Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

calcination Related Abstracts

12 The Valorisation of Dredged Sediment in the Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: N. Bouhamou, F. Mostefa, A. Mebrouki, N. Belas


Every year, millions of cube meters are dredged from dams and restraints as an entertaining and prevention procedure all over the world. These dredged sediments are considered as natural waste leading to an environmental, ecological and even an economical problem in their processing and deposing. Nevertheless, in the context of the sustainable development policy, a way of management is opened aiming to the valorization of sediments as a building material and particularly as a new binder that can be industrially exploited and that improve the physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the concrete. This study is a part of the research works realized in the civil engineering department at the university of Mostaganem (Algeria), on the impact of the dredged mud of Fergoug dam on the behaviour of self-consolidating concrete in fresh and hardened state, such as the mechanical performance of SCC and its impact on the differed deformations (shrinkage). The work aims to valorize this mud in SCC and to show eventual interactions between constituents. The results obtained presents a good perspectives in order to perform SCC based in calcined mud.

Keywords: reuse, Self-Consolidating Concrete, Sediment, shrinkage, calcination, fresh state, hard state

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11 Production of Sr-Ferrite Sub-Micron Powder by Conventional and Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Methods

Authors: M. Ghobeiti-Hasab


Magnetic powder of Sr-ferrite was prepared by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods. In conventional method, strontium carbonate and ferric oxide powders were mixed together and then mixture was calcined. In sol-gel auto-combustion method, a solution containing strontium nitrate, ferric nitrate and citric acid was heated until the combustion took place automatically; then, as-burnt powder was calcined. Thermal behavior, phase identification, morphology and magnetic properties of powders obtained by these two methods were compared by DTA, XRD, SEM, and VSM techniques. According to the results of DTA analysis, formation temperature of Sr-ferrite obtained by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods were 1300 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. XRD results confirmed the formation of pure Sr-ferrite at the mentioned temperatures. Plate and hexagonal-shape particles of Sr-ferrite were observed using SEM. The Sr-ferrite powder obtained by sol-gel auto-combustion method had saturation magnetization of 66.03 emu/g and coercivity of 5731 Oe in comparison with values of 58.20 emu/g and 4378 Oe obtained by conventional method.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, sol-gel, Sr-ferrite, calcination

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10 Toxic Dyes Removal in Aqueous Solution Using Calcined and Uncalcined Anionic Clay Zn/Al+Fe

Authors: Bessaha Hassiba, Bouraada Mohamed


Layered double hydroxide with Zn/(Al+Fe) molar ratio of 3:1 was synthesized by co-precipitation method and their calcined product was obtained by heating treatment of ZAF-HT at 500°C. The calcined and uncalcined materials were used to remove weak acid dyes: indigo carmine (IC) and green bezanyl-F2B (F2B) in aqueous solution. The synthesized materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR and TG/DTA analysis confirming the formation of pure layered structure of ZAF-HT, the destruction of the original structure after calcination and the intercalation of the dyes molecules. Moreover, the interlayer distance increases from 7.645 Å in ZAF-HT to 19.102 Å after the dyes sorption. The dose of the adsorbents was chosen 0.5 g/l while the initial concentrations were 250 and 750 mg/l for indigo carmine and green bezanyl-F2B respectively. The sorption experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and without adjusting the initial solution pH (pHi = 6.10 for IC and pHi = 5.01 for F2B). In addition, the maximum adsorption capacities obtained by ZAF-HT and CZAF for both dyes followed the order: CZAF-F2B (1501.4 mg.g-1) > CZAF-IC (617.3 mg.g-1) > ZAF-HT-IC (41.4 mg.g-1) > ZAF-HT-F2B (28.9 mg.g-1). The removal of indigo carmine and green bezanyl-F2B by ZAF-HT was due to the anion exchange and/or the adsorption on the surface. By using the calcined material (CZAF), the removal of the dyes was based on a particular property, called ‘memory effect’. CZAF recover the pristine structure in the presence anionic molecules such as acid dyes where they occupy the interlayer space. The sorption process was spontaneous in nature and followed pseudo-second-order. The isotherms showed that the removal of IC and F2B by ZAF-HT and CZAF were consistent with Langmiur model.

