Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Business Related Abstracts

36 Policy of Tourism and Opportunities of Development of Wellness Industry in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, R. Gvelesiani, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The topic reviews the situation existing currently in Georgia in the field of tourism in conditions of globalization: Touristic resources, the paces of development of the tourism infrastructure, tourism policy, possibilities of development of the Wellness industry in Georgia that is the newest direction of the medical tourism. The factors impeding the development of the industry of tourism, namely-existence of the conflict zones, high rates of the bank credits, deficiencies associated with the tax laws, a level of infrastructural development, quality of services, deficit in the competitive staff, increase of prices in the peak seasons, insufficient promotion of the touristic opportunities of Georgia on the international markets are studied and analyzed. Besides, the levels of development of tourism in Georgia according to the World Economic Forum, aspects of cooperation with the European Union etc. are reviewed. As a result of these studies, a strategy of development of tourism and one of its directions-Wellness industries in Georgia is introduced with the relevant conclusions, on which basis the recommendations are provided.

Keywords: Business, Innovation, Technology, Tourism Policy, about tourism, wellness industry

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35 Initiative Strategies on How to Increase Value Add of the Recycling Business

Authors: Yananda Siraphatthada

Abstract:

The current study was the succession of a previous study on value added of recycling business management. Its aims are to 1) explore conditions on how to increasing value add of Thai recycling business, and 2) exam the implementation of the 3-staged plan (short, medium, and long term), suggested by the former study, to increase value added of the recycling business as immediate mechanisms to accelerate government operation. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized in this research. A qualitative research consisted of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Responses were obtained from owners of the waste separation plants, and recycle shops, as well as officers in relevant governmental agencies. They were randomly selected via Quota Sampling. Data was analyzed via content analysis. The sample used for quantitative method consisted of 1,274 licensed recycling operators in eight provinces. The operators were randomly stratified via sampling method. Data were analyzed via descriptive statistics frequency, percentage, average (mean), and standard deviation. The study recommended three-staged plan: short, medium, and long terms. The plan included the development of logistics, the provision of quality market/plants, the amendment of recycling rules/regulation, the restructuring recycling business, the establishment of green-purchasing recycling center, support for the campaigns run by the International Green Purchasing Network (IGPN), conferences/workshops as a public forum to share insights among experts/concern people.

Keywords: Business, Strategies, value added, recycle

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34 Application of Customer Relationship Management Systems in Business: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: K. Metaxiotis, K. Liagkouras

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Customer relationship management (CRM) systems in business are a reality of the contemporary business world for the last decade or so. Still, there are grey areas regarding the successful implementation and operation of CRM systems in business. This paper, through the systematic study of the CRM implementation paradigm, attempts to identify the most important challenges and opportunities that the CRM systems face in a rapidly changing business world.

Keywords: Business, Customer Relationship Management, crm, literature review

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33 Business Ethics in Islamic and Economic Perspective

Authors: Mohammad Iqbal Malik

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Economic development of a country depends on its business ethics and values. Islamic teachings provide obvious guidelines in this regard. Mutual understanding, honesty and ethics possess central place in Islamic teachings. These teachings not only prohibit from amalgamation, black-marketing, hoarding and deception but also force to treat a customer amiably. Business ethics are broad spectrum in Islamic society due to these high moral values. One can estimate the importance of business ethics in Islam for economic development in Islamic society is evident by the Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in which He excluded a trader from Muslim community who did not behave in good manners with his clients. In this study we present impact of business ethics on economic development of a Muslim society. This study is based on basic teachings of Quran and Sunnah, Fiqh, Economics and other books. This study explores the behavior of Muslim traders and reveals useful inferences. Policy makers, traders, academia, scholars, and general public may learn lessons from this study with respect to business ethics in Islamic perspective.

Keywords: Business, Islam, Ethics, Economic Perspective

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32 Entrepreneurship the Bed Rock and Mainstram of World Economy

Authors: Njeze Anthony

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In the world economy, entrepreneurship is an outstanding venture. Failures in the businesses of over 70% of Entrepreneurs can be attributed to lack of proper planning. For an entrepreneur to succeed, there are some vital planning strategies that will come into play such as organizational, operational, financial and marketing plans. When an entrepreneur lacks the above mentioned, such an entrepreneur is bound to encounter a catastrophic failure. An entrepreneur with an adequate plan will examine his/her own goals, know why he is in business, look at the venture resource base, have a sound knowledge of his proposed venture and identify obstacles that will be surmounted to achieve the desired goals. This work is aimed at identifying the organizational, operational, financial and marketing impact of entrepreneurship in the world economy and as well the important issues in global entrepreneurship, possible obstacles, and solutions.

