Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

cam Related Abstracts

5 Deriving Generic Transformation Matrices for Multi-Axis Milling Machine

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tzu-Kuan Lin, Tsong Der Lin


This paper proposes a new method to find the equations of transformation matrix for the rotation angles of the two rotational axes and the coordinates of the three linear axes of an orthogonal multi-axis milling machine. This approach provides intuitive physical meanings for rotation angles of multi-axis machines, which can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the conversion from CL data to NC data.

Keywords: cam, multi-axis milling machining, transformation matrix, rotation angles

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4 Towards a Complete Automation Feature Recognition System for Sheet Metal Manufacturing

Authors: Bahaa Eltahawy, Mikko Ylihärsilä, Reino Virrankoski, Esko Petäjä


Sheet metal processing is automated, but the step from product models to the production machine control still requires human intervention. This may cause time consuming bottlenecks in the production process and increase the risk of human errors. In this paper we present a system, which automatically recognizes features from the CAD-model of the sheet metal product. By using these features, the system produces a complete model of the particular sheet metal product. Then the model is used as an input for the sheet metal processing machine. Currently the system is implemented, capable to recognize more than 11 of the most common sheet metal structural features, and the procedure is fully automated. This provides remarkable savings in the production time, and protects against the human errors. This paper presents the developed system architecture, applied algorithms and system software implementation and testing.

Keywords: Automation, CAD, cam, feature recognition, sheet metal manufacturing

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3 A Pilot Study on the Development and Validation of an Instrument to Evaluate Inpatient Beliefs, Expectations and Attitudes toward Reflexology (IBEAR)-16

Authors: Samuel Attias, Elad Schiff, Zahi Arnon, Eran Ben-Arye, Yael Keshet, Ibrahim Matter, Boker Lital Keinan


Background: Despite the extensive use of manual therapies, reflexology in particular, no validated tools have been developed to evaluate patients' beliefs, attitudes and expectations regarding reflexology. Such tools however are essential to improve the results of the reflexology treatment, by better adjusting it to the patients' attitudes and expectations. The tool also enables assessing correlations with clinical results of interventional studies using reflexology. Methods: The IBEAR (Inpatient Beliefs, Expectations and Attitudes toward Reflexology) tool contains 25 questions (8 demographic and 17 specifically addressing reflexology), and was constructed in several stages: brainstorming by a multidisciplinary team of experts; evaluation of each of the proposed questions by the experts' team; and assessment of the experts' degree of agreement per each question, based on a Likert 1-7 scale (1 – don't agree at all; 7 – agree completely). Cronbach's Alpha was computed to evaluate the questionnaire's reliability while the Factor analysis test was used for further validation (228 patients). The questionnaire was tested and re-tested (48h) on a group of 199 patients to assure clarity and reliability, using the Pearson coefficient and the Kappa test. It was modified based on these results into its final form. Results: After its construction, the IBEAR questionnaire passed the expert group's preliminary consensus, evaluation of the questions' clarity (from 5.1 to 7.0), inner validation (from 5.5 to 7) and structural validation (from 5.5 to 6.75). Factor analysis pointed to two content worlds in a division into 4 questions discussing attitudes and expectations versus 5 questions on belief and attitudes. Of the 221 questionnaires collected, a Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was calculated on nine questions relating to beliefs, expectations, and attitudes regarding reflexology. This measure stood at 0.716 (satisfactory reliability). At the Test-Retest stage, 199 research participants filled in the questionnaire a second time. The Pearson coefficient for all questions ranged between 0.73 and 0.94 (good to excellent reliability). As for dichotomic answers, Kappa scores ranged between 0.66 and 1.0 (mediocre to high). One of the questions was removed from the IBEAR following questionnaire validation. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that the proposed IBEAR-16 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for the characterization of potential reflexology patients and may be effectively used in settings which include the evaluation of inpatients' beliefs, expectations, and attitudes toward reflexology.

