Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Cambodia Related Abstracts

7 Understanding Social Networks in Community's Coping Capacity with Floods: A Case Study of a Community in Cambodia

Authors: Ourn Vimoil, Kallaya Suntornvongsagul

Abstract:

Cambodia is considered as one of the most disaster prone countries in South East Asia, and most of natural disasters are related to floods. Cambodia, a developing country, faces significant impacts from floods, such as environmental, social, and economic losses. Using data accessed from focus group discussions and field surveys with villagers in Ba Baong commune, prey Veng province, Cambodia, the research would like to examine roles of social networks in raising community’s coping capacity with floods. The findings indicate that social capital play crucial roles in three stages of floods, namely preparedness, response, and recovery to overcome the crisis. People shared their information and resources, and extent their assistances to one another in order to adapt to floods. The study contribute to policy makers, national and international agencies working on this issue to pay attention on social networks as one factors to accelerate flood coping capacity at community level.

Keywords: Flood, Social Network, Community, coping capacity, Cambodia

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6 Health Inequalities in the Global South: Identification of Poor People with Disabilities in Cambodia to Generate Access to Healthcare

Authors: Jamie Lee Harder

Abstract:

In the context of rapidly changing social and economic circumstances in the developing world, this paper analyses access to public healthcare for poor people with disabilities in Cambodia. Like other countries of South East Asia, Cambodia is developing at rapid pace. The historical past of Cambodia, however, has set former social policy structures to zero. This past forces Cambodia and its citizens to implement new public health policies to align with the needs of social care, healthcare, and urban planning. In this context, the role of people with disabilities (PwDs) is crucial as new developments should and can take into consideration their specific needs from the beginning onwards. This paper is based on qualitative research with expert interviews and focus group discussions in Cambodia. During the field work it became clear that the identification tool for the poorest households (HHs) does not count disability as a financial risk to fall into poverty neither when becoming sick nor because of higher health expenditures and/or lower income because of the disability. The social risk group of poor PwDs faces several barriers in accessing public healthcare. The urbanization, the socio-economic health status, and opportunities for education; all influence social status and have an impact on the health situation of these individuals. Cambodia has various difficulties with providing access to people with disabilities, mostly due to barriers regarding finances, geography, quality of care, poor knowledge about their rights and negative social and cultural beliefs. Shortened budgets and the lack of prioritizations lead to the need for reorientation of local communities, international and national non-governmental organizations and social policy. The poorest HHs are identified with a questionnaire, the IDPoor program, for which the Ministry of Planning is responsible. The identified HHs receive an ‘Equity Card’ which provides access free of charge to public healthcare centers and hospitals among other benefits. The dataset usually does not include information about the disability status. Four focus group discussions (FGD) with 28 participants showed various barriers in accessing public healthcare. These barriers go far beyond a missing ramp to access the healthcare center. The contents of the FGDs were ratified and repeated during the expert interviews with the local Ministries, NGOs, international organizations and private persons working in the field. The participants of the FGDs faced and continue to face high discrimination, low capacity to work and earn an own income, dependency on others and less social competence in their lives. When discussing their health situation, we identified, a huge difference between those who are identified and hold an Equity Card and those who do not. Participants reported high costs without IDPoor identification, positive experiences when going to the health center in terms of attitude and treatment, low satisfaction with specific capacities for treatments, negative rumors, and discrimination with the consequence of fear to seek treatment in many cases. The problem of accessing public healthcare by risk groups can be adapted to situations in other countries.

Keywords: Disability, Health, Inequality, Access, Cambodia

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5 Rebuilding Health Post-Conflict: Case Studies from Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique

Authors: Spencer Rutherford, Shadi Saleh

Abstract:

