Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

calcium carbonate Related Abstracts

7 Sulfate Attack on Pastes Made with Different C3A and C4AF Contents and Stored at 5°C

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Radosław Mróz


In the present work the internal sulfate attack on pastes made from pure clinker phases was studied. Two binders were produced: (a) a binder with 2% C3A and 18% C4AF content; (b) a binder with 10% C3A and C4AF content each. Gypsum was used as the sulfate bearing compound, while calcium carbonate added to differentiate the binders produced. The phases formed were identified by XRD analysis. The results showed that ettringite was the deterioration phase detected in the case of the low C3A content binder. Carbonation occurred in the specimen without calcium carbonate addition, while portlandite was observed in the one containing calcium carbonate. In the case of the high C3A content binder, traces of thaumasite were detected when calcium carbonate was not incorporated in the binder. A solid solution of thaumasite and ettringite was found when calcium carbonate was added. The amount of C3A had not fully reacted with sulfates, since its corresponding peaks were detected.

Keywords: Sulfate Attack, Low Temperature, tricalcium aluminate, calcium aluminate ferrite, calcium carbonate

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6 In Vitro Evaluation of a Chitosan-Based Adhesive to Treat Bone Fractures

Authors: Francisco J. Cedano, Laura M. Pinzón, Camila I. Castro, Felipe Salcedo, Juan P. Casas, Juan C. Briceño


Complex fractures located in articular surfaces are challenging to treat and their reduction with conventional treatments could compromise the functionality of the affected limb. An adhesive material to treat those fractures is desirable for orthopedic surgeons. This adhesive must be biocompatible and have a high adhesion to bone surface in an aqueous environment. The proposed adhesive is based on chitosan, given its adhesive and biocompatibility properties. Chitosan is mixed with calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite, which contribute to structural support and a gel like behavior, and glutaraldehyde is used as a cross-linking agent to keep the adhesive mechanical performance in aqueous environment. This work aims to evaluate the rheological, adhesion strength and biocompatibility properties of the proposed adhesive using in vitro tests. The gelification process of the adhesive was monitored by oscillatory rheometry in an ARG-2 TA Instruments rheometer, using a parallel plate geometry of 22 mm and a gap of 1 mm. Time sweep experiments were conducted at 1 Hz frequency, 1% strain and 37°C from 0 to 2400 s. Adhesion strength is measured using a butt joint test with bovine cancellous bone fragments as substrates. The test is conducted at 5 min, 20min and 24 hours after curing the adhesive under water at 37°C. Biocompatibility is evaluated by a cytotoxicity test in a fibroblast cell culture using MTT assay and SEM. Rheological results concluded that the average gelification time of the adhesive is 820±107 s, also it reaches storage modulus magnitudes up to 106 Pa; The adhesive show solid-like behavior. Butt joint test showed 28.6 ± 9.2 kPa of tensile bond strength for the adhesive cured for 24 hours. Also there was no significant difference in adhesion strength between 20 minutes and 24 hours. MTT showed 70 ± 23 % of active cells at sixth day of culture, this percentage is estimated respect to a positive control (only cells with culture medium and bovine serum). High vacuum SEM observation permitted to localize and study the morphology of fibroblasts presented in the adhesive. All captured fibroblasts presented in SEM typical flatted structure with filopodia growth attached to adhesive surface. This project reports an adhesive based on chitosan that is biocompatible due to high active cells presented in MTT test and these results were correlated using SEM. Also, it has adhesion properties in conditions that model the clinical application, and the adhesion strength do not decrease between 5 minutes and 24 hours.

Keywords: glutaraldehyde, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, calcium carbonate, bioadhesive, bone adhesive

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5 Mineralized Nanoparticles as a Contrast Agent for Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Jae Won Lee, Kyung Hyun Min, Hong Jae Lee, Sang Cheon Lee