Keywords: Business, Entrepreneurship, Economy, operation

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31 Management Workspaces to Create Value

Authors: Nevruz Zogu, Shpetim Rezniqi

Abstract:

It is very important that a new environment where work shall be constructed in such a strong record to be creative and eligible for workers, can not have success in the workplace. But, is it possible to design the inner-inspire to create and collaborate? By watching and analyzing examples of creativity in business, construction managers can learn ways on how to encourage their imagination inside buildings. We struggle to find and retain talented employees and skilled labor environment is becoming more and always an important tool for recruiting and retaining employees. Managers who recognize the importance are gaining an edge over their competitors. The physical work environment is as important as its quality is often used as a recruiting tool and even to companies with The relationship between the company and the employees between strategy and behavior, between the product and the customer can reincorporated under the light of symbolic mediation of space, as instrument and interpreter of the core values and identity of the organization.

Keywords: Business, Space, Strategy, Productivity, Quality, offices, assets

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30 Consumer Ethnocentrism: A Dynamic Literature Review from 1987-2015

Authors: Thi Phuong Chi Nguyen

Abstract:

Although consumer ethnocentrism has been widely studied in academic research since 1987, somehow it is still considered as a new and unknown concept in marketing theory and practice. By analyzing the content, three mainstreams of consumer ethnocentrism were found including economic, management and marketing approaches. The present study indicated that the link between consumer ethnocentrism and consumer behaviours varies across countries. Consumers in developing countries might be both patriotic about their home countries and curious about foreign cultures at the same time. The most important finding is identifying three main periods in the chronological development of consumer ethnocentrism research. The first period, spanning from 1987 to 1995, was characterized by the introduction of the consumer ethnocentrism concepts and scales, the unidimensionality and the adaptation of the standard CETSCALE version. The second period 1996-2005 witnessed the replication of CETSCALE in various fields, as well as an increase in the volume of researches in developing and emerging countries; the exploration of determinants and the begin of multidimensionality. In the third period from 2006 to present, all variables related to CET were syntherized within the theory of planne behavior. Consumer ethnocentrism analyses were conducted even in less-developed countries and in groups of countries within longitudinal studies. The results from this study showed many inadequacies relating to consumer ethnocentrism in the context of globalisation for further researches to examine.

Keywords: Business, Marketing, Consumer behavior, CETSCALE, consumer ethnocentrism

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29 An Investigation into the Strategies Adopted by Women Entrepreneurs to Ensure Small Business Success in Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Agholor Deborah Ewere, Emmanuel Ade, Seriki Idowu

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The role women entrepreneur plays to combat unemployment should not be underestimated, especially in countries with growing unemployment rates such as South Africa. Women entrepreneurs contribute significantly to economic development in South Africa, but their contribution has not been adequately studied and developed. Hence, the study identified business strategies adopted by women entrepreneurs to sustain growth and development of entrepreneurship. Survey research design approach was adopted and convenience sampling method was used for sample selection. The structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. The findings revealed some of the operational challenges women entrepreneur faced to include lack of finance, marketing skills and planning and also showed that the strategies adopted by women entrepreneurs have a positive effect on the success of small businesses. It was recommended among others that the women entrepreneurs should take some time to study the nature of challenges other women have faced in business and possibly provide solutions to such issues before starting their own business. It was however concluded that unless the operational challenges named above are resolved, the role of women entrepreneurs in the developing nations will continue to experience deprived economic growth, development and display substandard competitiveness.

Keywords: Business, Women, Entrepreneurs, Strategies, Small, success

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28 Data Mining Practices: Practical Studies on the Telecommunication Companies in Jordan

Authors: Dina Ahmad Alkhodary

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This study aimed to investigate the practices of Data Mining on the telecommunication companies in Jordan, from the viewpoint of the respondents. In order to achieve the goal of the study, and test the validity of hypotheses, the researcher has designed a questionnaire to collect data from managers and staff members from main department in the researched companies. The results shows improvements stages of the telecommunications companies towered Data Mining.

Keywords: Business, Development, Mining, Data

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27 Business Ethics in Islam: Making Islamic Banking Attractive for the Customers Round the Globe

Authors: Fahad Ahmed Qureshi

Abstract:

Is it essential for a Muslim businessperson and employees of Islamic financial institutions not only in Islamic Banks to perform his/her actions ethically in a universally, competing habitat? The answer is an emphatic NO! in Islam, ethics conduct all departments of life. The orders for eternal success or falah in Islam are the same for all Muslims–whether in managing their business activities or in carrying out their routine affairs. Without designating any circumstantial ambience, Allah specify people who achieve success as those who are “inviting to all that is good (Khayr), enjoining what is right (Ma'ruf) and forbidding what is wrong (Munkar).” Within a business context, however, what sole axioms of regimen should a company follow? What is a Muslim businessperson’s encumbrance to internal and external stakeholders? Although an organization’s top executives may display sterling ethical behavior, how can middle- and lower-level managers be enthusiastic to perform in a correspondingly ethical manner? What are some protocols that would clinch persistent ethical behavior in a Muslim business?

