Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

calves Related Abstracts

9 Adrenergic and Non-Adrenergic Control of Mesenteric Blood Vessels of Calves

Authors: A. Elmajdoub, A. El-Mahmoudy


The present study was designed to investigate the neurotransmitters that mediate the excitatory response of the circular muscle of final branches of mesenteric artery in bovine calves. Mesentery was dissected and the iliac branches were separated and used. The final mesenteric branches of diameter 400 micrometers and less responded strongly to norepinephrine and moderately to ATP. However, the mesenteric branches of wider diameters were gradually less responsive to norepinephrine and those of diameter 700 micrometers were exclusively nonresponsive. These arteries were strongly responsive to ATP (100 µM). Norepinephrine response was sensitive to phentolamine (3 µM) and prazosin (5 µM) indicating that it is mediated by α1 receptor; while ATP response was sensitive to suramin (200 µM), PPADS (50 µM), but not to cibacron blue (100 µM) indicating that it is mediated via P2X receptor. Further confirmatory experiments were performed including application of α1 and P2X receptor specific agonists which are methoxamine and α,β-methylene ATP. Methoxamine (1 µM) showed effects similar to norepinephrine in final branches and was without effect in wider branches. α,β-methylene ATP (1 µM), exhibited more pronounced effects on both wide and narrow branches but in parallel manner to that of ATP. Agonists for α2 and P2Y receptors as clonidine (10 µM) and 2-meThio ATP (10 µM), respectively, were without effect indicating that involvement of these receptors is unlikely. The neuropeptide-Y (200 nM) did not have any effects on either the narrow or the wide rings. Conclusion: These data may imply that in the most peripheral mesenteric arteries a strong vasopressor power represented by norepinephrine and ATP integration is needed for maintaining peripheral resistance; on the other hand a mild vasopressor power mediated only by ATP is enough to maintain the vascular tone in the relatively central mesenteric branches.

Keywords: ATP, calves, mesenteric artery, norepinephrine

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
8 The Influence of Bacteriocins Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Multiplied in an Alternative Substrate on Calves Blood Parameters

Authors: E. Bartkiene, V. Krungleviciute, J. Kucinskiene, R. Antanaitis, A. Kucinskas


In calves less than 10-day-old, infection commonly cause severe diarrhoea and high mortality. To prevention of calves diseases a common practice is to treat calves with prophylactic antibiotics, in this case the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is promising. Often LAB strains are incubated in comercial de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium, the culture are centrifuged, the cells are washing with sterile water, and this suspension is used as a starter culture for animal health care. Juice of potatoe tubers is industrial wastes, wich may constitute a source of digestible nutrients for microorganisms. In our study the ability of LAB to utilize potatoe tubers juice in cell synthesis without external nutrient supplement was investigated, and the influence of multiplied LAB on calves blood parameters was evaluated. Calves were selected based on the analogy principle (treatment group (n=6), control group (n=8)). For the treatment group 14 days was given a 50 ml of fermented potatoe tubers juice containing 9.6 log10 cfu/ml of LAB. Blood parameters (gas and biochemical) were assessed by use of an auto-analyzers (Hitachi 705 and EPOC). Before the experiment, blood pH of treatment group calves was 7.33, control – 7.36, whereas, after 14 days, 7.28 and 7.36, respectively. Calves blood pH in the treatment group remained stable over the all experiment period. Concentration of PCO2 in control calves group blood increased from 63.95 to 70.93, whereas, in the treatment group decreased from 63.08 to 60.71. Concentration of lactate in the treatment group decreased from 3.20 mmol/l to 2.64 mmol/l, whereas, in control - increased from 3.95 mmol/l to 4.29 mmol/l. Concentration of AST in the control calves group increased from 50.18 IU/L to 58.9 IU/L, whereas, in treatment group decreased from 49.82 IU/L to 33.1 IU/L. We conclude that the 50 ml of fermented potatoe tubers juice containing 9.6 log10 cfu/ml of LAB per day, by using 14 days, reduced risk of developing acidosis (stabilizes blood pH (p < 0.05)), reduces lactates and PCO2 concentration (p < 0.05) and risk of liver lesions (reduces AST concentration (p < 0.005)) in blood of calves.

Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria, calves, blood parameters, alternative substrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
7 Eimeria spp. in Naturally Infected Calves

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici


Bovine coccidiosis is a protozoan disease caused by various species of Eimeria and most signs of disease are chronic or subclinical. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in calves in Konya, in Turkey. The study, conducted from January- February 2015, involved 240 faecal samples of calves in the age groups of <1 month, 1-3 months and >3 months in Konya city centre, in Turkey. In a retrospective study from these faecal samples of calves submitted to the University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Parasitology were evaluated regarding the prevalence of Eimeria spp. Faecal samples were examined by Fulleborn saturated salt floatation technique. Eimeria oocysts were found in 8.33% of all samples. The positivity rates in each of the age groups were different. According to the age groups (<1 month, 1-3 months and >3 months), the Eimeria spp. were determined as 0.83, 22.73 and 7.41%, respectively. After examination of stool, detected oocysts were sporulated in 2.5% potassium dichromate at 22º C and species were identified as E. cylindrica, E. zuernii, E. ellipsoidalis, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. auburnensis, E. canadensis, E. illinoisensis and E. brasiliensis in infected calves. In conclusion, the highest prevalence was observed in the age group of 1-3 months. The presence of Eimeria species in calves demonstrated for the first time in the Konya region in Turkey. Other etiologic agents should also be investigated in calves more seriously. Further molecular epidemiological studies should be performed in this community.

Keywords: Diarrhea, calves, Eimeria spp, bovine coccidiosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
6 Effect of an Oral Dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 on Lower Digestive Tract, Bacteria Count and Rumen Fermentation in Holstein Calves

Authors: M. C. Muya, L. J. Erasmus


Twenty four new born male Holstein calves were divided into two treatments groups and used to evaluate the effects of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125. The first groups were dosed with 50 ml containing 108 CFU/mL of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 (Me) and the control calves were not dosed. Within each of the two treatments groups, calves were divided into three treatment groups (Not dosed: 7 d, 14 d and 21 d vs dosed Me 7 d, Me14 and Me21 d (treatments), each groups contained 4 calves within which two calves were euthanized at 24 h and two calves at 72 h. Calves entered the trial until euthanize at whether 24 or 72 H after dosing time. After receiving colostrum for 3 consecutive days after birth, calves were fed whole milk and had free access to a commercial calf starter pellet and fresh water. Fecal grab samples were taken from each calf in duplicate +24 h or +72 h relative to dosing. Immediately after euthanizing, the digestive tract was harvested, and duplicate rumen and colon digesta samples collected for VFA’s determination and DNA extraction for bacteria count using 16s RNA PCR probe technique. Independent two t-test was performed to compare mean volatile fatty acids. Mixed-effects linear regressions were performed to establish relationships between: 1) M. elsdenii and Me, and between VFA’s and Me using SAS (2009). M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 was detected in the faeces, colon and rumen of dosed calves at both +24H and +72H and ranged from 1.6 x 106 to 4.9 x 109 cfu/ml, indicating its potential to colonize in the digestive tract of calves. There was a strong positive relationship (R²=0.96; P < 0.0001) between M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 and M. elsdenii population (cfu/ml) in the rumen, suggesting that the increase in M. elsdenii was due to increased M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125. An increase in butyrate was observed from +24 h to +72 h when calves were dosed on both d 7 and 14. Results showed that Me presented a positive relationship with butyrate (P < 0.001, R² = 0.43) and a concomitant negative relationship with acetate (P = 0.017, R² = -0.33). These results suggest that dosing pre-weaned dairy calves with M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 has the potential to alter ruminal VFA production through increasing proportions of butyrate at the expense of propionate.