To date, imaging techniques have attracted much attention in medicine because the detection of diseases at an early stage provides greater opportunities for successful treatment. Consequently, over the past few decades, diverse imaging modalities including magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and ultrasound (US) have been developed and applied widely in the field of clinical diagnosis. However, each of the above-mentioned imaging modalities possesses unique strengths and intrinsic weaknesses, which limit their abilities to provide accurate information. Therefore, multimodal imaging systems may be a solution that can provide improved diagnostic performance. Among the current medical imaging modalities, US is a widely available real-time imaging modality. It has many advantages including safety, low cost and easy access for patients. However, its low spatial resolution precludes accurate discrimination of diseased region such as cancer sites. In contrast, MR has no tissue-penetrating limit and can provide images possessing exquisite soft tissue contrast and high spatial resolution. However, it cannot offer real-time images and needs a comparatively long imaging time. The characteristics of these imaging modalities may be considered complementary, and the modalities have been frequently combined for the clinical diagnostic process. Biominerals such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium phosphate (CaP) exhibit pH-dependent dissolution behavior. They demonstrate pH-controlled drug release due to the dissolution of minerals in acidic pH conditions. In particular, the application of this mineralization technique to a US contrast agent has been reported recently. The CaCO3 mineral reacts with acids and decomposes to generate calcium dioxide (CO2) gas in an acidic environment. These gas-generating mineralized nanoparticles generated CO2 bubbles in the acidic environment of the tumor, thereby allowing for strong echogenic US imaging of tumor tissues. On the basis of this previous work, it was hypothesized that the loading of MR contrast agents into the CaCO3 mineralized nanoparticles may be a novel strategy in designing a contrast agent for dual imaging. Herein, CaCO3 mineralized nanoparticles that were capable of generating CO2 bubbles to trigger the release of entrapped MR contrast agents in response to tumoral acidic pH were developed for the purposes of US and MR dual-modality imaging of tumors. Gd2O3 nanoparticles were selected as an MR contrast agent. A key strategy employed in this study was to prepare Gd2O3 nanoparticle-loaded mineralized nanoparticles (Gd2O3-MNPs) using block copolymer-templated CaCO3 mineralization in the presence of calcium cations (Ca2+), carbonate anions (CO32-) and positively charged Gd2O3 nanoparticles. The CaCO3 core was considered suitable because it may effectively shield Gd2O3 nanoparticles from water molecules in the blood (pH 7.4) before decomposing to generate CO2 gas, triggering the release of Gd2O3 nanoparticles in tumor tissues (pH 6.4~7.4). The kinetics of CaCO3 dissolution and CO2 generation from the Gd2O3-MNPs were examined as a function of pH and pH-dependent in vitro magnetic relaxation; additionally, the echogenic properties were estimated to demonstrate the potential of the particles for the tumor-specific US and MR imaging.

Keywords: Ultrasound Imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mineralization, calcium carbonate

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4 The Influence of Sulfate and Magnesium Ions on the Growth Kinetics of CaCO3

Authors: Kotbia Labiod, Mohamed Mouldi Tlili


The presence of different mineral salts in natural waters may precipitate and form hard deposits in water distribution systems. In this respect, we have developed numerous works on scaling by Algerian water with a very high hardness of 102 °F. The aim of our work is to study the influence of water dynamics and its composition on mineral salts on the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). To achieve this objective, we have adopted two precipitation techniques based on controlled degassing of dissolved CO2. This study will identify the causes and provide answers to this complex phenomenon.

Keywords: Precipitation, Scaling, calcium carbonate, controlled degassing

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3 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilization by Using Seawater-Based Industrial Wastewater and Alkanolamine Absorbents

Authors: Dongwoo Kang, Yunsung Yoo, Injun Kim, Jongin Lee, Jinwon Park


Since industrial revolution, energy usage by human-beings has been drastically increased resulting in the enormous emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. High concentration of carbon dioxide is well recognized as the main reason for the climate change by breaking the heat equilibrium of the earth. In order to decrease the amount of carbon dioxide emission, lots of technologies have been developed. One of the methods is to capture carbon dioxide after combustion process using liquid type absorbents. However, for some nations, captured carbon dioxide cannot be treated and stored properly due to their geological structures. Also, captured carbon dioxide can be leaked out when crust activities are active. Hence, the method to convert carbon dioxide as stable and useful products were developed. It is usually called CCU, that is, Carbon Capture and Utilization. There are several ways to convert carbon dioxide into useful substances. For example, carbon dioxide can be converted and used as fuels such as diesel, plastics, and polymers. However, these types of technologies require lots of energy to make stable carbon dioxide into a reactive one. Hence, converting it into metal carbonates salts have been studied widely. When carbon dioxide is captured by alkanolamine-based liquid absorbents, it exists as ionic forms such as carbonate, carbamate, and bicarbonate. When adequate metal ions are added, metal carbonate salt can be produced by ionic reaction with fast reaction kinetics. However, finding metal sources can be one of the problems for this method to be commercialized. If natural resources such as calcium oxide were used to supply calcium ions, it is not thought to have the economic feasibility to use natural resources to treat carbon dioxide. In this research, high concentrated industrial wastewater produced from refined salt production facility have been used as metal supplying source, especially for calcium cations. To ensure purity of final products, calcium ions were selectively separated in the form of gypsum dihydrate. After that, carbon dioxide is captured using alkanolamine-based absorbents making carbon dioxide into reactive ionic form. And then, high purity calcium carbonate salt was produced. The existence of calcium carbonate was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. Also, carbon dioxide loading curves for absorption, conversion, and desorption were provided. Also, in order to investigate the possibility of the absorbent reuse, reabsorption experiments were performed either. Produced calcium carbonate as final products is seemed to have potential to be used in various industrial fields including cement and paper making industries and pharmaceutical engineering fields.

