Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Caffeine Related Abstracts

8 HPLC-UV Screening of Legal (Caffeine and Yohimbine) and Illegal (Ephedrine and Sibutramine) Substances from Weight Loss Dietary Supplements for Athletes

Authors: Amelia Tero-Vescan, Camil-Eugen Vari, Laura Ciulea, Cristina Filip, Silvia Imre

Abstract:

A HPLC –UV method for the identification of ephedrine (EPH), sibutramine (SB), yohimbine (Y) and caffeine (CF) was developed. Separation was performed on a Kromasil 100-RP8, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 mm column equipped with a precolumn Kromasil RP 8. Mobile phase was a gradient of 80-35 % sodium dihydrogen phosphate pH=5 with NH4OH and acetonitrile over 15 minutes time of analysis. Based on the responses of 113 athletes about dietary supplements (DS) consumed for "fat burning" and weight loss which have a legal status in Romania, 28 supplements have been selected and investigated for their content in CF, Y, legal substances, and SB, EPH (prohibited substances in DS). The method allows quantitative determination of the four substances in a short analysis time and with minimum cost. The presence of SB and EPH in the analyzed DS was not detected while the content in CF and Y considering the dosage recommended by the manufacturer does not affect the health of the consumers. DS labeling (plant extracts with CF and Y content) allows manufacturers to avoid declaring correct and exact amounts per pharmaceutical form (pure CF or equivalent and Y, respectively).

Keywords: HPLC, dietary supplements, Caffeine, sibutramine, ephedrine, yohimbine

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7 Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Udomporn Yingpaisuk, Premwadee Karuhadej

Abstract:

The purposed of this research was to study the eating habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically significant level of 0.001.

Keywords: Alcohol, Teenage Pregnancy, Caffeine, Eating Behavior, knowledge of eating

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6 The in vitro Effects of Various Immunomodulatory Nutritional Compounds on Antigen-Stimulated Whole-Blood Culture Cytokine Production

Authors: Ayu S. Muhamad, Michael Gleeson

Abstract:

Immunomodulators are substances that alter immune system via dynamic regulation of messenger molecules. It can be divided into immunostimulant and immunosuppressant. It can help to increase immunity of people with a low immune system, and also can help to normalize an overactive immune system. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of in vitro exposure to low and high doses of several immunomodulators which include caffeine, kaloba and quercetin on antigen-stimulated whole blood culture cytokine production. Whole blood samples were taken from 5 healthy males (age: 32 ± 12 years; weight: 75.7 ± 6.1 kg; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.5 kg/m2) following an overnight fast with no vigorous activity during the preceding 24 h. The whole blood was then stimulated with 50 µl of 100 x diluted Pediacel vaccine and low or high dose of immunomodulators in the culture plate. After 20 h incubation (5% CO2, 37°C), it was analysed using the Evidence Investigator to determine the production of cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-1α. Caffeine and quercetin showed a tendency towards decrease cytokine production as the doses were increased. On the other hand, an upward trend was evident with kaloba, where a high dose of kaloba seemed to increase the cytokine production. In conclusion, we found that caffeine and quercetin have potential as immunosuppressant and kaloba as immunostimulant.

Keywords: cytokine, Immunomodulators, Caffeine, kaloba, quercetin

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5 Optimized Simultaneous Determination of Theobromine and Caffeine in Fermented and Unfermented Cacao Beans and in Cocoa Products Using Step Gradient Solvent System in Reverse Phase HPLC

Authors: Ian Marc G. Cabugsa, Kim Ryan A. Won

Abstract:

Fast, reliable and simultaneous HPLC analysis of theobromine and caffeine in cacao and cocoa products was optimized in this study. The samples tested were raw, fermented, and roasted cacao beans as well as commercially available cocoa products. The HPLC analysis was carried out using step gradient solvent system with acetonitrile and water buffered with H3PO4 as the mobile phase. The HPLC system was optimized using 273 nm wavelength at 35 °C for the column temperature with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Using this method, the theobromine percent recovery mean, Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) is 118.68(±3.38)%, 0.727 and 1.05 respectively. The percent recovery mean, LOD and LOQ for caffeine is 105.53(±3.25)%, 2.42 and 3.50 respectively. The inter-day and intra-day precision for theobromine is 4.31% and 4.48% respectively, while 7.02% and 7.03% was for caffeine respectively. Compared to the standard method in AOAC using methanol in isocratic solvent system, the results of the study produced lesser chromatogram noise with emphasis on theobromine and caffeine. The method is readily usable for cacao and cocoa substances analyses using HPLC with step gradient capability.