War and conflict negatively impact all facets of a health system; services cease to function, resources become depleted, and any semblance of governance is lost. Following cessation of conflict, the rebuilding process includes a wide array of international and local actors. During this period, stakeholders must contend with various trade-offs, including balancing sustainable outcomes with immediate health needs, introducing health reform measures while also increasing local capacity, and reconciling external assistance with local legitimacy. Compounding these factors are additional challenges, including coordination amongst stakeholders, the re-occurrence of conflict, and ulterior motives from donors and governments, to name a few. Therefore, the present paper evaluated health system development in three post-conflict countries over a 12-year timeline. Specifically, health policies, health inputs (such infrastructure and human resources), and measures of governance, from the post-conflict periods of Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique, were assessed against health outputs and other measures. All post-conflict countries experienced similar challenges when rebuilding the health sector, including; division and competition between donors, NGOs, and local institutions; urban and rural health inequalities; and the re-occurrence of conflict. However, countries also employed unique and effective mechanisms for reconstructing their health systems, including; government engagement of the NGO and private sector; integration of competing factions into the same workforce; and collaborative planning for health policy. Based on these findings, best-practice development strategies were determined and compiled into a 12-year framework. Briefly, during the initial stage of the post-conflict period, primary stakeholders should work quickly to draft a national health strategy in collaboration with the government, and focus on managing and coordinating NGOs through performance-based partnership agreements. With this scaffolding in place, the development community can then prioritize the reconstruction of primary health care centers, increasing and retaining health workers, and horizontal integration of immunization services. The final stages should then concentrate on transferring ownership of the health system national institutions, implementing sustainable financing mechanisms, and phasing-out NGO services. Overall, these findings contribute post-conflict health system development by evaluating the process holistically and along a timeline and can be of further use by healthcare managers, policy-makers, and other health professionals.

Keywords: State-building, Afghanistan, Cambodia, post-conflict, Mozambique, health system development, health system reconstruction

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4 Variability in Contraception Choices and Abortion Rates among Female Garment Factory Workers in Urban and Rural Cambodia

Authors: Elizabeth Hoban, Joanne Williams, Olalekan Olaluwoye

Abstract:

Background: Modern contraceptives are effective in preventing unwanted pregnancies and therefore the potential to reduce abortion rates. There is a need for information about how rates of contraceptive use and abortion vary across Cambodia and the relationship between the prevalence of modern contraception use and abortion rates. This study compares the use of contraception and abortion among female garment factory workers in rural and urban areas of Cambodia. Method: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with 1701 women working in eleven garment factories in rural and urban areas of Cambodia. Sexual and reproductive health data were collected using Audio-Assisted Survey Interviews and analysed using STATA 14 software. Findings: Over 70% of the respondents were less than 30 years of age across both rural and urban settings and over 50% have only primary education, thus the study population was largely young women with limited education. A significantly higher proportion of the rural women earned over $200 in the previous month compared with their urban counterparts. The majority of the urban women (51.5%) were married, while single women (46.9%) made up the largest group working in the rural factories. A significantly larger proportion of women in the rural areas (83.9%) were sexually active compared to the urban women (50.9%). More women from the rural areas (41.4%) had been pregnant at some time compared with the urban population (37.7%). The use of any contraceptive method among sexually active women was significantly higher in the rural areas (80.1%) compared to the urban areas (65.7%) with p-value=0.000. However, among those women who used contraception, the prevalence of modern contraception use was slightly higher in the urban population (68.8% urban, 63.4% rural, p-value=0.1). For women who had a history of pregnancy the abortion prevalence was higher among rural women (43.8%) compared to their urban counterparts (37.7%). Regression analysis showed that after adjustment for the demographic variables (age, relationship status, income, education) only age and relationship status had a significant influence on the use of modern contraception.Single females who were sexually active and older women, who had potentially completed their families, were more likely to choose modern contraception. Conclusion: Although overall the use of contraception was higher among rural women, the use of modern contraception was higher among urban women.This finding may partly explain the higher rates of abortion among women in the rural areas as traditional contraception methods have higher failure rates and are more likely to result in an unplanned pregnancy.Despite the regional variation, the high rates of abortion across the country suggest there is a need for improve education on family planning among female garment factory workers in Cambodia.

Keywords: abortion, Contraception, Cambodia, garment factory

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3 Young Adult Males’ Attitudes, Perceptions and Behaviours in Regards to Male Condoms in Cambodia: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Elizabeth Hoban, Rebecca Johnson

Abstract:

Condom use among young men in Cambodia has declined between 2005 and 2014 which has public health implications such as increased risks of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, and unplanned pregnancies. Conversations about sexual and reproductive health issues, including condom use, are not socially sanctioned in Cambodian society leaving young adults with limited knowledge of, and poor access to sexual and reproductive health services. Additionally, men play a dominant role in decision making regarding condom use within sexual partnerships. This study sought to fill a gap in knowledge by exploring young adult males’ attitudes, perceptions and behaviours regarding condom use. In February and March 2018, twenty young adult males, aged 18 to 24 years, were recruited from urban, peri urban and rural areas in Cambodia. The young adult males participated in a face-to-face semi structured interview that used an interview guide and photo elicitation method. The interview explored participants’ knowledge of sexual and reproductive health issues and efficacy, sexual behaviours, and use of condoms. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted and the following major themes emerged: understanding of reproduction, understanding of sexually transmitted infections, knowledge about condoms, condom use, access to condoms, and sexual behaviour. Participants’ knowledge of condoms and specific reasons for their use varied; most participants understood that condoms provide protection from sexually transmitted infections and prevent pregnancy. Stigma associated with condom access was consistently referred to as a problem and the main reason cited by young men for not using condoms during sexual intercourse. The perceived importance of condom use altered with partner type and relationship status, dependent upon the need for protection from sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy. Condoms were used for infection control in the context of multiple relationships, or as a contraceptive method for unmarried and some married couples. The majority of young men engaged in premarital sexual intercourse, of those men the many used condoms. The inconsistent use of condoms by young men in Cambodia is of public health concern because of the increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (including HIV), and unplanned pregnancy. Public health action is required in order to minimize long term health issues for individuals and the community. Health education is required to increase knowledge of condom use, sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and reduce the stigma associated with this topic. Sustainable health promotion programs are needed to increase ease of access to condoms for young people. Public health policy in Cambodia needs to be reviewed to improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes for young adults.

Keywords: Sexual and Reproductive Health, condom use, Cambodia, young adult males

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2 Migration and Provision of Support to Left-Behind Parents in Rural Cambodia

Authors: Benjamas Penboon, Zachary Zimmer, Aree Jampaklay

Abstract:

Cambodia is a country where labor migration has been consistently high. Coupled with advancing labor opportunities in urban areas, a function partly of globalization, this is resulting in massive migration out of rural areas. This is particularly true in Cambodia where there are high migration and a very large proportion of adult children living some distant from their parents. This paper explores characteristics associated with migrant providing support to parents in rural Cambodia. With reference to perspectives of family altruism and solidarity, this analysis particularly focusses on how a series of variables representing family integration and residential location associates with intergenerational monetary and instrumental support from migrants. The study hypothesizes that migrants are more likely to provide support when parents are in need, and there are no alternative means of support. Data come from The Rural Household Survey (N=3,713), part of the 2011 Cambodian Rural Urban Migration Project (CRUMP). Multilevel multinomial models indicate international migrants are likely to give money, while internal migrants are likely to provide both money and instrumental support, especially when migrants have no sibling and their parent in poor health status. In addition, employed migrants are two times providing monetary compared to those unemployed. Findings elucidate the decision to which and why support occurs more often when no other source of support exists and also depends on the ability to provide of migrants themselves.

Keywords: Migration, Rural, Intergenerational Relations, support, Cambodia, left-behind parent

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1 A Decadal Flood Assessment Using Time-Series Satellite Data in Cambodia

Authors: Nguyen-Thanh Son

Abstract:

Flood is among the most frequent and costliest natural hazards. The flood disasters especially affect the poor people in rural areas, who are heavily dependent on agriculture and have lower incomes. Cambodia is identified as one of the most climate-vulnerable countries in the world, ranked 13th out of 181 countries most affected by the impacts of climate change. Flood monitoring is thus a strategic priority at national and regional levels because policymakers need reliable spatial and temporal information on flood-prone areas to form successful monitoring programs to reduce possible impacts on the country’s economy and people’s likelihood. This study aims to develop methods for flood mapping and assessment from MODIS data in Cambodia. We processed the data for the period from 2000 to 2017, following three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct smooth time-series vegetation and water surface indices, (2) delineation of flood-prone areas, and (3) accuracy assessment. The results of flood mapping were verified with the ground reference data, indicating the overall accuracy of 88.7% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.77, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by close agreement between the flood-mapping area and ground reference data, with the correlation coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.94. The seasonally flooded areas observed for 2010, 2015, and 2016 were remarkably smaller than other years, mainly attributed to the El Niño weather phenomenon exacerbated by impacts of climate change. Eventually, although several sources potentially lowered the mapping accuracy of flood-prone areas, including image cloud contamination, mixed-pixel issues, and low-resolution bias between the mapping results and ground reference data, our methods indicated the satisfactory results for delineating spatiotemporal evolutions of floods. The results in the form of quantitative information on spatiotemporal flood distributions could be beneficial to policymakers in evaluating their management strategies for mitigating the negative effects of floods on agriculture and people’s likelihood in the country.

Keywords: Flood, Mapping, MODIS, Cambodia

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