Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

CAD Related Abstracts

23 Design of a Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna for LTE Applications by Applying FDSC Model

Authors: Settapong Malisuwan, Jesada Sivaraks, Navneet Madan, Peerawat Promkladpanao, Nattakit Suriyakrai

Abstract:

In this paper, a compact microstrip patch antenna is designed for mobile LTE applications by applying the frequency-dependent Smith-Chart (FDSC) model. The FDSC model is adopted in this research to reduce the error on the frequency-dependent characteristics. The Ansoft HFSS and various techniques is applied to meet frequency and size requirements. The proposed method within this research is suitable for use in computer-aided microstrip antenna design and RF integrated circuit (RFIC) design.

Keywords: Antenna, CAD, LTE, frequency-dependent, smith-chart, microstrip

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22 Serological IgG Testing to Diagnose Alimentary Induced Diseases and Monitoring Efficacy of an Individual Defined Diet in Dogs

Authors: Anne-Margré C. Vink

Abstract:

Background: Food-related allergies and intolerances are frequently occurring in dogs. Diagnosis and monitoring according to ‘Golden Standard’ of elimination efficiency are time-consuming, expensive, and requires expert clinical setting. In order to facilitate rapid and robust, quantitative testing of intolerance, and determining the individual offending foods, a serological test is implicated. Method: As we developed Medisynx IgG Human Screening Test ELISA before and the dog’s immune system is most similar to humans, we were able to develop Medisynx IgG Dog Screening Test ELISA as well. In this study, 47 dogs suffering from Canine Atopic Dermatitis (CAD) and several secondary induced reactions were included to participate in serological Medisynx IgG Dog Screening Test ELISA (within < 0,02 % SD). Results were expressed as titers relative to the standard OD readings to diagnose alimentary induced diseases and monitoring the efficacy of an individual eliminating diet in dogs. Split sample analysis was performed by independently sending 2 times 3 ml serum under two unique codes. Results: The veterinarian monitored these dogs to check dog’ results at least at 3, 7, 21, 49, 70 days and after period of 6 and 12 months on an individual negative diet and a positive challenge (retrospectively) at 6 months. Data of each dog were recorded in a screening form and reported that a complete recovery of all clinical manifestations was observed at or less than 70 days (between 50 and 70 days) in the majority of dogs(44 out of 47 dogs =93.6%). Conclusion: Challenge results showed a significant result of 100% in specificity as well as 100% positive predicted value. On the other hand, sensitivity was 95,7% and negative predictive value was 95,7%. In conclusion, an individual diet based on IgG ELISA in dogs provides a significant improvement of atopic dermatitis and pruritus including all other non-specific defined allergic skin reactions as erythema, itching, biting and gnawing at toes, as well as to several secondary manifestations like chronic diarrhoea, chronic constipation, otitis media, obesity, laziness or inactive behaviour, pain and muscular stiffness causing a movement disorders, excessive lacrimation, hyper behaviour, nervous behaviour and not possible to stay alone at home, anxiety, biting and aggressive behaviour and disobedience behaviour. Furthermore, we conclude that a relatively more severe systemic candidiasis, as shown by relatively higher titer (class 3 and 4 IgG reactions to Candida albicans), influence the duration of recovery from clinical manifestations in affected dogs. These findings are consistent with our preliminary human clinical studies.

Keywords: Allergy, CAD, canine atopic dermatitis, food allergens, IgG-ELISA, food-incompatibility

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21 A Novel Algorithm for Parsing IFC Models

Authors: Raninder Kaur Dhillon, Mayur Jethwa, Hardeep Singh Rai

Abstract:

Information technology has made a pivotal progress across disparate disciplines, one of which is AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) industry. CAD is a form of computer-aided building modulation that architects, engineers and contractors use to create and view two- and three-dimensional models. The AEC industry also uses building information modeling (BIM), a newer computerized modeling system that can create four-dimensional models; this software can greatly increase productivity in the AEC industry. BIM models generate open source IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) files which aim for interoperability for exchanging information throughout the project lifecycle among various disciplines. The methods developed in previous studies require either an IFC schema or MVD and software applications, such as an IFC model server or a Building Information Modeling (BIM) authoring tool, to extract a partial or complete IFC instance model. This paper proposes an efficient algorithm for extracting a partial and total model from an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) instance model without an IFC schema or a complete IFC model view definition (MVD).