Keywords: Adsorption, calcination, acid dyes, layered double hydroxides

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9 Thermal Method Production of the Hydroxyapatite from Bone By-Products from Meat Industry

Authors: Bozena Tyliszczak, Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec, Dagmara Malina, Klaudia Pluta, Wioletta Florkiewicz


Introduction: Request for compound of phosphorus grows continuously, thus, it is searched for alternative sources of this element. One of these sources could be by-products from meat industry which contain prominent quantity of phosphorus compounds. Hydroxyapatite, which is natural component of animal and human bones, is leading material applied in bone surgery and also in stomatology. This is material, which is biocompatible, bioactive and osteoinductive. Methodology: Hydroxyapatite preparation: As a raw material was applied deproteinized and defatted bone pulp called bone sludge, which was formed as waste in deproteinization process of bones, in which a protein hydrolysate was the main product. Hydroxyapatite was received in calcining process in chamber kiln with electric heating in air atmosphere in two stages. In the first stage, material was calcining in temperature 600°C within 3 hours. In the next stage unified material was calcining in three different temperatures (750°C, 850°C and 950°C) keeping material in maximum temperature within 3.0 hours. Bone sludge: Bone sludge was formed as waste in deproteinization process of bones, in which a protein hydrolysate was the main product. Pork bones coming from the partition of meat were used as a raw material for the production of the protein hydrolysate. After disintegration, a mixture of bone pulp and water with a small amount of lactic acid was boiled at temperature 130-135°C and under pressure4 bar. After 3-3.5 hours boiled-out bones were separated on a sieve, and the solution of protein-fat hydrolysate got into a decanter, where bone sludge was separated from it. Results of the study: The phase composition was analyzed by roentgenographic method. Hydroxyapatite was the only crystalline phase observed in all the calcining products. XRD investigation was shown that crystallization degree of hydroxyapatite was increased with calcining temperature. Conclusion: The researches were shown that phosphorus content is around 12%, whereas, calcium content amounts to 28% on average. The conducted researches on bone-waste calcining at the temperatures of 750-950°C confirmed that thermal utilization of deproteinized bone-waste was possible. X-ray investigations were confirmed that hydroxyapatite is the main component of calcining products, and also XRD investigation was shown that crystallization degree of hydroxyapatite was increased with calcining temperature. Contents of calcium and phosphorus were distinctly increased with calcining temperature, whereas contents of phosphorus soluble in acids were decreased. It could be connected with higher crystallization degree of material received in higher temperatures and its stable structure. Acknowledgements: “The authors would like to thank the The National Centre for Research and Development (Grant no: LIDER//037/481/L-5/13/NCBR/2014) for providing financial support to this project”.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, calcination, bone by-products, bone sludge

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8 Increased Energy Efficiency and Improved Product Quality in Processing of Lithium Bearing Ores by Applying Fluidized-Bed Calcination Systems

Authors: Edgar Gasafi, Robert Pardemann, Linus Perander


For the production of lithium carbonate or hydroxide out of lithium bearing ores, a thermal activation (calcination/decrepitation) is required for the phase transition in the mineral to enable an acid respectively soda leaching in the downstream hydrometallurgical section. In this paper, traditional processing in Lithium industry is reviewed, and opportunities to reduce energy consumption and improve product quality and recovery rate will be discussed. The conventional process approach is still based on rotary kiln calcination, a technology in use since the early days of lithium ore processing, albeit not significantly further developed since. A new technology, at least for the Lithium industry, is fluidized bed calcination. Decrepitation of lithium ore was investigated at Outotec’s Frankfurt Research Centre. Focusing on fluidized bed technology, a study of major process parameters (temperature and residence time) was performed at laboratory and larger bench scale aiming for optimal product quality for subsequent processing. The technical feasibility was confirmed for optimal process conditions on pilot scale (400 kg/h feed input) providing the basis for industrial process design. Based on experimental results, a comprehensive Aspen Plus flow sheet simulation was developed to quantify mass and energy flow for the rotary kiln and fluidized bed system. Results show a significant reduction in energy consumption and improved process performance in terms of temperature profile, product quality and plant footprint. The major conclusion is that a substantial reduction of energy consumption can be achieved in processing Lithium bearing ores by using fluidized bed based systems. At the same time and different from rotary kiln process, an accurate temperature and residence time control is ensured in fluidized-bed systems leading to a homogenous temperature profile in the reactor which prevents overheating and sintering of the solids and results in uniform product quality.

