Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

callus Related Abstracts

9 Callus Induction of Segmented Corm Explant of Gladiolus cv. White Prosperity and Regeneration in vitro Condition

Authors: M. Sepahvand, M. Khorushy


Gladiolus, being a cormous plant, it is principally propagated by the natural multiplication of new corms and cormels. In order to obtain callus from segmented corm which was obtained from in vitro culture, callus formation media were MS media supplemented with 4 levels of hormones such as 1.0 mg l-1 NAA + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP, 0.5 mg l-1 NAA + 0.25 mg l-1 BAP, 1.0 mg l-1 2, 4-D + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP, and 0.5 mg l-1 2, 4-D + 0.25 mg l-1 BAP. The results showed that the most weight of callus (2.28 g) was produced in MS callus formation media which were supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 NAA + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP. This experiment was carried out in randomized completely design with 3 replications and each treatment with six jars. In second experiment for regeneration of callus, a factorial experiment in the form of randomized complete design with 12 treatments and 3 replications and each replication with six jars was carried out. The treatments consisted of callus culture media in 4 levels and regeneration culture media in 3 levels [control (no PGRs), MS with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.1 mg l-1 Kin + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA, and MS with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.05 mg l-1 Kin + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA]. The results showed that the best regeneration media were MS media which were supplemented with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.1 mg l-1 Kin. + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA that had the highest number of shoots (7/83 N), and shoot length (7/3 cm).

Keywords: Regeneration, In vitro, Segmented corm explant, callus, gladiolus cv. white prosperity

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8 Recovering Taraxacum Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin via Seed and Callus Culture

Authors: K. Uteulin, S. Mukhambetzhanov, I. Rakhimbaiev


This experiment was performed to optimize the medium for tissue culture of Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin. Different tissue culture approaches such as shoot regeneration from seed, callus formation from leaf explants and plant regeneration from callus were investigated in this study. All the explants were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose, 7 g/l agar and different plant growth regulators. Seeds of Taraxacum kok-saghyz were cultured on media containing different levels of BA and 2,4-D (0,5 and 1,0 and 3,0 mg/L) to direct shoot regeneration study. Leaf explants were cultured in different combination of BA (at three levels: 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/L) and zeatin (at two levels: 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) to examine callus formation. After the callus formation the formed calli were cultured on different combinations of BA and NAA for shoot regeneration. BA at three levels (0.5 and 1.0 and 3.0 mg/L) and NAA at two levels (0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) in all possible combinations were used for shoot regeneration from callus. The results showed that the treatment containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D in combination with 1.0 mg/L BA was found to be the best one for shoot regeneration from seeds. The treatment with 1.0 mg/L BA in combination with 1.0 mg/L zeatin were found to be suitable treatments for callus production from leaf explants, as well. Moreover, 0.5 mg/L BA alone or in combination with 1.0 mg/L NAA were found to be the best treatments for shoot regeneration from callus.

Keywords: Plant, callus, Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin, shoot regeneration

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7 Induction of Callus and Somatic Embryogenesis from Seeds of Taraxacum Kok-Saghyz Rodin

Authors: Kairat Uteulin, Serik Mukhambetzhanov, Izbasar Rakhimbaiev


The effects of varying concentrations of growth regulators including 2, 4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and Kin (kinetin) was investigated for primary callus induction, embryogenic callus formation and regeneration of two elite Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TKS) lines, TKS1 and TKS2. Mature seeds were used as explants for primary callus induction. Different concentrations of 2, 4-D were investigated to study its effect on callus induction and callus growth frequency (CGF). Compact, whitish, healthy and fluffy calli were induced in TKS1 and TKS2 in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l and 4 mg/l 2, 4-D respectively. The calli produced were subjected to somatic embryogenesis and regeneration studies. For this purpose, MS Medium was supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators like IAA and BAP. Maximum embryogenic callus formation was observed in MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA in combination with 1.5 mg/l BAP and it resulted in 73.51% and 62.33% embryogenic callus formation in TKS1 and TKS2 respectively. These optimum concentrations of IAA and BAP were further experimented with different concentrations of Kin for efficient regeneration and it was observed that 1 mg/l Kin was optimum for this purpose. Such studies help in understanding the response of TKS to tissue culture conditions and ultimately promise in improving yield by employing various biotechnological techniques.