Keywords: Climate Change, Industrial Wastewater, Seawater, calcium carbonate, alkanolamine

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2 Development of Calcium Carbonate Molecular Sheets via Wet Chemical Route

Authors: Sudhir Kumar Sharma, Ramesh Jagannathan


The interaction of organic and inorganic matrices of biological origin resulting in self-assembled structures with unique properties is well established. The development of such self-assembled nanostructures by synthetic and bio-inspired techniques is an established field of active research. Among bio-materials, nacre, a laminar stack of calcium carbonate nanosheets, which are interleaved with organic material, has long been focused research due to its unique mechanical properties. In this paper, we present the development of nacre-like lamellar structures made up of calcium carbonate via a wet chemical route. We used the binding affinity of carboxylate anions and calcium cations using poly (acrylic) acid (PAA) to lead CaCO₃ crystallization. In these experiments, we selected calcium acetate as the precursor molecule along with PAA (Mw ~ 8000 Da). We found that Ca⁺²/COO⁻ ratio provided a tunable control for the morphology and growth of CaCO₃ nanostructures. Drop casting one such formulation on a silicon substrate followed by calcination resulted in co-planner, molecular sheets of CaCO₃, separated by a spacer layer of carbon. The scope of our process could be expanded to produce unit cell thick molecular sheets of other important inorganic materials.

Keywords: Bio-Inspired Materials, calcium carbonate, self-assembled structures, wet chemical route

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1 Biogas Potential of Deinking Sludge from Wastepaper Recycling Industry: Influence of Dewatering Degree and High Calcium Carbonate Content

Authors: Moses Kolade Ogun, Ina Korner


To improve on the sustainable resource management in the wastepaper recycling industry, studies into the valorization of wastes generated by the industry are necessary. The industry produces different residues, among which is the deinking sludge (DS). The DS is generated from the deinking process and constitutes a major fraction of the residues generated by the European pulp and paper industry. The traditional treatment of DS by incineration is capital intensive due to energy requirement for dewatering and the need for complementary fuel source due to DS low calorific value. This could be replaced by a biotechnological approach. This study, therefore, investigated the biogas potential of different DS streams (different dewatering degrees) and the influence of the high calcium carbonate content of DS on its biogas potential. Dewatered DS (solid fraction) sample from filter press and the filtrate (liquid fraction) were collected from a partner wastepaper recycling company in Germany. The solid fraction and the liquid fraction were mixed in proportion to realize DS with different water content (55–91% fresh mass). Spiked samples of DS using deionized water, cellulose and calcium carbonate were prepared to simulate DS with varying calcium carbonate content (0– 40% dry matter). Seeding sludge was collected from an existing biogas plant treating sewage sludge in Germany. Biogas potential was studied using a 1-liter batch test system under the mesophilic condition and ran for 21 days. Specific biogas potential in the range 133- 230 NL/kg-organic dry matter was observed for DS samples investigated. It was found out that an increase in the liquid fraction leads to an increase in the specific biogas potential and a reduction in the absolute biogas potential (NL-biogas/ fresh mass). By comparing the absolute biogas potential curve and the specific biogas potential curve, an optimal dewatering degree corresponding to a water content of about 70% fresh mass was identified. This degree of dewatering is a compromise when factors such as biogas yield, reactor size, energy required for dewatering and operation cost are considered. No inhibitory influence was observed in the biogas potential of DS due to the reported high calcium carbonate content of DS. This study confirms that DS is a potential bioresource for biogas production. Further optimization such as nitrogen supplementation due to DS high C/N ratio can increase biogas yield.

Keywords: Biogas, Dewatering, Water Content, calcium carbonate, deinking sludge

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