Keywords: Lithium, fluidized bed, calcination, decrepitation, spodumene

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7 Reactivity Study on South African Calcium Based Material Using a pH-Stat and Citric Acid: A Statistical Approach

Authors: Tumisang Seodigeng, Hilary Rutto, Mbali Chiliza


The study on reactivity of calcined calcium-based material is very important in dry flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) process, so as to produce absorbent with high sulphur dioxide capture capacity during the hydration process. The effect of calcining temperature and time on the reactivity of calcined limestone material were investigated. In this study, the reactivity was measured using a pH stat apparatus and also confirming the result by performing citric acid reactivity test. The reactivity was calculated using the shrinking core model. Based on the experiments, a mathematical model is developed to correlate the effect of time and temperature to the reactivity of absorbent. The calcination process variables were temperature (700 -1000°C) and time (1-6 hrs). It was found that reactivity increases with an increase in time and temperature.

Keywords: Reactivity, Time, citric acid, calcination

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6 Durability of a Cementitious Matrix Based on Treated Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Amine Safhi


Significant volumes of sediment are annually dredged in France and all over the world. These materials may, in fact, be used beneficially as supplementary cementitious material. This paper studies the durability of a new cement matrix based on marine dredged sediment of Dunkirk-Harbor (north of France). Several techniques are used to characterize the raw sediment such as physical properties, chemical analyses, and mineralogy. The XRD analysis revealed quartz, calcite, kaolinite as main mineral phases. In order to eliminate organic matter and activate some of those minerals, the sediment is calcined at a temperature of 850°C for 1h. Moreover, four blended mortars were formulated by mixing a portland cement (CEM I 52,5 N) and the calcined sediment as partial cement substitute (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Reference mortars, based on the blended cement, were then prepared. This re-use cannot be substantiating and efficient without a durability study. In this purpose, the following tests, mercury porosity, accessible water porosity, chloride permeability, freezing and thawing, external sulfate attack, alkali aggregates reaction, compressive and bending strength tests were conducted on those mortars. The results of most of those tests evidenced the fact that the mortar that contains 10% of the treated sediment is efficient and durable as the reference mortar itself. That would infer that the presence of these calcined sediment improves mortar general behavior.

Keywords: Characterization, Durability, Sediment, substitution, calcination

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5 Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite from Biowaste for Potential Medical Application

Authors: M. D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Ghazali, Nitthiyah Jeyaratnam


Over the period of time, several approaches have been undertaken to mitigate the challenges associated with bone regeneration. This includes but not limited to xenografts, allografts, autografts as well as artificial substitutions like bioceramics, synthetic cements and metals. The former three techniques often come along with peculiar limitation and problems such as morbidity, availability, disease transmission, collateral site damage or absolute rejection by the body as the case may be. Synthetic routes remain the only feasible alternative option for treatment of bone defects. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is very compatible and suitable for this application. However, most of the common methods for HA synthesis are either expensive, complicated or environmentally unfriendly. Interestingly, extraction of HA from bio-wastes have been perceived not only to be cost effective, but also environment friendly. In this research, HA was synthesized from bio-waste: namely bovine bones through three different methods which are hydrothermal chemical processes, ultrasound assisted synthesis and ordinary calcination techniques. Structure and property analysis of the HA was carried out through different characterization techniques such as TGA, FTIR, and XRD. All the methods applied were able to produce HA with similar compositional properties to biomaterials found in human calcified tissues. Calcination process was however observed to be more efficient as it eliminated all the organic components from the produced HA. The HA synthesized is unique for its minimal cost and environmental friendliness. It is also perceived to be suitable for tissue and bone engineering applications.