Keywords: HPLC, Caffeine, cacao, step gradient solvent system, theobromine

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4 Effects of Extract from Lactuca sativa on Sleep in Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep and Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice

Authors: Hae Dun Kim, Joo Hyun Jang, Geu Rim Seo, Kyung Soo Ra, Hyung Joo Suh

Abstract:

Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been known for its medical property to relieve anxiety and nervous. This study was implemented to investigate sleep-promoting effects of the lettuce alcohol extract (LAE). Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induced wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. In the present study, the sedative-hypnotic activity of the LAE was studied using the method of pentobarbital-induced sleep in the mouse model. The LAE was administrated to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. The LAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration and decreased sleep latency. The effects of LAE were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. Another study was performed to examine whether LAE ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice. Additionally, caffeine (10 mg/kg, p.o) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, LAE treatment (80 or 160 mg/kg, p.o), especially at 160 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. LAE supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. These results suggest that LAE possess significant sedative-hypnotic activity, which supports the popular use of lettuce for treatment of insomnia and provide the basis for new drug discovery. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that the lettuce extract may be preferable for the treatment of insomnia.

Keywords: Caffeine, Sleep Duration, Lactuca sativa, sleep latency

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3 The Possible Interaction between Bisphenol A, Caffeine and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Neurotoxicity Induced by Manganese in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Hebatalla I. Ahmed, Asmaa Abdelaty

Abstract:

Background: Manganese (Mn) is a naturally occurring element. Exposure to high levels of Mn causes neurotoxic effects and represents an environmental risk factor. Mn neurotoxicity is poorly understood but changing of AChE activity, monoamines and oxidative stress has been established. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics. There is considerable debate about whether its exposure represents an environmental risk. Caffeine is one of the major contributors to the dietary antioxidants which prevent oxidative damage and may reduce the risk of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is another major component of green tea and has known interactions with caffeine. It also has health-promoting effects in CNS. Objective: To evaluate the potential protective effects of Caffeine and/or EGCG against Mn-induced neurotoxicity either alone or in the presence of BPA in rats. Methods: Seven groups of rats were used and received daily for 5 weeks MnCl2.4H2O (10 mg/kg, IP) except the control group which received saline, corn oil and distilled H2O. Mn was injected either alone or in combination with each of the following: BPA (50 mg/kg, PO), caffeine (10 mg/kg, PO), EGCG (5 mg/kg, IP), caffeine + EGCG and BPA +caffeine +EGCG. All rats were examined in five behavioral tests (grid, bar, swimming, open field and Y- maze tests). Biochemical changes in monoamines, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, glutamate, acetyl cholinesterase and oxidative parameters, as well as histopathological changes in the brain, were also evaluated for all groups. Results: Mn significantly increased MDA and nitrite content as well as caspase-3, GSK-3B, PGE2 and glutamate levels while significantly decreased TAC and SOD as well as cholinesterase in the striatum. It also decreased DA, NE and 5-HT levels in the striatum and frontal cortex. BPA together with Mn enhanced oxidative stress generation induced by Mn while increased monoamine content that was decreased by Mn in rat striatum. BPA abolished neuronal degeneration induced by Mn in the hippocampus but not in the substantia nigra, striatum and cerebral cortex. Behavioral examinations showed that caffeine and EGCG co-administration had more pronounced protective effect against Mn-induced neurotoxicity than each one alone. EGCG alone or in combination with caffeine prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex induced by Mn while caffeine alone prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra and striatum but still showed some nuclear pyknosis in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The marked protection of caffeine and EGCG co-administration also confirmed by the significant increase in TAC, SOD, ACHE, DA, NE and 5-HT as well as the decrease in MDA, nitrite, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, the glutamic acid in the striatum. Conclusion: Neuronal degeneration induced by Mn showed some inhibition with BPA exposure despite the enhancement in oxidative stress generation. Co-administration of EGCG and caffeine can protect against neuronal degeneration induced by Mn and improve behavioral deficits associated with its neurotoxicity. The protective effect of EGCG was more pronounced than that of caffeine even with BPA co-exposure.