Keywords: Somatic Embryogenesis, callus, Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin

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6 Induction of Callus and Expression of Compounds in Capsicum Frutescens Supplemented with of 2, 4-D

Authors: Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob, Muhammad Aiman Ramli


Cili padi or Capsicum frutescens is one of capsicum species from nightshade family, Solanaceae. It is famous in Malaysia and is widely used as a food ingredient. Capsicum frutescens also possess vast medicinal properties. The objectives of this study are to determine the most optimum 2,4-D hormone concentration for callus induction from stem explants C. frutescens and the effects of different 2,4-D concentrations on expression of compounds from C. frutescens. Seeds were cultured on MS media without hormones (MS basal media) to yield aseptic seedlings of this species, which were then used to supply explant source for subsequent tissue culture experiments. Stem explants were excised from aseptic seedlings and cultured on MS media supplemented with various concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L) of 2,4-D to induce formation of callus. Fresh weight, dry weight and callus growth percentage in all samples were recorded. The highest mean of dry weight was observed in MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D, where 0.4499 ± 0.106 g of callus was produced. The highest percentage of callus growth (16.4%) was also observed in cultures supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. The callus samples were also subjected to HPLC-MS to evaluate the effect of hormone concentration on expression of bio active compounds in different samples. Results showed that caffeoylferuloylquinic acids were present in all samples, but was most abundant in callus cells supplemented with 0.3 & 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Interestingly, there was an unknown compound observed to be highly expressed in callus cells supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D, but its presence was less significant in callus cells supplemented with 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Furthermore, there was also a compound identified as octadecadienoic acid, which was uniquely expressed in callus supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D, but absent in callus cells supplemented with 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L 2,4-D. The results obtained in this study indicated that plant growth regulators played a role in expression of secondary metabolites in plants. The increase or decrease of these growth regulators may have triggered a change in the secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways, thus causing differential expression of compounds in this plant.

Keywords: In vitro, callus, secondary metabolite

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5 Induction of Different Types of Callus and Somatic Embryogenesis in Various Explants of Taraxacum Kok-Saghyz Rodin

Authors: Kairat Uteulin, Serik Mukhambetzhanov, Izbasar Rakhimbaiev, Azhar Iskakova, Bayan Yesbolayeva, Gabit Bari, Aslan Zheksenbai, Kabyl Zhambakin, Chingis Dzhabykbayev, Vladimir Piven


To explore the potential for in vitro rapid regeneration of Russian dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin), different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D) and BAP combined with Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were evaluated for their effects on the induction of somatic embryos from leaf, seed stem and root explants. Different explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 mg/l) of each kind of hormone. Callus induction percentage, fresh weight, color and texture of the callus were assessed after 14 and 28 days of culture. The optimum medium for the proliferation of embryogenic calli from leaf and root explants was MS supplemented with 2.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L 2.4-D. Concentrations of 2.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 mg/L IAA also had a remarkable effect on root and stem explants. The best concentration to produce callus from stem explants was 0.5 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L IAA. Results of mean comparison showed that BAP and 2.4-D were more effective on different explants than BAP and IAA. Results of the double staining method proved that somatic embryogenesis occurred in the most concentrations of BAP and 2.4-D. Under microscopic observations, the different developmental stages of the embryos (globular, heart, torpedo and cotyledonary) were revealed together in callus cells, indicating that the most tested hormone combinations were effective for somatic embryogenesis formation in this species. Seed explants formed torpedo and cotyledonary stages faster than leaf and root explants in the most combinations. Most calli from seed explants were cream colored and friable, while calli were compact and light green from leaf and root explants. Some combinations gave direct regeneration and (3 mg/L BAP and 2 mg/L IAA) in seed explants and (0.5 mg/L BAP and 2.5 mg/L IAA) in leaf explants had the highest number of shoots with average of 21 and 27 shoots per callus. The developed protocol established the production of different callus types from seed, leaf, and root explants and plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis.

Keywords: Somatic Embryogenesis, callus, Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin

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4 Callus Induction, In-Vitro Plant Regeneration and Acclimatization of Lycium barbarum L. (Goji)

Authors: Sadegh Mohajer, Rosna Mat Taha, Sakinah Abdullah, Asmah Awal


Lycium barbarum L. (Goji) belongs to Solanaceae family and native to some areas of China. Ethnobotanical studies have shown that this plant has been consumed by the Chinese since ancient times. It has been used as medicine in providing excellent effects on cardiovascular system and cholesterol level, besides contains high antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. In the present study, some tissue culture work has been carried out to induce callus, in vitro regeneration from various explants of Goji and also some acclimatization protocols were followed to transfer the regenerated plants to soil. The main aims being to establish high efficient regeneration system for mass production and commercialization for future uses, since the growth of this species is very limited in Malaysia. The optimum hormonal regime and the most suitable and responsive explants were identified. It was found that leaves and stems gave good responses. Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L BAP was the best for callus induction and MS media fortified with 1.0 mg/L NAA and 1.0 mg/L BAP was optimum for in vitro regeneration. The survival rates of plantlets after acclimatization was 63±1.5 % on black soil and 50±1.3 % on mixed soil (combination of black and red soil at a ratio of 2 to 1), respectively.

