Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Cameroon Related Abstracts

11 Attitudes towards Bilingualism: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Patricia W. Ngassa


Language attitude is an area arousing the interest of linguists who are continuously discovering new methods of detecting attitudes. This paper problematizes Cameroonians’ alleged tendency of neglecting home languages and considering Bilingualism in borrowed languages as more important. 30 questionnaires were used to know attitudes of parents towards bilingualism and our home languages. Results revealed that our borrowed official languages are considered more important than home languages.

Keywords: bilingualism, official language, Mother Tongue, Cameroon

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10 Sexual Risk Behaviours of High School Students in an Urban Town of Cameroon

Authors: Elvis Enowbeyang Tarkang


Background: Since students in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these students might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. Sexual risk behaviours include engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse, early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners and coerced or forced sex, and these behaviours might predispose youth to HIV transmission. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school students in an urban town of Cameroon. Method: A quantitative cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from a disproportional stratified simple random sample of 480 (240 male and 240 female) grade 10 to grade 12 students from two participating secondary school in Limbe in the Southwest region of Cameroon August 2014. Descriptive and Chi square statistics were calculated using statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 software program at the level 0.05. Results: Majority of the respondents, 63.4% reported being sexually active, of whom only 33.2% used condoms consistently. Up to 37% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 23% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.4 years. Among Christians, Pentecostals, 17 (58.6%) were more likely to have experienced sexual coercion than non-Pentecostals, 111 (42.2%) (p= 0.000). Christians, 41 (10.3%) were more likely to have been forced into first sex than Muslims, 0 (0.0%); while among the Christians, Pentecostals, 6 (15.0%) were more likely to have been forced into first sex than non-Pentecostals, 35 (10.9%) (p=0.004). Among the Christians, Pentecostals, 16 (66.7%) were more likely to have experienced sex by age 16 years than non-Pentecostals, 125 (64.1%) (p= 0.000). Students who lived in rented places, 32 (22.7%) were more likely to have had multiple sexual partners than those who lived in their parents’ houses, 35 (18.1%) (p= 0.000). Males, 36 (16.0%) were likely to have had multiple concurrent sexual partners than females, 14 (6.0%) (p=0.002). Students who used condoms consistently, 25 (33.3%) were more likely to have a higher perception of risk of contracting HIV than those who did not use condoms consistently, 38 (29.9%) (p=0.002). Students who lived in their parents’ houses, 35 (35.4%) were more likely to use condoms consistently during sex, than those who lived in rented places, 31 (29.8%) (p=0.021). Students who passed their examinations, 57 (30.9%) were more likely to have used condoms consistently than those with low academic profiles, 24 (27.9%) (p= 0.034). Conclusions and Recommendations: Gender, lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors associated with sexual risk behaviours among students in urban Cameroon. The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school students in Limbe urban town of Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, high school students, Cameroon, Limbe urban town, sexual risk behaviours

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9 Phytoremediation of Hydrocarbon-Polluted Soils: Assess the Potentialities of Six Tropical Plant Species

Authors: Pulcherie Matsodoum Nguemte, Adrien Wanko Ngnien, Guy Valerie Djumyom Wafo, Ives Magloire Kengne Noumsi, Pierre Francois Djocgoue