Keywords: CAD, bim, IFC, MVD

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20 Analysis on the Need of Engineering Drawing and Feasibility Study on 3D Model Based Engineering Implementation

Authors: Parthasarathy J., Ramshankar C. S.

Abstract:

Engineering drawings these days play an important role in every part of an industry. By and large, Engineering drawings are influential over every phase of the product development process. Traditionally, drawings are used for communication in industry because they are the clearest way to represent the product manufacturing information. Until recently, manufacturing activities were driven by engineering data captured in 2D paper documents or digital representations of those documents. The need of engineering drawing is inevitable. Still Engineering drawings are disadvantageous in re-entry of data throughout manufacturing life cycle. This document based approach is prone to errors and requires costly re-entry of data at every stage in the manufacturing life cycle. So there is a requirement to eliminate Engineering drawings throughout product development process and to implement 3D Model Based Engineering (3D MBE or 3D MBD). Adopting MBD appears to be the next logical step to continue reducing time-to-market and improve product quality. Ideally, by fully applying the MBD concept, the product definition will no longer rely on engineering drawings throughout the product lifecycle. This project addresses the need of Engineering drawing and its influence in various parts of an industry and the need to implement the 3D Model Based Engineering with its advantages and the technical barriers that must be overcome in order to implement 3D Model Based Engineering. This project also addresses the requirements of neutral formats and its realisation in order to implement the digital product definition principles in a light format. In order to prove the concepts of 3D Model Based Engineering, the screw jack body part is also demonstrated. At ZF Windpower Coimbatore Limited, 3D Model Based Definition is implemented to Torque Arm (Machining and Casting), Steel tube, Pinion shaft, Cover, Energy tube.

Keywords: CAD, engineering drawing, model based engineering MBE, MBD

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19 User-Friendly Task Creation Using a CAD Integrated Robotic System on a Real Workcell

Authors: Alireza Changizi, Arash Rezaei, Jamal Muhammad, Jyrki Latokartano, Minna Lanz

Abstract:

Offline programming (OLP) is a new method in robot programming which is used widely in the industry nowadays which is a simulation base method that can produce the robot codes for motion according to virtual world in the simulation software. In this project Delmia v5 is used as simulation software. First the work cell component was modelled by Catia v5 and all of them was imported to a process file in Delmia and placed roughly to form the virtual work cell. Then robot was added to the work cell from the Delmia library. Work cell was calibrated corresponding to real world work cell to have accurate code. Tool calibration is the first step of calibration scheme and then work cell equipment can be calibrated using 6 point calibration method. Finally generated code needs to be reformed to match related controller code instruction. At the last stage IO were set to accomplish robots cooperation and make their motion synchronized. The pros and cons also will be discussed to clarify the presented results show the feasibility of the method and its effect on production line efficiency. Finally the positive and negative points of the implementation will be discussed.

Keywords: Production, Robotic, Automated, CAD, offline programming

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18 Cloud Points to Create an Innovative and Custom Ankle Foot Orthosis in CAD Environment

Authors: K. Benfriha, Y. Benabid, V. Rieuf, J. F. Omhover

Abstract:

This paper describes an approach to create custom concepts for innovative products; this approach describes relations between innovation tools and Computer Aided Design environment (use creativity session and design tools). A model for the design process is proposed and explored in order to describe the power tool used to create and ameliorate an innovative product all based upon a range of data (cloud points) in this study. Comparison between traditional method and innovative method we help to generate and put forward a new model of the design process in order to create a custom Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) in a CAD environment in order to ameliorate and controlling the motion. The custom concept needs big development in different environments; the relation between these environments is described. The results can help the surgeons in the upstream treatment phases. CAD models can be applied and accepted by professionals in the design and manufacture systems. This development is based on the anatomy of the population of North Africa.