Keywords: Bacteria, calves, Megasphaera elsdenii, Rumen fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
5 Clinical Signs of Neonatal Calves in Experimental Colisepticemia

Authors: Samad Lotfollahzadeh


Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the most isolated bacteria from blood circulation of septicemic calves. Given the prevalence of septicemia in animals and its economic importance in veterinary practice, better understanding of changes in clinical signs following disease, may contribute to early detection of the disorder. The present study has been carried out to detect changes of clinical signs in induced sepsis in calves with E.coli. Colisepticemia has been induced in 10 twenty-day old healthy Holstein- Frisian calves with intravenous injection of 1.5 X 109 colony forming units (cfu) of O111: H8 strain of E.coli. Clinical signs including rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, shock, appetite, sucking reflex, feces consistency, general behavior, dehydration and standing ability were recorded in experimental calves during 24 hours after induction of colisepticemia. Blood culture was also carried out from calves four times during the experiment. ANOVA with repeated measure is used to see changes of calves’ clinical signs to experimental colisepticemia, and values of P≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean values of rectal temperature and heart rate as well as median values of respiratory rate, appetite, suckling reflex, standing ability and feces consistency of experimental calves increased significantly during the study (P<0.05). In the present study, median value of shock score was not significantly increased in experimental calves (P> 0.05). The results of present study showed that total score of clinical signs in calves with experimental colisepticemia increased significantly, although the score of some clinical signs such as shock did not change significantly.

Keywords: calves, clinical signs scoring, E. coli O111:H8, experimental colisepticemia

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
4 Artificial Insemination of Bali Cattle with Frozen-Thawed Sexed Sperm Under District AI Station Conditions in Lombok: A Preliminary Trial

Authors: Chairussyuhur Arman, Totti Tjiptosumirat, Muhammad Gunawan, Mastur, Joko Priyono, Baiq Tri Ratna Erawati


The present study was undertaken to synchronize oestrus of bali cattle and artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed sexed-semen. The experiment was carried out at District AI Station. Four pluriparous cows and four nulliparous heifers were used in this study and they were housed in free stall barns. The heifers fed with corn silage supplemented with UMMB, while the cows fed with green fodder. All animals were given 500 mg cloprostenolum i.m. injections PGF2α twice, 11 days apart, to synchronize the occurrence of estrus. Estrus was detected by visual observation twice a day and determined if all cattle accepted mount from other females. All animals were inseminated twice with Bali sexed-semen at 72 and 76 h after observed oestrus. Results suggested that the percentage of calving rate either for pluriparous cows or nulliparous heifers were recorded to be 75 percent. One cow and one heifer did not produce calves because of embryonic lost. Regardless the sex of calves, the mean of birth weight of calves in cows was higher than that of heifers (18.50 ± 2.60 kg vs 13.83 ± 5.20 kg). One female calf from heifer with lower birth weight (8.0 kg) was dead one day after born. In pluriparous group, two cows delivered male calves and the other delivered female calf. Conversely in nulliparous group, two heifers delivered female calves and the other male calf. It is concluded that under the conditions of this preliminary trials, the sex ratio between pluriparous and nulliparous groups was found to be 50:50 (male:female).

Keywords: artificial insemination, calves, Bali cattle, sexed sperm

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
3 Oxidantantioxidant Status in Calves Supplemented with Green Tea Extract

Authors: Ibrahim I. Elshahawy


The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract on serum oxidant and antioxidant profile, liver and kidney function. 40 Friesian calves are included in this study and allocated into two groups: Group I (n=20) clinically healthy calves showing no clinical abnormalities, not receiving any treatment and served as control; group II (n=20) received green tea extract (GTE) for 30 days. Non-significant changes in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were detected between groups, on contrary, serum creatinine and activities of liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly different between two groups. There were significant increases in the mean values of serum antioxidative parameters (total antioxidant capacity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) in group II. Whereas, the activity of lipid peroxidase significantly decreased in GTE treated calves when compared to control.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Oxidants, calves, green tea extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
2 The Pathology of Bovine Rotavirus Infection in Calves That Confirmed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time RT-PCR