Keywords: Expectation, belief, cam, reflexology, Inpatient, attitude

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2 Design and Implementation of Power Generation Mechanism Using Speed Breaker

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif, Juntakan Taweekun


In the current scenario demand of power is increasing day by day with increasing population. It is needed to sort out this problem with a technique which will not only overcome this energy crisis but also should be environment friendly. This project emphasizes on idea which shows that power could be generated by specially designed speed breaker. This project shows clearly how power can be generated by using Cam Mechanism where basically linear motion is converted into rotatory motion that can be used to generate electricity. When vehicle passes over the speed breaker, presses the cam with the help of connecting rod which rotate main shaft attached with large pulley. A flywheel is coupled with the shaft whose purpose is to normalize the oscillation in the energy and to make the energy unvarying. So, the shafts will spin with firm rpm. These shafts are coupled from end to end with a belt drive. The results show that power generated from this mechanism is 12 watts. The generated electricity does not required any fuel consumption it only generates power which can be used for the street light as well as for the traffic signals.

Keywords: cam, revolution per minute, RPM, speed breaker, rotatory motion

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1 Health Care Students' Attitudes, Knowledge and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Caterina Grandi, Lukas Lochner, Marco Padovan, Mirco Rizzi, Paola Sperinde, Fabio Vittadello, Luisa Cavada


Background: In recent years, the use of Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) has achieved worldwide popularity. With the increased public interest in CAMs, attention to it within Health Care Schools and Colleges has also improved. Studies generally assess the knowledge and attitudes regarding CAMs in medical and nursing students. The current study focused on the knowledge, attitudes and practice of CAM in healthcare students. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitudes regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in healthcare students in South Tyrol, a region in Northern Italy. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 361 students. Self-administered questionnaire was adapted and modified by the researchers from several questionnaires. The instrument consisted of three sections: 1) demographical characteristics (gender, place of residence and year of study); 2) general attitudes towards CAM, evaluated through 11 items using a Likert scale (agree, partly agree, partly disagree, disagree); 3) knowledge and use about any particular CAM practices (acupuncture, aromatherapy, creative therapies, diet/nutritional therapies, phytotherapy/herbal therapies, compresses, massage therapy, Ayurvedic therapy, Tibetan medicine, naturopathy, homeopathy, pet therapy, reflexology, therapeutic touch, chiropractic/osteopathy). Results: The sample consisted of 63 males and 297 females, 58% living in villages. 151 students (42%) were in the first year, 99 (27%) in the second and 106 (30%) in the third. Both men and women agreed with statements about the utility and benefits of CAMs. Women were significantly more likely than men to agree that the CAM practices should be included in the curriculum (p < 0.004), that the health professionals should be able to advice their patients about commonly used CAM methods (p < 0.002) and that the clinical care should integrate CAM practices (p < 0.04). Students in the second year showed the highest mean score for the statement 'CAM includes ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit' (p = 0.049), highlighting a positive attitude, while students in the third year achieved the lowest mean score for the negative statement 'The results of CAM are in most cases due to a placebo effect'. Regarding this statement, participants living in villages disagreed significantly than students living in the city (p < 0.001). Females appeared to be significantly more familiar with homeopathy (p < 0.002), aromatherapy (p < 0.033), creative therapies (p < 0.001) and herbal therapies (p<0.002) than males. Moreover, women were likely to use CAM more frequently than men, particularly to solve psychological problems (p < 0.004). In addition, women perceived the benefit significantly more positive than men (p < 0.001). Students in the second year revealed to use the CAM mostly to improve the quality of life (p < 0.023), while students in the third year used CAMs particularly for chronic diseases (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Results from this study suggested that female students show more positive attitudes on CAM than male students. Moreover, the prevalence of CAM use and its perceived benefits differ between males and females, so that women are more willing to use CAM practices.

Keywords: Knowledge, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, cam, attitude, healthcare students

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