Keywords: Bone, hydroxyapatite, calcination, biowaste

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4 Formulation of Mortars with Marine Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar


The transition to a more sustainable economy is directed by a reduction in the consumption of raw materials in equivalent production. The recovery of byproducts and especially the dredged sediment as mineral addition in cements matrix represents an alternative to reduce raw material consumption and construction sector’s carbon footprint. However, the efficient use of sediment requires adequate and optimal treatment. Several processing techniques have so far been applied in order to improve some physicochemical properties. The heat treatment by calcination was effective in removing the organic fraction and activates the pozzolanic properties. In this article, the effect of the optimized heat treatment of marine sediments in the physico-mechanical and environmental properties of mortars are shown. A finding is that the optimal substitution of a portion of cement by treated sediments by calcination at 750 °C helps to maintain or improve the mechanical properties of the cement matrix in comparison with a standard reference mortar. The use of calcined sediment enhances mortar behavior in terms of mechanical strength and durability. From an environmental point of view and life cycle, mortars formulated containing treated sediments are considered inert with respect to the inert waste storage facilities reference (ISDI-France).

Keywords: cement, reuse, Sediment, calcination

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3 Selective Conversion of Biodiesel Derived Glycerol to 1,2-Propanediol over Highly Efficient γ-Al2O3 Supported Bimetallic Cu-Ni Catalyst

Authors: Smita Mondal, Dinesh Kumar Pandey, Prakash Biswas


During past two decades, considerable attention has been given to the value addition of biodiesel derived glycerol (~10wt.%) to make the biodiesel industry economically viable. Among the various glycerol value-addition methods, hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol is one of the attractive and promising routes. In this study, highly active and selective γ-Al₂O₃ supported bimetallic Cu-Ni catalyst was developed for selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol in the liquid phase. The catalytic performance was evaluated in a high-pressure autoclave reactor. The formation of mixed oxide indicated the strong interaction of Cu, Ni with the alumina support. Experimental results demonstrated that bimetallic copper-nickel catalyst was more active and selective to 1,2-PDO as compared to monometallic catalysts due to bifunctional behavior. To verify the effect of calcination temperature on the formation of Cu-Ni mixed oxide phase, the calcination temperature of 20wt.% Cu:Ni(1:1)/Al₂O₃ catalyst was varied from 300°C-550°C. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as specific surface area (BET), X-ray diffraction study (XRD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The BET surface area and pore volume of the catalysts were in the range of 71-78 m²g⁻¹, and 0.12-0.15 cm³g⁻¹, respectively. The peaks at the 2θ range of 43.3°-45.5° and 50.4°-52°, was corresponded to the copper-nickel mixed oxidephase [JCPDS: 78-1602]. The formation of mixed oxide indicated the strong interaction of Cu, Ni with the alumina support. The crystallite size decreased with increasing the calcination temperature up to 450°C. Further, the crystallite size was increased due to agglomeration. Smaller crystallite size of 16.5 nm was obtained for the catalyst calcined at 400°C. Total acidic sites of the catalysts were determined by NH₃-TPD, and the maximum total acidic of 0.609 mmol NH₃ gcat⁻¹ was obtained over the catalyst calcined at 400°C. TPR data suggested the maximum of 75% degree of reduction of catalyst calcined at 400°C among all others. Further, 20wt.%Cu:Ni(1:1)/γ-Al₂O₃ catalyst calcined at 400°C exhibited highest catalytic activity ( > 70%) and 1,2-PDO selectivity ( > 85%) at mild reaction condition due to highest acidity, highest degree of reduction, smallest crystallite size. Further, the modified Power law kinetic model was developed to understand the true kinetic behaviour of hydrogenolysis of glycerol over 20wt.%Cu:Ni(1:1)/γ-Al₂O₃ catalyst. Rate equations obtained from the model was solved by ode23 using MATLAB coupled with Genetic Algorithm. Results demonstrated that the model predicted data were very well fitted with the experimental data. The activation energy of the formation of 1,2-PDO was found to be 45 kJ mol⁻¹.