Keywords: rats, Caffeine, bisphenol A, manganese, neurotoxicity, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, behavioral tests

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2 Association of Caffeine Consumption in Coffee, Tea and Soft Drinks with Age of Menopause

Authors: Julita D. L. Nainggolan, Cindy Novita Ongkowijoyo, Veli Sungono, Dyana Safitri Velies, Ernestine Vivie Sadeli, Jimmy

Abstract:

Introduction: Normal menstrual cycle in women ranges from 21-34 days. Menopause is defined as the time when there have been no menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months and no other biological or physiological cause can be identified. Caffeine might increase the estradiol in the early of follicular phase and possibly increase the progesterone and shorten menstruation cycle. Women with shorter menstrual cycle, (below 26 days) would likely get to menopause 1.4 years earlier than those who are normal, and 2.2 years earlier than women with longer menstrual cycle. Purpose: To study the association of caffeine consumption in coffee, tea, and soft drinks with the age of menopause. Design Study: A cross-sectional study using purposive sampling of 132 menopause women from elderly nursing, hospitals and students’ relatives from August 2015-December 2015. The mean difference of age of menopause among the caffeine intake was analyzed by using the unpaired t-test and logistic regression. Results: Mean current age of the respondents are 61.4 years ± SD 9.8; and age of menopause was 47.7 years ± SD 4.2. There are 49.6% who drink coffee, 62.6% of tea and 7.6% of soft drinks. The analysis of t-test showed no significant mean difference in age of menopause among women who drink coffee, tea and soft drinks, mean age of 47.63 ± 4.3 in coffee with p=0.392, mean age of 47.8 ± 4 in tea with p=0.373; and mean age of 46 ± 5.5 with p=0.083 after adjustment of smoking history. Conclusion: Consumption of caffeine among women who drink coffee, tea, and soft drinks did not show significant mean difference in age of menopause.

Keywords: Menopause, Caffeine, coffee, tea, soda, soft drinks

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1 Environmental Risk of Pharmaceuticals, Drugs of Abuse and Stimulant Caffeine in Marine Water: A Case Study in the North-Western of Spain

Authors: Raquel Dafouz Neus Cáceres, Javier Fernandez-Rubio, Belinda Huerta José Luis Rodríguez-Gil, Nicola Mastroianni, Miren López de Alda, Damià Barceló, Yolanda Valcárcel

Abstract:

The region of Galicia, found in north-western (NW) Spain, is a national and world leader in shellfish, especially mussel production, and recognized for its fishing industry. Few studies have evaluated the presence of emerging contaminants in NW Spain, with those published mainly concerning the continental aquatic environment. The objective of this study was to identify the environmental risk posed by the presence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in this important coastal region. The presence of sixteen pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines, anxiolytics, and caffeine), and 19 drugs of abuse (cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opiates and opioids, lysergic compounds, and cannabinoids) was assessed in 23 sites located in the Rías (Coastal inlets) of Muros, Arousa, and Pontevedra (NW Spain). Twenty-two of these locations were affected by waste-water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, and one represented the effluent of one of these WWTPs. Venlafaxine was the pharmaceutical compound detected at higher concentration in the three Rías, with a maximum value of 291 ng/L at the site Porto do Son (Ría de Muros). Total concentration in the three Rías was 819,26 ng/L. Next, citalopram and lorazepam were the most prevalent compounds detected. Metabolite of cocaine benzoylecgonine was the drug of abuse with the highest concentration, measured at 972 ng/L in the Ría of Noia WWTP (no dilution). This compound was also detected at 142 ng/L in the site La Isla de Aros, Ría of Pontevedra. Total concentration for the three Rías was 1210 ng/L. Ephedrine was also detected at high level in the three Rías, with a total concentration of 579,28 ng/L. The results obtained for caffeine show maximum and average concentrations of 857 ng/L Isla de Arosa, Ría de Pontevedra the highest measured in seawater in Spain. A preliminary hazard assessment was carried out by comparing these measured environmental concentrations (MEC) to predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for aquatic organisms. Six out of the 22 seawater samples resulted in a Hazard Quotient (HQ) from chronic exposure higher than 1 with the highest being 17.14, indicating a high probability of adverse effects in the aquatic environment. In addition, the risk was assessed on the basis of persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT). This work was financially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the Carlos III Health Institute and the program 'Proyectos de Investigacion en Salud 2015-2017' FIS (PI14/00516), the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the Catalan Government (Consolidated Research Groups '2014 SGR 418 - Water and Soil Quality Unit' and 2014 SGR 291 - ICRA), and the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no. 603437. The poster entitled 'Environmental Risk of Pharmaceuticals, Drugs of Abuse and Stimulant Caffeine in Marine Water: A Case Study in the North-Western of Spain'.

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, Environmental Risk, Caffeine, Seawater, drug of abuse

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