The identification of plant species with the capacity to grow on hydrocarbon-polluted soils is an essential step for phytoremediation. In view of developing phytoremediation in Cameroon, floristic surveys have been conducted in 4 cities (Douala, Yaounde, Limbe, and Kribi). In each city, 13 hydrocarbon-polluted, as well as unpolluted sites (control), have been investigated using quadrat method. 106 species belonging to 76 genera and 30 families have been identified on hydrocarbon-polluted sites, unlike the control sites where floristic diversity was much higher (166 species contained in 125 genera and 50 families). Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae have higher taxonomic richness on polluted sites (16, 15,10 and 8 taxa, respectively). Shannon diversity index of the hydrocarbon-polluted sites (1.6 to 2.7 bits/ind.) were significantly lower than the control sites (2.7 to 3.2 bits/ind.). Based on a relative frequency > 10% and abundance > 7%, this study highlights more than ten plants predisposed to be effective in the cleaning-up attempts of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons. Based on the floristic indicators, 6 species (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC †, Commelinpa benghalensis L., Cleome ciliata Schum. & Thonn. and Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anderson) were selected for a study to determine their capacity to remediate a soil contaminated with fuel oil (82.5 ml/ kg of soil). The experiments lasting 150 days takes into account three modalities - Tn: uncontaminated soils planted (6) To contaminated soils unplanted (3) and Tp: contaminated soil planted (18) – randomized arranged. 3 on 6 species (Eleusine indica, Cynodon dactylon, and Alternanthera sessilis) survived the climatic and soil conditions. E. indica presents a significantly higher growth rate for density and leaf area while C. dactylon had a significantly higher growth rate for stem size and leaf numbers. A. sessilis showed stunted growth and development throughout the experimental period. The species Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. can be qualified as polluo-tolerant plant species; polluo-tolerance being the ability of a species to survive and develop in the midst subject to extreme physical and chemical disturbances.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Cameroon, cleaning-up, floristic surveys

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8 Urban Livelihoods and Climate Change: Adaptation Strategies for Urban Poor in Douala, Cameroon

Authors: Agbortoko Manyigbe Ayuk Nkem, Eno Cynthia Osuh


This paper sets to examine the relationship between climate change and urban livelihood through a vulnerability assessment of the urban poor in Douala. Urban development in Douala places priority towards industrial and city-centre development with little focus on the urban poor in terms of housing units and areas of sustenance. With the high rate of urbanisation and increased land prices, the urban poor are forced to occupy marginal lands which are mainly wetlands, wastelands and along abandoned neighbourhoods prone to natural hazards. Due to climate change and its effects, these wetlands are constantly flooded thereby destroying homes, properties, and crops. Also, most of these urban dwellers have found solace in urban agriculture as a means for survival. However, since agriculture in tropical regions like Cameroon depends largely on seasonal rainfall, the changes in rainfall pattern has led to misplaced periods for crop planting and a huge wastage of resources as rainfall becomes very unreliable with increased temperature levels. Data for the study was obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Secondary sources included published materials related to climate change and vulnerability. Primary data was obtained through focus-group discussions with some urban farmers while a stratified sampling of residents within marginal lands was done. Each stratum was randomly sampled to obtain information on different stressors related to climate change and their effect on livelihood. Findings proved that the high rate of rural-urban migration into Douala has led to increased prevalence of the urban poor and their vulnerability to climate change as evident in their constant fight against flood from unexpected sea level rise and irregular rainfall pattern for urban agriculture. The study also proved that women were most vulnerable as they depended solely on urban agriculture and its related activities like retailing agricultural products in different urban markets which to them serves as a main source of income in the attainment of basic needs for the family. Adaptation measures include the constant use of sand bags, raised makeshifts as well as cultivation along streams, planting after evidence of constant rainfall has become paramount for sustainability.

Keywords: Climate Change, Development, Adaptation, Vulnerability, livelihood, Cameroon, Douala

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7 Student's Perception of Home Background and the Acquisition of English Language in Mbonge Municipality, Cameroon

Authors: Japhet Asanji


The bases of this research were to explore student’s perception of home background and the acquisition of English Language in Mbonge Municipality by examining how financial status, level of education, marital status and parenting styles of their parents influence English Language Acquisition. Using random sampling techniques, closed-ended questionnaires were administered to 60 students, and the data was analysed using descriptive statistical analysis. The results reaffirm the positive relationship between student’s perception of home background and the acquisition of English language. Contributions, limitations, and direction for further research are also discussed.