Authors: Shama Ranjan Barua, Tofazzal M. Rakib, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Tania Ferdushy, Sharmin Chowdhury


Rotavirus is one of the main etiologies of neonatal diarrhea in bovine calves that causes significant economic loss in Bangladesh. The present study was carried out to investigate the pathology of neonatal enteritis in calves due to bovine rotavirus infection in south-eastern part of Bangladesh. Rotavirus was identified by using ELISA, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), real-time RT-PCR. We examined 12 dead calves with history of diarrhea during necropsy. Among 12 dead calves, in gross examination, 6 were found with pathological changes in intestine, 5 calves had congestion of small intestine and rest one had no distinct pathological changes. Intestinal contents and/or faecal samples of all dead calves were collected and examined to confirm the presence of bovine rotavirus A using Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Out 12 samples, 5 (42%) samples revealed presence of bovine rotavirus A in three diagnostic tests. The histopathological changes were found almost exclusively limited in the small intestine. The lesions of rotaviral enteritis ranged from slight to moderate shortening (atrophy) of villi in the jejunum and ileum with necrotic crypts. The villi were blunt and covered by immature epithelial cells. Infected cells, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method, showed characteristic syncytia and eosinophilc intracytoplasmic inclusion body. The presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in enterocytes is the indication of viral etiology. The presence of rotavirus in the affected tissues and/or lesions was confirmed by three different immunological and molecular tests. The findings of histopathological changes will be helpful in future diagnosis of rotaviral infection in dead calves.

Keywords: Pathology, Diarrhea, calves, rotavirus

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1 Blood Analysis of Diarrheal Calves Using Portable Blood Analyzer: Analysis of Calves by Age

Authors: Kwangman Park, Jinhee Kang, Suhee Kim, Dohyeon Yu, Kyoungseong Choi, Jinho Park


Statement of the Problem: Diarrhea is a major cause of death in young calves. This causes great economic damage to the livestock industry. These diarrhea cause dehydration, decrease blood flow, lower the pH and degrade enzyme function. In the past, serum screening was not possible in the field. However, now with the spread of portable serum testing devices, it is now possible to conduct tests directly on field. Thus, accurate serological changes can be identified and used in the field of large animals. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: The test groups were calves from 1 to 44 days old. The status of the feces was divided into four grade to determine the severity of diarrhea (grade 0,1,2,3). Grade 0, 1 is considered to have no diarrhea. Grade 2, 3 is considered to diarrhea positive group. One or more viruses were detected in this group. Diarrhea negasitive group consisted of 57 calves (Asan=30, Samrye=27). Diarrhea positive group consisted of 34 calves (Kimje=27, Geochang=7). The feces of all calves were analyzed by PCR Test. Blood sample was measured using an automatic blood analyzer(i-STAT, Abbott inc. Illinois, US). Calves were divided into 3 groups according to age. Group 1 is 1 to 14 days old. Group 2 is 15 to 28 days old. Group 3 is more than 28 days old. Findings: Diarrhea caused an increase in HCT due to dehydration. The difference from normal was highest in 15 to 28 days old (p < 0.01). At all ages, bicarbonate decreased compared to normal, and therefore pH decreased. Similar to HCT, the largest difference was observed between 15 and 28 days (p < 0.01). The pCO₂ decreases to compensate for the decrease in pH. Conclusion and Significance: At all ages, HCT increases, and bicarbonate, pH, and pCO₂ decrease in diarrhea calves. The calf from 15 days to 28 days shows the most difference from normal. Over 28 days of age, weight gain and homeostasis ability increase, diarrhea is seen in the stool, there are fewer hematologic changes than groups below 28 days of age.

Keywords: Diarrhea, calves, hematological changes, i-STAT

Procedia PDF Downloads 10