Keywords: Reverse Engineering, CAD, ankle foot orthosis, sketch

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17 Association Analysis of Putative Loci with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Asma Naseer Cheema, Attya Bhatti, Jabar Ali, John Peter

Abstract:

Background: High cholesterol levels, endothelial dysfunction, inefficient coagulation cascade and hyper inflammatory response all are the basis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Several studies are carried out to see the genetic influence of these factors on disease outcome. Objective: The objective of our study was to see the association of 10 putative loci with coronary artery disease in our population. Materials & Methods: We screened our population for 10 putative loci of CAD showing significant association (p < 5x10-8) with candidate genes (regulating the cholesterol metabolism, endothelial function, coagulation cascade and inflammatory response of body). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium in cases and controls s were estimated separately. Approximately 5-10 ng of dried DNA in 384 well plate format was used to genotype each sample on the Sequenom iPLEX assay at University of Pittsburgh Genomics and Proteomics Core Laboratories. It was built on single-base primer extension with the MALDI-TOF MS detection possessing high sensitivity and specificity. The SNPs were genotyped through Taqman assay. Hardy Weinberg test was applied. The 10 SNPs were selected as genetic markers for this study (rs579459, rs1561198, rs2954029, rs1122608, rs17114036, rs9515203, rs10947789, rs7173743, rs2895811, rs2075650). Results: Mean age of the patient was 52 ± 11 years. Blood pressure and positive family history was found a significant risk factor for CAD. None of the selected SNPs showed significant association with coronary artery disease in our population (p>0.05). Conclusion: rs579459, rs1561198, rs2954029, rs1122608, rs17114036, rs9515203, rs10947789, rs7173743, rs2895811, rs2075650 are not significant genetic markers for CAD in our population.

Keywords: CAD, Risk Factors, Genetic Markers, loci

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16 Simulating Drilling Using a CAD System

Authors: Panagiotis Kyratsis, Konstantinos Kakoulis

Abstract:

Nowadays, the rapid development of CAD systems’ programming environments results in the creation of multiple downstream applications, which are developed and becoming increasingly available. CAD based manufacturing simulations is gradually following the same trend. Drilling is the most popular hole-making process used in a variety of industries. A specially built piece of software that deals with the drilling kinematics is presented. The cutting forces are calculated based on the tool geometry, the cutting conditions and the tool/work piece materials. The results are verified by experimental work. Finally, the response surface methodology (RSM) is applied and mathematical models of the total thrust force and the thrust force developed because of the main cutting edges are proposed.

Keywords: Drilling, CAD, response surface methodology, RSM, application programming interface

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15 Identification of Promising Infant Clusters to Obtain Improved Block Layout Designs

Authors: Mustahsan Mir, Ahmed Hassanin, Mohammed A. Al-Saleh

Abstract:

The layout optimization of building blocks of unequal areas has applications in many disciplines including VLSI floorplanning, macrocell placement, unequal-area facilities layout optimization, and plant or machine layout design. A number of heuristics and some analytical and hybrid techniques have been published to solve this problem. This paper presents an efficient high-quality building-block layout design technique especially suited for solving large-size problems. The higher efficiency and improved quality of optimized solutions are made possible by introducing the concept of Promising Infant Clusters in a constructive placement procedure. The results presented in the paper demonstrate the improved performance of the presented technique for benchmark problems in comparison with published heuristic, analytic, and hybrid techniques.

Keywords: Optimization, CAD, block layout problem, building-block layout design, search techniques

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14 Developing a Rational Database Management System (RDBMS) Supporting Product Life Cycle Appications

Authors: Yusri Yusof, Chen Wong Keong

Abstract:

This paper presents the implementation details of a Relational Database Management System of a STEP-technology product model repository. It is able support the implementation of any EXPRESS language schema, although it has been primarily implemented to support mechanical product life cycle applications. This database support the input of STEP part 21 file format from CAD in geometrical and topological data format and support a range of queries for mechanical product life cycle applications. This proposed relational database management system uses entity-to-table method (R1) rather than type-to-table method (R4). The two mapping methods have their own strengths and drawbacks.

Keywords: CAD, RDBMS, ISO 10303, part-21 file

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13 Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis of Crank-Piston System of a High-Power, Nine-Cylinder Aircraft Engine

Authors: Michal Biały, Konrad Pietrykowski, Rafal Sochaczewski

Abstract:

The kinematics and dynamics analysis of crank-piston system of aircraft engine. The object of the study was the high power aircraft engine ASz 62-IR. This engine is produced by a Polish company WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A.". All analyzes were performed numerically using CAD and CAE environment. Three-dimensional model of the crank-piston system was developed based on real engine located in the Laboratory of Centre of Innovation and Advanced Technologies of Lublin University of Technology. During the development of the model, the technique of reverse engineering - 3D scanning was used. ASz 62-IR engine is characterized by a radial type of crank-piston system. In this system the cylinders are arranged radially around the circle. This crank-piston system consists of a main connecting rod and eight additional connecting rods. In addition, three-dimensional model consists of a piston pins, pistons and piston rings. As a result of the specific engine design, characteristics of the piston individual movement are slightly different from each other. But the model assumes that they are the same during the analysis. Three-dimensional model of the engine was implemented into the MSC Adams software. The environment of MSC Adams allows for multibody simulation of the dynamic phenomena. This determines the state parameters of the moving elements, among which the load or force distribution on each kinematic node can be distinguished. Materials and characteristic materials parameters were adopted on the basis of commonly used materials for engine parts. The mass values of individual elements were adopted on the basis of real engine parts. The piston gas forces were replaced by calculation of pressure variations recorded during engine tests on the engine test bench. The research the changes of forces acting in the individual kinematic pairs of crank-piston system. The model allows to determine the load on the crankshaft main bearings. This gives the possibility for the main supports forces analysis The model allows for testing and simulation of kinematics and dynamics of a radial aircraft engine. This is the first stage of the work, which aims to numerical simulation of vibration of multi-cylinder aircraft engine. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: Dynamics, Numerical Simulation, Kinematics, CAD, cae, Aircraft Engine, MSC Adams

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12 Computer Aided Assembly Attributes Retrieval Methods for Automated Assembly Sequence Generation

Authors: Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal, M. V. A. Raju Bahubalendruni, B. B. V. L. Deepak

Abstract:

Achieving an appropriate assembly sequence needs deep verification for its physical feasibility. For this purpose, industrial engineers use several assembly predicates; namely, liaison, geometric feasibility, stability and mechanical feasibility. However, testing an assembly sequence for these predicates requires huge assembly information. Extracting such assembly information from an assembled product is a time consuming and highly skillful task with complex reasoning methods. In this paper, computer aided methods are proposed to extract all the necessary assembly information from computer aided design (CAD) environment in order to perform the assembly sequence planning efficiently. These methods use preliminary capabilities of three-dimensional solid modelling and assembly modelling methods used in CAD software considering equilibrium laws of physical bodies.

Keywords: assembly, CAD, assembly automation, assembly attributes

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11 Developing an Online Library for Faster Retrieval of Mold Base and Standard Parts of Injection Molding

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Ricky N. Joevan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on developing a system to transfer mold base plates and standard parts faster during the stage of injection mold design. This system not only provides a way to compare the file version, but also it utilizes Siemens NX 10 to isolate the updated information into a single executable file (.dll), and then, the file can be transferred without the need of transferring the whole file. By this way, the system can help the user to download only necessary mold base plates and standard parts, and those parts downloaded are only the updated portions.

Keywords: CAD, injection molding, data retrieval, mold base

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10 Towards a Complete Automation Feature Recognition System for Sheet Metal Manufacturing

Authors: Bahaa Eltahawy, Mikko Ylihärsilä, Reino Virrankoski, Esko Petäjä

Abstract:

Sheet metal processing is automated, but the step from product models to the production machine control still requires human intervention. This may cause time consuming bottlenecks in the production process and increase the risk of human errors. In this paper we present a system, which automatically recognizes features from the CAD-model of the sheet metal product. By using these features, the system produces a complete model of the particular sheet metal product. Then the model is used as an input for the sheet metal processing machine. Currently the system is implemented, capable to recognize more than 11 of the most common sheet metal structural features, and the procedure is fully automated. This provides remarkable savings in the production time, and protects against the human errors. This paper presents the developed system architecture, applied algorithms and system software implementation and testing.

Keywords: Automation, CAD, cam, feature recognition, sheet metal manufacturing

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9 Automated Digital Mammogram Segmentation Using Dispersed Region Growing and Pectoral Muscle Sliding Window Algorithm

Authors: Rajeev Srivastava, Ayush Shrivastava, Arpit Chaudhary, Devang Kulshreshtha, Vibhav Prakash Singh

Abstract:

Early diagnosis of breast cancer can improve the survival rate by detecting cancer at an early stage. Breast region segmentation is an essential step in the analysis of digital mammograms. Accurate image segmentation leads to better detection of cancer. It aims at separating out Region of Interest (ROI) from rest of the image. The procedure begins with removal of labels, annotations and tags from the mammographic image using morphological opening method. Pectoral Muscle Sliding Window Algorithm (PMSWA) is used for removal of pectoral muscle from mammograms which is necessary as the intensity values of pectoral muscles are similar to that of ROI which makes it difficult to separate out. After removing the pectoral muscle, Dispersed Region Growing Algorithm (DRGA) is used for segmentation of mammogram which disperses seeds in different regions instead of a single bright region. To demonstrate the validity of our segmentation method, 322 mammographic images from Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database are used. The dataset contains medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view of mammograms. Experimental results on MIAS dataset show the effectiveness of our proposed method.

