Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

by-product Related Abstracts

6 Future Trends in Sources of Natural Antioxidants from Indigenous Foods

Authors: Ahmed El-Ghorab


Indigenous foods are promising sources of various chemical bioactive compounds such as vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Therefore, the presence o different bioactive compounds in fruits could be used to retard or prevent various diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer. This is an update report on nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of different indigenous food . This different type of fruits and/ or other sources such as spices, aromatic plants, grains by-products, which containing bioactive compounds might be used as functional foods or for nutraceutical purposes. most common bioactive compounds are vitamin C, polyphenol, β- carotene and lycopene contents. In recent years, there has been a global trend toward the use of natural phytochemical as antioxidants and functional ingredients, which are present in natural resources such as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and herbs.. Our future trend the Use of Natural antioxidants as a promising alternative to use of synthetic antioxidants and the Production of natural antioxidant on commercial scale to maximize the value addition of indigenous food waste as a good source of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants.

Keywords: Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, Phenolic Compounds, indigenous foods, by-product

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5 Evaluation of Goji By-Product as a Value-Added Ingredient for the Functional Food Industry

Authors: Sanaa Ragaee, Paragyani Bora, Wee Teng Tan, Xin Hu


Goji berry (Lycium barbarum) is a member of the family Solanaceae which is grown widely in China, Tibet, and other parts of Asia. Its fruits are 1–2 cm-long, bright orange-red ellipsoid berries and it has a long tradition as a food and medicinal plant. Goji berries are believed to boost immune system properties. The berries are considered an excellent source of macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals and several bioactive components. Studies have shown effects of goji fruit on aging, neuroprotection, general well-being, fatigue/endurance, metabolism/energy expenditure, glucose control in diabetics and glaucoma, antioxidant properties, immunomodulation and anti-tumor activity. Goji berries are being used to prepare Goji beverage, and the remaining solid material is considered as by-product. The by-product is currently unused and disposed as waste despite its potential as a value-added food ingredient. Therefore, this study is intended to evaluate nutritional properties of Goji by-product and its potential applications in the baking industry. The Goji by-product was freeze dried and ground to pass through 1 mm screen prior to evaluation and food use. The Goji by-product was found to be a rich source of fiber (54%) and free phenolic components (1,307 µg/g), protein (13.6%), ash (3.3%) and fat (10%). Incorporation of the Goji by-product in muffins and cookies at various levels (10-40%) significantly improved the nutritional quality of the baked products. The baked products were generally accepted and highly rated by panelists at 20% replacement level. The results indicate the potential of Goji by-product as a value-added ingredient in particular as a source of dietary fiber and protein.

Keywords: fibers, phenolics, by-product, Goji, baked products

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4 Stability of Total Phenolic Concentration and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts from Pomegranate Co-Products Subjected to In vitro Digestion

Authors: Olaniyi Fawole, Umezuruike Opara


Co-products obtained from pomegranate juice processing contain high levels of polyphenols with potential high added values. From value-addition viewpoint, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of polyphenolic concentrations in pomegranate fruit co-products in different solvent extracts and assess the effect on the total antioxidant capacity using the FRAP, DPPH˙ and ABTS˙+ assays during simulated in vitro digestion. Pomegranate juice, marc and peel were extracted in water, 50% ethanol (50%EtOH) and absolute ethanol (100%EtOH) and analysed for total phenolic concentration (TPC), total flavonoids concentration (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity in DPPH˙, ABST˙+ and FRAP assays before and after in vitro digestion. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and total flavonoid concentration (TFC) were in the order of peel > marc > juice throughout the in vitro digestion irrespective of the extraction solvents used. However, 50% ethanol extracted 1.1 to 12-fold more polyphenols than water and ethanol solvents depending on co-products. TPC and TFC increased significantly in gastric digests. In contrast, after the duodenal, polyphenolic concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those obtained in gastric digests. Undigested samples and gastric digests showed strong and positive relationships between polyphenols and the antioxidant activities measured in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, with correlation coefficients (r2) ranging between 0.930 – 0.990 whereas, the correlation between polyphenols (TPC and TFC) and radical cation scavenging activity (in ABTS) were moderately positive in duodenal digests. Findings from this study also showed that the concentration of pomegranate polyphenols and antioxidant thereof during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion may not reflect the pre-digested phenolic concentration. Thus, this study highlights the need to provide biologically relevant information on antioxidants by providing data reflecting their stability and activity after in vitro digestion.