Keywords: Student, Cameroon, home background, English language acquisition

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6 Women as Victims of Land Grabbing: Implications for Household Food Security and Livelihoods in Cameroon

Authors: Valentine Ndi


This multi-sited research will make use of primary and secondary data to understand the multiple implications of land grabbing for local food production and rural livelihoods in Cameroon. Amidst restricted access to land and forest resources, this study will demonstrate how land previously accessed by communities to grow crops and to harvest forest resources is being acquired and transformed into commercial oil palm plantations by Herakles Farms, a US-based company, with Sithe Global Sustainable Oils Cameroon as its local subsidiary. Focusing on selected land grabbing communities in Cameroon, the study uses a feminist political ecology lens to examine the gendered nature in resources access and its impacts for women’s food production in particular, and rural livelihoods in general. The paper will argue that the change in land use particularly erodes women’s rights to access land and forest resources, and in turn negatively affects local food production and rural livelihood in the region. It will show how women in the region play instrumental and dominant roles in ensuring local food production through subsistence and semi-subsistence agriculture but are unfortunately the main losers of territory that the state considers as ‘empty’ or underutilized - and is subjected to appropriation. The paper will conclude that, rural women’s active participation in the decision-making processes concerning the use of and/or allotment of land to foreign investors is indispensable to guarantee local, national and global food security, but also to ensure that alternative livelihood options are provided, particularly to those rural women facing dispossession or at risk of being dispossessed.

Keywords: Gender, Rural Livelihoods, Cameroon, land grabbing, feminst political ecology, access to resources

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5 Understanding How Democratic Governance Influence Resource Allocation and Utilisation in Economies in Transition: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Terence Maisah Seka


This paper examines democratic governance within the private and public sectors in economies in transition (Cameroon) by exploring how they influence development in terms of resource allocation to priorities that are locally conceptualized. The benefit of this is an improvement in indigenous and the quality of life for the local population. Using an ethnographic approach, this paper suggests that institutional corruption and state bureaucracy has limited the impact of democratic governance in influencing development. This has seen funds for developments being embezzled; local projects are not being done to satisfaction among others. The paper contributes by proposing measures to eliminate corruption to improve democratic governance, which will improve resource allocation and utilization.

Keywords: Utilisation, Resource Allocation, Democratic Governance‎, Cameroon

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4 Enabling Exporting in Cameroon Using Export Promotion Programs

Authors: Morfaw Bernice Njinju


The contribution of exporting and small businesses to an economy cannot be overemphasized. However, small firms in developing economies are characterized by resource deficiencies, which hinders their exporting abilities. As a result, export promotion programs are designed by the government as external resources that small firms can access to overcome export barriers and improve their exporting. Nevertheless, doubts still exist as to whether firms are aware of these programs and the extent to which they are utilizing it. To analyse the level of awareness and usage of these programs, the questionnaire was developed from the review of the literature. A pilot study was conducted to determine the ease of completing the questionnaire by respondent before incorporating feedback to produce the final questionnaire. Data were collected from 200 small businesses in Cameroon in the manufacturing and agricultural sector through random sampling and analysed using regression analysis. The results indicated that different programs had different levels of awareness than others. Programs to provide training to improve product quality was found to have the highest level of awareness while those providing findings had low levels of awareness. Despite these different levels of awareness, usage was very low, as firms do not want to open up to government scrutiny of their business. Implications to policy, practice, and direction for further research are also discussed.

Keywords: Small Businesses, Cameroon, exporting, export promotion programs

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3 A Case Study on the Census of Technological Capacities in Health Care in Rural Sanitary Institutions in South Cameroon

Authors: Doriane Micaela Andeme Bikoro, Samuel Fosso Wamba, Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug


Currently one of the leading fields in the market of technological innovation is digital health. In developed countries, this booming innovation is experiencing an exponential speed. We understand that in developed countries, e-health could also revolutionize the practice of medicine and therefore fill the many failures observed in medical care. Everything leads to believe that future technology is oriented towards the medical sector. The aim of this work is to explore at the same time the technological resources and the potential of health care based on new technologies; it is a case study in a rural area of Southern Cameroon. Among other things, we will make a census of the shortcomings and problems encountered, and we will propose various appropriate solutions. The work methodology used here is essentially qualitative. We used two qualitative data collection techniques, direct observation, and interviews. In fact, we spent two weeks in the field observing and conducting some semi-directive interviews with some of those responsible for these health structures. This study was conducted in three health facilities in the south of the country; including two health centers and a rural hospital. Many technological failures have been identified in the day-to-day management of these health facilities and especially in the administration of health care to patients. We note major problems such as the digital divide, the lack of qualified personnel, the state of isolation of this area. This is why various proposals are made to improve the health sector in Cameroon both technologically and medically.

