Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

calorific value Related Abstracts

6 Evaluation of Fuel Properties of Six Tropical Hardwood Timber Species for Briquettes

Authors: Stephen J. Mitchual, Kwasi Frimpong-Mensah, Nicholas A. Darkwa


The fuel potential of six tropical hardwood species namely: Triplochiton scleroxylon, Ceiba pentandra, Aningeria robusta, Terminalia superba, Celtis mildbreadii and Piptadenia africana were studied. Properties studied include the species density, gross calorific value, volatile matter, ash, organic carbon, N, H, S, Cu, Pb, As and Cd content. Fuel properties were determined using standard laboratory methods. The result indicates that the Gross Calorific Value (GCV) of the species ranged from 20.16 to 22.22 MJ/kg and they slightly varied from each other. Additionally, the GCV of the biomass materials were higher than that of other biomass materials like; wheat straw, rice straw, maize straw and sugar cane. The ash and volatile matter content varied from 0.6075 to 5.0407%, and 75.23% to 83.70% respectively. The overall rating of the properties of the six biomass materials suggest that Piptadenia africana has the best fuel property to be used as briquettes and Aningeria robusta the worse. This study therefore suggests that a holistic assessment of a biomass material needs to be done before selecting it for fuel purpose.

Keywords: Species, ash content, briquette, calorific value, elemental composition, volatile matter

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5 Characterization and the Study of Energy Potential of Municipal Solid Waste Disposed in Bauchi Town and Environs

Authors: Aliyu Mohammed Lawal, Dahiru Yau Gital


The characterisation and the energy potential of the municipal solid wastes in Bauchi town and environs were studied. It was found that, 35,000 tonnes of waste was generated annually at 0.19 kg/capital/day of which, the combination of plastics, rubber, polyethene bags constituted about 33%, followed by textile materials, leathers, wood 26%, combination of papers, cartons 19%, crop stalks/grass 11% and the remaining incombustible materials 11%. The heating value or calorific value of the wastes was determined using a digital calorimeter to be 6.43 MJ/kg, almost one-third of the energy content of peat which has a value of 15.9 MJ/kg. The calorific value of the fuel was found to be significant; hence, the waste could be used for energy generation.

Keywords: Characterization, calorific value, municipal solid waste, digital calorimeter, incombustible

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4 Laboratory Scale Experimental Studies on CO₂ Based Underground Coal Gasification in Context of Clean Coal Technology

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu


Coal is the largest fossil fuel. In India, around 37 % of coal resources found at a depth of more than 300 meters. In India, more than 70% of electricity production depends on coal. Coal on combustion produces greenhouse and pollutant gases such as CO₂, SOₓ, NOₓ, and H₂S etc. Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts these unmineable coals into valuable calorific gases. The UCG syngas (mainly H₂, CO, CH₄ and some lighter hydrocarbons) which can utilized for the production of electricity and manufacturing of various useful chemical feedstock. It is an inherent clean coal technology as it avoids ash disposal, mining, transportation and storage problems. Gasification of underground coal using steam as a gasifying medium is not an easy process because sending superheated steam to deep underground coal leads to major transportation difficulties and cost effective. Therefore, for reducing this problem, we have used CO₂ as a gasifying medium, which is a major greenhouse gas. This paper focus laboratory scale underground coal gasification experiment on a coal block by using CO₂ as a gasifying medium. In the present experiment, first, we inject oxygen for combustion for 1 hour and when the temperature of the zones reached to more than 1000 ºC, and then we started supplying of CO₂ as a gasifying medium. The gasification experiment was performed at an atmospheric pressure of CO₂, and it was found that the amount of CO produced due to Boudouard reaction (C+CO₂  2CO) is around 35%. The experiment conducted to almost 5 hours. The maximum gas composition observed, 35% CO, 22 % H₂, and 11% CH4 with LHV 248.1 kJ/mol at CO₂/O₂ ratio 0.4 by volume.

Keywords: Clean Coal Technology, calorific value, syngas, underground coal gasification

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3 Estimation of Eucalyptus Wood Calorific Potential for Energy Recovering

Authors: N. Ouslimani, H. Aksas, N. Hakimi


The reduction of oil reserves in the world makes that many countries are directed towards the study and the use of local and renewable energies. For this purpose, wood energy represents the material of choice. The energy production is primarily thermal and corresponds to a heating of comfort, auxiliary or principal. Wood is generally conditioned in the form of logs, of pellets, even of plates. In Algeria, this way of energy saving could contribute to the safeguarding of the environment, as to the recovery of under wood products (branches, barks and various wastes on the various transformation steps). This work is placed within the framework general of the search for new sources of energy starting from the recovery of the lignocellulosic matter. In this direction, we proposed various sources of products (biomass, under product and by-products) relating to the ‘Eucalyptus species’ being able to be developed, of which we carried out a preliminary physicochemical study, necessary to the development of the densified products with high calorific value.

Keywords: Combustion, biomass, energy recovery, calorific value

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2 Sustainable Solid Waste Management Solutions for Asian Countries Using the Potential in Municipal Solid Waste of Indian Cities

Authors: Priyanka Kaushal, S. H. Babu Gurucharan


Majority of the world's population is expected to live in the Asia and Pacific region by 2050 and thus their cities will generate the maximum waste. India, being the second populous country in the world, is an ideal case study to identify a solution for Asian countries. Waste minimisation and utilisation have always been part of the Indian culture. During rapid urbanisation, our society lost the art of waste minimisation and utilisation habits. Presently, Waste is not considered as a resource, thus wasting an opportunity to tap resources. The technologies in vogue are not suited for effective treatment of large quantities of generated solid waste, without impacting the environment and the population. If not treated efficiently, Waste can become a silent killer. The article is trying to highlight the Indian municipal solid waste scenario as a key indicator of Asian waste management and recommend sustainable waste management and suggest effective solutions to treat the Solid Waste. The methods followed during the research were to analyse the solid waste data on characteristics of solid waste generated in Indian cities, then evaluate the current technologies to identify the most suitable technology in Indian conditions with minimal environmental impact, interact with the technology technical teams, then generate a technical process specific to Indian conditions and further examining the environmental impact and advantages/ disadvantages of the suggested process. The most important finding from the study was the recognition that most of the current municipal waste treatment technologies being employed, operate sub-optimally in Indian conditions. Therefore, the study using the available data, generated heat and mass balance of processes to arrive at the final technical process, which was broadly divided into Waste processing, Waste Treatment, Power Generation, through various permutations and combinations at each stage to ensure that the process is techno-commercially viable in Indian conditions. Then environmental impact was arrived through secondary sources and a comparison of environmental impact of different technologies was tabulated. The major advantages of the suggested process are the effective use of waste for resource generation both in terms of maximised power output or conversion to eco-friendly products like biofuels or chemicals using advanced technologies, minimum environmental impact and the least landfill requirement. The major drawbacks are the capital, operations and maintenance costs. The existing technologies in use in Indian municipalities have their own limitations and the shortlisted technology is far superior to other technologies in vogue. Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste with an efficient green power generation is possible through a combination of suitable environment-friendly technologies. A combination of bio-reactors and plasma-based gasification technology is most suitable for Indian Waste and in turn for Asian waste conditions.

Keywords: Landfill, Gas Fermentation, calorific value, municipal solid waste, syngas, plasma gasification

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1 Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification

Authors: Vasudevan Raghavan, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, M. Bharath, S. R. Chakravarthy


In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.

Keywords: Coal Gasification, calorific value, rice husk, bubbling fluidized bed reactor

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