Keywords: polyphenols, DPPH, by-product, value addition

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3 The Effect of Restaurant Residuals on Performance of Japanese Quail

Authors: A. A. Saki, Y. Karimi, H. J. Najafabadi, P. Zamani, Z. Mostafaie


The restaurant residuals reasons such as competition between human and animal consumption of cereals, increasing environmental pollution and the high cost of production of livestock products is important. Therefore, in this restaurant residuals have a high nutritional value (protein and high energy) that it is possible can replace some of the poultry diets are especially Japanese quail. Today, the challenges of processing and consumption of these lesions occurring in modern industry would be confronting. Increasing costs, pressures, and problems associated with waste excretion, the need for re-evaluation and utilization of waste to livestock and poultry feed fortifies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of restaurant residuals on performance of 300 layer Japanese quails. This experiment included 5 treatments, 4 replicates, and 15 quails in each from 10 to 18 weeks age in a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments consist of basal diet including corn and soybean meal (without residual restaurants), and treatments 2, 3, 4 and 5, includes a basal diet containing 5, 10, 15 and 20% of restaurant residuals, respectively. There were no significant effect of restaurant residuals levels on body weight (BW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), percentage of egg production (EP), egg mass (EM) between treatments (P > 0/05). However, feed intake (FI) of 5% restaurant residual was significantly higher than 20% treatment (P < 0/05). Egg weight (EW) was also higher by receiving 20% restaurant residuals compared with 10% in this respect (P < 0/05). Yolk weight (YW) of treatments containing 10 and 20% of the residual restaurant were significantly higher than control (P < 0/05). Eggs white weight (EWW) of 20 and 5% restaurants residual treatments were significantly increased compared by 10% (P < 0/05). Furthermore, EW, egg weight to shell surface area and egg surface area in 20% treatment were significantly higher than control and 10% treatment (P < 0/05). The overall results of this study have shown that restaurant residuals for laying quail diets in levels of 10 and 15 percent could be replaced with a part of the quail ration without any adverse effect.

Keywords: Performance, by-product, laying quail, restaurant residuals

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2 Design of New Baby Food Product Using Whey

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Anthony Dahdah, Lara Frangieh, Jessica Koura


Nowadays, the removal of whey produced in the dairy processes has been the most important problem in the dairy industry. Every year, about 47% of the 115 million tons of whey produced world-wide are disposed in the environment. Whey is a nutritious liquid, containing whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin-G, proteose pepton), lactose, vitamins (B5, B2, C, and B6), minerals (Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Potassium, Chloride, and Sodium), and trace elements (Zinc, Iron, Iodine, and Copper). The first objective was to increase the economical and commercial value of whey which is considered as by-product. The second objective of this study was to formulate a new baby food with good nutritional, sensory and storage properties and acceptable to consumers using the cheese whey. The creation of the new product must pass through the following stages: idea stage, development stage which includes the business planning and the product development prototype, packaging stage, production stage, test marketing stage, quality control/sanitation. Three types of whey-based food were selected and prepared by mixing whey and apple, whey and banana as well as whey, apple, and banana.To compile with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and adequate intakes (AI) for vitamins and minerals, each sample is formed from 114g of sliced and smashed fruits mixed with 8 mL of whey. Mixtures are heated to 72oC for 15 seconds, and filled in pasteurized jars. Jars were conserved at 4oC. Following the experimental part, sensory evaluation made by an experienced panel took place. Hedonic tests results show that the mixture of whey, apple, and banana has the most delicious and sweetness taste followed by the mixture of whey and banana, and finally the mixture of whey and apple. This study was concluded with a managerial and engineering study that reveals that the project is economically profitable to be executed in Lebanon.

Keywords: Formulation, by-product, cheese whey, baby food

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1 Humins: From Industrial By-Product to High Value Polymers

Authors: Pierluigi Tosi, Ed de Jong, Gerard van Klink, Luc Vincent, Alice Mija


During the last decades renewable and low-cost resources have attracted increasingly interest. Carbohydrates can be derived by lignocellulosic biomasses, which is an attractive option since they represent the most abundant carbon source available in nature. Carbohydrates can be converted in a plethora of industrially relevant compounds, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), within acid catalyzed dehydration of sugars with mineral acids. Unfortunately, these acid catalyzed conversions suffer of the unavoidable formation of highly viscous heterogeneous poly-disperse carbon based materials known as humins. This black colored low value by-product is made by a complex mixture of macromolecules built by covalent random condensations of the several compounds present during the acid catalyzed conversion. Humins molecular structure is still under investigation but seems based on furanic rings network linked by aliphatic chains and decorated by several reactive moieties (ketones, aldehydes, hydroxyls, …). Despite decades of research, currently there is no way to avoid humins formation. The key parameter for enhance the economic viability of carbohydrate conversion processes is, therefore, increasing the economic value of the humins by-product. Herein are presented new humins based polymeric materials that can be prepared starting from the raw by-product by thermal treatment, without any step of purification or pretreatment. Humins foams can be produced with the control of reaction key parameters, obtaining polymeric porous materials with designed porosity, density, thermal and electrical conductivity, chemical and electrical stability, carbon amount and mechanical properties. Physico chemical properties can be enhanced by modifications on the starting raw material or adding different species during the polymerization. A comparisons on the properties of different compositions will be presented, along with tested applications. The authors gratefully acknowledge the European Community for financial support through Marie-Curie H2020-MSCA-ITN-2015 "HUGS" Project.

Keywords: Polymers, Valorization, by-product, humins

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