Keywords: Regeneration, callus, acclimatization, in vitro culture

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3 Efficient Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Mature Embryo Culture of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes

Authors: Münüre Tanur Erkoyuncu, Mustafa Yorgancılar


Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. Immature embryos are the most widely used explant source for in vitro regeneration in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, immature embryos require the continuous growth of donor plants and the suitable stage for their culture is also certainly limited. On the other hand, mature embryos can be procured and stored easily; they can be studied throughout the year. In this study, an effective callus induction and plant regeneration were aimed to develop from mature embryos of different barley genotypes. The effect of medium (MS1 and MS2), auxin type (2,4-D, dicamba, picloram and 2,4,5-T) and concentrations (2, 4, 6 mg/l) on callus formation and effect of cytokinin type (TDZ, BAP) and concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mg/l) on green plant regeneration were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Callus and shoot formation was successful for all genotypes. By depending on genotype, MS1 is the best medium, 4 mg/l dicamba is the best growth regulator in the callus induction and MS1 is the best medium, 1 mg/l BAP is the best growth regulator in the shoot formation were determined.

Keywords: Embryo Culture, callus, barley, mature embryo

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2 Enhancement of Growth Regulators to Callus Formation and Silymarin Content from Different Explants of Silybum marianum Seedling

Authors: H. A. Bosila, M. A. Zewil, M. A. Hamza, I. M. Harridy


Silymarin is one active component extracted from milk thistle Silybum marianum; it is flavonoid recognized for its ability to benefit people with liver disorders and as a protective compound against liver damaging agents. For this reason, this research aims to study the effect of growth regulators (BA+NAA) and explant type (cotyledon, hypocotyl, and root) to increase the growth and active ingredients (silymarin) in callus of S. mariaum plant. The results showed that cotyledon explant which have been cultured in MS medium supplemented with BA 0.4 mg/l. +NAA 0.25 mg/l. Led to obtain the best results in callus fresh weight (1.847a) and callus dry weight (0.155a). On the other hand, the same explant (cotyledon) cultured in MS medium supplemented with BA 1.6 mg/l. + NAA 0.5 mg/l. The suitable condition to silymarin content (0.132 mg/100 mg dry weight). And also, it turned out, lack of importance of the use of hypocotyl and root in the production of callus and silymarin compared to cotyledon.

Keywords: Tissue Culture, callus, silybum, cotyledon

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1 Transcriptomic Analysis for Differential Expression of Genes Involved in Secondary Metabolite Production in Narcissus Bulb and in vitro Callus

Authors: Aleya Ferdausi, Meriel Jones, Anthony Halls


The Amaryllidaceae genus Narcissus contains secondary metabolites, which are important sources of bioactive compounds such as pharmaceuticals indicating that their biological activity extends from the native plant to humans. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) is an effective platform for the identification and functional characterization of candidate genes as well as to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The biotechnological production of secondary metabolites in plant cell or organ cultures has become a tempting alternative to the extraction of whole plant material. The biochemical pathways for the production of secondary metabolites require primary metabolites to undergo a series of modifications catalyzed by enzymes such as cytochrome P450s, methyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, and acyltransferases. Differential gene expression analysis of Narcissus was obtained from two conditions, i.e. field and in vitro callus. Callus was obtained from modified MS (Murashige and Skoog) media supplemented with growth regulators and twin-scale explants from Narcissus cv. Carlton bulb. A total of 2153 differentially expressed transcripts were detected in Narcissus bulb and in vitro callus, and 78.95% of those were annotated. It showed the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of alkaloids were present in both conditions i.e. cytochrome P450s, O-methyltransferase (OMTs), NADP/NADPH dehydrogenases or reductases, SAM-synthetases or decarboxylases, 3-ketoacyl-CoA, acyl-CoA, cinnamoyl-CoA, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeic acid, N-methyltransferase, and NADPH-cytochrome P450s. However, cytochrome P450s and OMTs involved in the later stage of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids biosynthesis were mainly up-regulated in field samples. Whereas, the enzymes involved in initial biosynthetic pathways i.e. fructose biphosphate adolase, aminotransferases, dehydrogenases, hydroxyl methyl glutarate and glutamate synthase leading to the biosynthesis of precursors; tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan for secondary metabolites were up-regulated in callus. The knowledge of probable genes involved in secondary metabolism and their regulation in different tissues will provide insight into the Narcissus plant biology related to alkaloid production.

Keywords: Transcriptomics, Secondary Metabolites, callus, narcissus

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