Keywords: Mammography, CAD, Image Segmentation, dispersed region growing algorithm (DRGA), pectoral muscle sliding window algorithm (PMSWA)

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8 Finite Element Analysis and Multibody Dynamics of 6-DOF Industrial Robot

Authors: Rahul Arora, S. S. Dhami

Abstract:

This paper implements the design structure of industrial robot along with the different transmission components like gear assembly and analysis of complete industrial robot. In this paper, it gives the overview on the most efficient types of modeling and different analysis results that can be obtained for an industrial robot. The investigation is executed in regards to two classifications i.e. the deformation and the stress tests. SolidWorks is utilized to design and review the 3D drawing plan while ANSYS Workbench is utilized to execute the FEA on an industrial robot and the designed component. The CAD evaluation was conducted on a disentangled model of an industrial robot. The study includes design and drafting its transmission system. In CAE study static, modal and dynamic analysis are presented. Every one of the outcomes is divided in regard with the impact of the static and dynamic analysis on the situating exactness of the robot. It gives critical data with respect to parts of the industrial robot that are inclined to harm under higher high force applications. Therefore, the mechanical structure under different operating conditions can help in optimizing the manipulator geometry and in selecting the right material for the same. The FEA analysis is conducted for four different materials on the same industrial robot and gear assembly.

Keywords: Dynamic, Robot, CAD, cae, FEA, Static, modal, gear assembly

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7 3D Object Retrieval Based on Similarity Calculation in 3D Computer Aided Design Systems

Authors: Ahmed Fradi

Abstract:

Nowadays, recent technological advances in the acquisition, modeling, and processing of three-dimensional (3D) objects data lead to the creation of models stored in huge databases, which are used in various domains such as computer vision, augmented reality, game industry, medicine, CAD (Computer-aided design), 3D printing etc. On the other hand, the industry is currently benefiting from powerful modeling tools enabling designers to easily and quickly produce 3D models. The great ease of acquisition and modeling of 3D objects make possible to create large 3D models databases, then, it becomes difficult to navigate them. Therefore, the indexing of 3D objects appears as a necessary and promising solution to manage this type of data, to extract model information, retrieve an existing model or calculate similarity between 3D objects. The objective of the proposed research is to develop a framework allowing easy and fast access to 3D objects in a CAD models database with specific indexing algorithm to find objects similar to a reference model. Our main objectives are to study existing methods of similarity calculation of 3D objects (essentially shape-based methods) by specifying the characteristics of each method as well as the difference between them, and then we will propose a new approach for indexing and comparing 3D models, which is suitable for our case study and which is based on some previously studied methods. Our proposed approach is finally illustrated by an implementation, and evaluated in a professional context.

Keywords: CAD, shape based retrieval, similarity calculation

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6 MapReduce Algorithm for Geometric and Topological Information Extraction from 3D CAD Models

Authors: Ahmed Fradi

Abstract:

In a digital world in perpetual evolution and acceleration, data more and more voluminous, rich and varied, the new software solutions emerged with the Big Data phenomenon offer new opportunities to the company enabling it not only to optimize its business and to evolve its production model, but also to reorganize itself to increase competitiveness and to identify new strategic axes. Design and manufacturing industrial companies, like the others, face these challenges, data represent a major asset, provided that they know how to capture, refine, combine and analyze them. The objective of our paper is to propose a solution allowing geometric and topological information extraction from 3D CAD model (precisely STEP files) databases, with specific algorithm based on the programming paradigm MapReduce. Our proposal is the first step of our future approach to 3D CAD object retrieval.