Keywords: glycerol, kinetic, calcination

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2 Alkali Activated Materials Based on Natural Clay from Raciszyn

Authors: Michal Lach, Maria Hebdowska-Krupa, Justyna Stefanek, Artur Stanek, Anna Stefanska, Janusz Mikula, Marek Hebda


Limited resources of raw materials determine the necessity of obtaining materials from other sources. In this area, the most known and widespread are recycling processes, which are mainly focused on the reuse of material. Another possible solution used in various companies to achieve improvement in sustainable development is waste-free production. It involves the production exclusively from such materials, whose waste is included in the group of renewable raw materials. This means that they can: (i) be recycled directly during the manufacturing process of further products or (ii) be raw material obtained by other companies for the production of alternative products. The article presents the possibility of using post-production clay from the Jurassic limestone deposit "Raciszyn II" as a raw material for the production of alkali activated materials (AAM). Such products are currently increasingly used, mostly in various building applications. However, their final properties depend significantly on many factors; the most important of them are: chemical composition of the raw material, particle size, specific surface area, type and concentration of the activator and the temperature range of the heat treatment. Conducted mineralogical and chemical analyzes of clay from the “Raciszyn II” deposit confirmed that this material, due to its high content of aluminosilicates, can be used as raw material for the production of AAM. In order to obtain the product with the best properties, the optimization of the clay calcining process was also carried out. Based on the obtained results, it was found that this process should occur in the range between 750 oC and 800 oC. The use of a lower temperature causes getting a raw material with low metakaolin content which is the main component of materials suitable for alkaline activation processes. On the other hand, higher heat treatment temperatures cause thermal dissociation of large amounts of calcite, which is associated with the release of large amounts of CO2 and the formation of calcium oxide. This compound significantly accelerates the binding process, which consequently often prevents the correct formation of geopolymer mass. The effect of the use of various activators: (i) NaOH, (ii) KOH and (iii) a mixture of KOH to NaOH in a ratio of 10%, 25% and 50% by volume on the compressive strength of the AAM was also analyzed. Obtained results depending on the activator used were in the range from 25 MPa to 40 MPa. These values are comparable with the results obtained for materials produced on the basis of Portland cement, which is one of the most popular building materials.

Keywords: compressive strength, calcination, alkaline activation, aluminosilicates

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1 Effects of Different Calcination Temperature on the Geopolymerization of Fly Ash

Authors: Nurcan Tugrul, Funda Demir, Hilal Ozkan, Nur Olgun, Emek Derun


Geopolymers are aluminosilicate-containing materials. The raw materials of the geopolymerization can be natural material such as kaolinite, metakaolin (calcined kaolinite), clay, diatomite, rock powder or can also be industrial by-products such as fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, rice-husk ash, mine tailing, red mud, waste slag, etc. Reactivity of raw materials in geopolymer production is very important for achieving high reaction grade. Fly ash used in geopolymer production has been calcined to obtain tetrahedral SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ structures. In this study, fly ash calcined at different temperatures (700, 800 and 900 °C), and Al₂O₃ addition (Al₂O₃ at min (0%) and max (100%)) were used to produce geopolymers. HCl dissolution method was applied to determine the geopolymerization percentage of samples and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy was used to find out the optimum calcination temperature for geopolymerization. According to obtained results, the highest geopolymerization percentage (0% alumina added geopolymer equal to 35.789%; 100% alumina added geopolymer equal to 40.546%) was obtained in samples using fly ash calcined at 800 °C.

Keywords: fly ash, Geopolymer, calcination, Al₂O₃ addition

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