Keywords: Census, Digital Health, rural area, Cameroon, qualitative method, capacities

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2 The Human Rights Implications of Arbitrary Arrests and Political Imprisonment in Cameroon between 2016 and 2019

Authors: Ani Eda Njwe


Cameroon is a bilingual and bijural country in West and Central Africa. The current president has been in power since 1982, which makes him the longest-serving president in the world. The length of his presidency is one of the major causes of the ongoing political instability in the country. The preamble of the Cameroonian constitution commits Cameroon to respect international law and human rights. It provides that these laws should be translated into national laws, and respected by all spheres of government and public service. Cameroon is a signatory of several international human rights laws and conventions. In theory, the citizens of Cameroon have adequate legal protection against the violation of their human rights for political reasons. The ongoing political crisis in Cameroon erupted after the Anglophone lawyers and teachers launched a protest against the hiring of Francophone judges in Anglophone courts; and the hiring of Francophone teachers in Anglophone schools. In retaliation, the government launched a military crackdown on protesters and civilians, conducted arbitrary arrests on Anglophones, raped and maimed civilians, and declared a state of emergency in the Anglophone provinces. This infuriated the Anglophone public, causing them to create a secessionist movement, requesting the Independence of Anglophone Cameroon and demanding a separate country called Ambazonia. The Ambazonian armed rebel forces have ever since launched guerrilla attacks on government troops. This fighting has deteriorated into a war between the Ambazonians and the Cameroon government. The arbitrary arrests and unlawful imprisonments have continued, causing the closure of Anglophone schools since November 2016. In October 2018, Cameroon held presidential elections. Before the electoral commission announced the results, the opposition leader, a Francophone, declared himself winner, following a leak of the polling information. This led to his imprisonment. This research has the objective of finding out whether the government’s reactions to protesters and opposition is lawful, under national and international laws. This research will also verify if the prison conditions of political prisoners meet human rights standards. Furthermore, this research seeks detailed information obtained from current political prisoners and detainees on their experiences. This research also aims to highlight the effort being made internationally, towards bringing awareness and finding a resolution to the war in Cameroon. Finally, this research seeks to elucidate on the efforts which human rights organisations have made, towards overseeing the respect of human rights in Cameroon. This research adopts qualitative methods, whereby data were collected using semi-structured interviews of political detainees, and questionnaires. Also, data was collected from secondary sources such as; scholarly articles, newspaper articles, web sources, and human rights reports. From the data collected, the findings were analysed using the content analysis research technique. From the deductions, recommendations have been made, which human rights organisations, activists, and international bodies can implement, to cause the Cameroonian government to stop unlawful arrests and reinstate the respect of human rights and the rule of law in Cameroon.

Keywords: Human Rights, Political, Cameroon, arbitrary arrests

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1 Fostering Involvement of Local Inhabitants in Participatory Governance of Cultural Patrimony in Cameroon

Authors: Asah Nelson Asoh, Wanie Clarkson Mvo


Given the diverse nature of cultural diversity in Cameroon from the forested south to the sudano-sahelian north regions, Cameroon is aptly described as 'Africa in Miniature', which simply means all of Africa in a single country-Cameroon. Cameroon possesses all that can be attractive to the eyes in Africa. Yet, there is a microscopic involvement of the local inhabitants in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development, which greatly jeopardizes conservation endeavors because the community fails to trust governing authorities. This study delves into the ways through which local inhabitants could be indulged in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development. The study adopts a qualitative research design and semi-structured interviews with experts in the collection of primary data blended with secondary materials from published sources, including textbooks, scientific journal articles, dissertations, reports, and internet websites. The collected data was presented and analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, photographic illustrations, and through intuition. The study fosters the ways through which local inhabitants could be indulged in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development. This is to ensure community support for the conservation of tourism cultural patrimony in Cameroon in particular and the world at large.

Keywords: Tourism, Socio-Economic Development, Cameroon, participatory governance, cultural patrimony

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