Keywords: Big Data, CAD, MapReduce, STEP format

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5 Development of a Computer Aided Diagnosis Tool for Brain Tumor Extraction and Classification

Authors: Fathi Kallel, Abdulelah Alabd Uljabbar, Abdulrahman Aldukhail, Abdulaziz Alomran

Abstract:

The brain is an important organ in our body since it is responsible about the majority actions such as vision, memory, etc. However, different diseases such as Alzheimer and tumors could affect the brain and conduct to a partial or full disorder. Regular diagnosis are necessary as a preventive measure and could help doctors to early detect a possible trouble and therefore taking the appropriate treatment, especially in the case of brain tumors. Different imaging modalities are proposed for diagnosis of brain tumor. The powerful and most used modality is the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). MRI images are analyzed by doctor in order to locate eventual tumor in the brain and describe the appropriate and needed treatment. Diverse image processing methods are also proposed for helping doctors in identifying and analyzing the tumor. In fact, a large Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) tools including developed image processing algorithms are proposed and exploited by doctors as a second opinion to analyze and identify the brain tumors. In this paper, we proposed a new advanced CAD for brain tumor identification, classification and feature extraction. Our proposed CAD includes three main parts. Firstly, we load the brain MRI. Secondly, a robust technique for brain tumor extraction is proposed. This technique is based on both Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). DWT is characterized by its multiresolution analytic property, that’s why it was applied on MRI images with different decomposition levels for feature extraction. Nevertheless, this technique suffers from a main drawback since it necessitates a huge storage and is computationally expensive. To decrease the dimensions of the feature vector and the computing time, PCA technique is considered. In the last stage, according to different extracted features, the brain tumor is classified into either benign or malignant tumor using Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. A CAD tool for brain tumor detection and classification, including all above-mentioned stages, is designed and developed using MATLAB guide user interface.

Keywords: classification, MRI, Feature Extraction, CAD, brain tumor, PCA, SVM, DWT

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4 Simulation to Detect Virtual Fractional Flow Reserve in Coronary Artery Idealized Models

Authors: M. Ferdows, Nabila Jaman, K. E. Hoque, S. Sawall

Abstract:

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most lethal diseases of the cardiovascular diseases. Coronary arteries stenosis and bifurcation angles closely interact for myocardial infarction. We want to use computer-aided design model coupled with computational hemodynamics (CHD) simulation for detecting several types of coronary artery stenosis with different locations in an idealized model for identifying virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR). The vFFR provides us the information about the severity of stenosis in the computational models. Another goal is that we want to imitate patient-specific computed tomography coronary artery angiography model for constructing our idealized models with different left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCx) bifurcation angles. Further, we want to analyze whether the bifurcation angles has an impact on the creation of narrowness in coronary arteries or not. The numerical simulation provides the CHD parameters such as wall shear stress (WSS), velocity magnitude and pressure gradient (PGD) that allow us the information of stenosis condition in the computational domain.

Keywords: CAD, CHD, vFFR, bifurcation angles, coronary stenosis

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3 An Automated Optimal Robotic Assembly Sequence Planning Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: B. B. V. L. Deepak, Balamurali Gunji, B. B. Biswal, Amrutha Rout, Golak Bihari Mohanta

Abstract:

Robots play an important role in the operations like pick and place, assembly, spot welding and much more in manufacturing industries. Out of those, assembly is a very important process in manufacturing, where 20% of manufacturing cost is wholly occupied by the assembly process. To do the assembly task effectively, Assembly Sequences Planning (ASP) is required. ASP is one of the multi-objective non-deterministic optimization problems, achieving the optimal assembly sequence involves huge search space and highly complex in nature. Many researchers have followed different algorithms to solve ASP problem, which they have several limitations like the local optimal solution, huge search space, and execution time is more, complexity in applying the algorithm, etc. By keeping the above limitations in mind, in this paper, a new automated optimal robotic assembly sequence planning using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, automatic extraction of assembly predicates is done using Computer Aided Design (CAD) interface instead of extracting the assembly predicates manually. Due to this, the time of extraction of assembly predicates to obtain the feasible assembly sequence is reduced. The fitness evaluation of the obtained feasible sequence is carried out using ABC algorithm to generate the optimal assembly sequence. The proposed methodology is applied to different industrial products and compared the results with past literature.

