have found valuable support in a wide range of modeling approaches, which cover a wide spectrum ranging from mathematical models; e.g., ordinary differential equations, statistical methods, and numerical methods– to computational models; e.g., process algebra for modeling behavior and variation in molecular systems. Based on these models, different simulation tools have been developed from mathematical ones to computational ones. Regarding cellular and molecular processes in cancer, its study has also found a valuable support in different simulation tools that, covering a spectrum as mentioned above, have allowed the in silico experimentation of this phenomenon at the cellular and molecular level. In this work, we simulate and explore the complex interaction patterns of intercellular communication in cancer cells using the Cellulat bioinformatics tool, a computational simulation tool developed by us and motivated by two key elements: 1) a biochemically inspired model of self-organizing coordination in tuple spaces, and 2) the Gillespie’s algorithm, a stochastic simulation algorithm typically used to mimic systems of chemical/biochemical reactions in an efficient and accurate way. The main idea behind the Cellulat simulation tool is to provide an in silico experimentation environment that complements and guides in vitro experimentation in intra and intercellular signaling networks. Unlike most of the cell signaling simulation tools, such as E-Cell, BetaWB and Cell Illustrator which provides abstractions to model only intracellular behavior, Cellulat is appropriate for modeling both intracellular signaling and intercellular communication, providing the abstractions required to model –and as a result, simulate– the interaction mechanisms that involve two or more cells, that is essential in the scenario discussed in this work. During the development of this work we made evident the application of our computational simulation tool (Cellulat) for the modeling and simulation of intercellular communication between normal and cancerous cells, and in this way, propose key molecules that may prevent the arrival of malignant signals to the cells that surround the tumor cells. In this manner, we could identify the significant role that has the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in cellular communication, and therefore, in the dissemination of cancer cells. We verified, using in silico experiments, how the inhibition of this signaling pathway prevents that the cells that surround a cancerous cell are transformed.

Keywords: Modeling and simulation, cancer cells, in silico approach, intercellular communication, key molecules

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