Keywords: CAD, Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm, assembly sequence planning, assembly predicates

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2 Efficient Computer-Aided Design-Based Multilevel Optimization of the LS89

Authors: A. Chatel, I. S. Torreguitart, T. Verstraete

Abstract:

The paper deals with a single point optimization of the LS89 turbine using an adjoint optimization and defining the design variables within a CAD system. The advantage of including the CAD model in the design system is that higher level constraints can be imposed on the shape, allowing the optimized model or component to be manufactured. However, CAD-based approaches restrict the design space compared to node-based approaches where every node is free to move. In order to preserve a rich design space, we develop a methodology to refine the CAD model during the optimization and to create the best parameterization to use at each time. This study presents a methodology to progressively refine the design space, which combines parametric effectiveness with a differential evolutionary algorithm in order to create an optimal parameterization. In this manuscript, we show that by doing the parameterization at the CAD level, we can impose higher level constraints on the shape, such as the axial chord length, the trailing edge radius and G2 geometric continuity between the suction side and pressure side at the leading edge. Additionally, the adjoint sensitivities are filtered out and only smooth shapes are produced during the optimization process. The use of algorithmic differentiation for the CAD kernel and grid generator allows computing the grid sensitivities to machine accuracy and avoid the limited arithmetic precision and the truncation error of finite differences. Then, the parametric effectiveness is computed to rate the ability of a set of CAD design parameters to produce the design shape change dictated by the adjoint sensitivities. During the optimization process, the design space is progressively enlarged using the knot insertion algorithm which allows introducing new control points whilst preserving the initial shape. The position of the inserted knots is generally assumed. However, this assumption can hinder the creation of better parameterizations that would allow producing more localized shape changes where the adjoint sensitivities dictate. To address this, we propose using a differential evolutionary algorithm to maximize the parametric effectiveness by optimizing the location of the inserted knots. This allows the optimizer to gradually explore larger design spaces and to use an optimal CAD-based parameterization during the course of the optimization. The method is tested on the LS89 turbine cascade and large aerodynamic improvements in the entropy generation are achieved whilst keeping the exit flow angle fixed. The trailing edge and axial chord length, which are kept fixed as manufacturing constraints. The optimization results show that the multilevel optimizations were more efficient than the single level optimization, even though they used the same number of design variables at the end of the multilevel optimizations. Furthermore, the multilevel optimization where the parameterization is created using the optimal knot positions results in a more efficient strategy to reach a better optimum than the multilevel optimization where the position of the knots is arbitrarily assumed.

Keywords: Optimization, CAD, Knots, multilevel, adjoint, parametric effectiveness

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1 A Review on Building Information Modelling in Nigeria and Its Potentials

Authors: Mansur Hamma-Adama, Tahar Kouider

Abstract:

Construction Industry has been evolving since the development of Building Information Modelling (BIM). This technological process is unstoppable; it is out to the market with remarkable case studies of solving the long industry’s history of fragmentation. This industry has been changing over time; United States has recorded the most significant development in construction digitalization, Australia, United Kingdom and some other developed nations are also amongst promoters of BIM process and its development. Recently, a developing country like China and Malaysia are keying into the industry’s digital shift, while very little move is seen in South Africa whose development is considered higher and perhaps leader in the digital transition amongst the African countries. To authors’ best knowledge, Nigerian construction industry has never engaged in BIM discussions hence has no attention at national level. Consequently, Nigeria has no “Noteworthy BIM publications.” Decision makers and key stakeholders need to be informed on the current trend of the industry’s development (BIM in specific) and the opportunities of adopting this digitalization trend in relation to the identified challenges. BIM concept can be traced mostly in Architectural practices than engineering practices in Nigeria. A superficial BIM practice is found to be at organisational level only and operating a model based - “BIM stage 1.” Research to adopting this innovation has received very little attention. This piece of work is literature review based, aimed at exploring BIM in Nigeria and its prospects. The exploration reveals limitations in the literature availability as to extensive research in the development of BIM in the country. Numerous challenges were noticed including building collapse, inefficiencies, cost overrun and late project delivery. BIM has potentials to overcome the above challenges and even beyond. Low level of BIM adoption with reasonable level of awareness is noticed. However, lack of policy and guideline as well as serious lack of experts in the field are amongst the major barriers to BIM adoption. The industry needs to embrace BIM to possibly compete with its global counterpart.

Keywords: construction industry, CAD, bim, Opportunities, Adoption, Nigeria

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