Keywords: Business, Finance, Islam, Ethics

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26 The Application and Relevance of Costing Techniques in Service-Oriented Business Organizations a Review of the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Technique

Authors: Udeh Nneka Evelyn

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The shortcoming of traditional costing system in terms of validity, accuracy, consistency, and Relevance increased the need for modern management accounting system. Activity –Based Costing (ABC) can be used as a modern tool for planning, Control and decision making for management. Past studies on ABC system have focused on manufacturing firms thereby making the studies on service firms scanty to some extent. This paper reviewed the application and relevance of activity-based costing technique in service oriented business organizations by employing a qualitative research method which relied heavily on literature review of past and current relevant articles focusing on ABC. Findings suggest that ABC is not only appropriate for use in a manufacturing environment; it is also most appropriate for service organizations such as financial institutions, the healthcare industry and government organization. In fact, some banking and financial institutions have been applying the concept for years under other names. One of them is unit costing, which is used to calculate the cost of banking services by determining the cost and consumption of each unit of output of functions required to deliver the service. ABC in very basic terms may provide very good payback for businesses. Some of the benefits that relate directly to the financial services industry are: identification the most profitable customers: more accurate product and service pricing: increase product profitability: Well organized process costs.

Keywords: Business, Planning, Techniques, Organizations, costing

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25 Evaluating Effect of Business Process Reengineering Performance of Private Banks

Authors: Elham Fakhrpoor, Daryush Mohammadi Zanjirani, Maziyar Nojaba

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Business process reengineering is one of the most important strategies in banks in recent years that not only it increases customers’ satisfaction, but also it increases performance of banks. The purpose of elementary (initial) business process reengineering is reinforcing banks abilities to obtain new customers and making long-term relationships with existed customers and increasing customers’ satisfaction among service quality in global level. Banks specially the private ones are the main streams of state, because cash flow is necessary to survive a state. What guarantees survival and permanency of financial institutes’ activities is providing favorite, certain, and proper services. Capital market being small and state financial system being bank-oriented needs optimum usage from banks. According to this fact and role and importance of developing banking system, the present study tried to offer a constructed model using Lisrel and also spss software to evaluate effects of business process reengineering on performance of private banks. We have one min hypothesis and four sub-hypotheses. The main hypothesis says reengineering factors have positive effects on bank performances (balanced- scores card aspects). These hypotheses were tested by structural equations modeling.

Keywords: Business, Reengineering, effect, private bank

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24 The Role of Social Infrastructure on Entrepreneurship Performance

Authors: Obasan Kehinde

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Social Infrastructure such as transport, telecommunications, energy, water, health, housing, and educational facilities have become part and parcel of human existence and have since been seen as prerequisite for the development of any economy. It is difficult to imagine a modern world without these facilities. Using a survey research design, data was gathered through a multi-stage sampling and a random sampling method from a total of 117 respondents, the study investigates the role of social infrastructure on the performance of entrepreneurs drawn from 10 Local Government Areas across two carefully selected states in the South-West, Nigeria. The data was analyzed using a descriptive statistical analysis and a t-test. The result shows that the impact of social infrastructure on entrepreneur performance is significant at 0.00 level of significant. Thus, this study recommends that entrepreneurs should take note of the social infrastructures available in the environment for the purpose of citing business in order to reduce the cost of production and other business costs.

Keywords: Business, Entrepreneurship, Social Infrastructure, entrepreneur performance

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23 The Relational Approach under the Angle of the CSR

Authors: Fatima El Kandoussi, Hind Benouakrim, Afafe El Amrani El Hassani

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CSR in the relational approach is imposed today as a matter of concerns lighthouses in the academic environment and managerial. This study presents the issues of the CSR dimension in the field of relationship marketing. This exploratory research was conducted with two groups of Moroccan enterprises having the label of the CSR /CGEM. It presents a better understanding of the approaches taken by the companies interviewed in a CSR and contributed to understand the reasons that lead them to adopt the process of CSR and also allows explaining how these enterprises maintain their relationship with the most important customers in a context of CSR.

Keywords: Business, Relationship Marketing, CSR, Stakeholders

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22 Omani Community in Digital Age: A Study of Omani Women Using Back Channel Media to Empower Themselves for Frontline Entrepreneurship

Authors: Sangeeta Tripathi, Muna Al Shahri

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This research article presents the changing role and status of women in Oman. Transformation of women’s status started with the regime of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin Said in 1970. It is always desired by the Sultan to enable women in all the ways for the balance growth of the country. Forbidding full face veil for women in public offices is one of the best efforts for their empowerment. Women education is also increasing rapidly. They are getting friendly with new information communication technology and using different social media applications such as WhatsApp, Instagram and Facebook for interaction and economic growth. Though there are some traditional and tribal boundaries, women are infused with courage and enjoying fair treatment and equal opportunities in different career positions. The study will try to explore changing mindset of young Omani women towards these traditional tribal boundaries, cultural heritage, business and career: ‘How are young Omani women making balance between work and social prestige?’, ‘How are they preserving their cultural values, embracing new technologies and approaching social network to enhance their economic power.’ This paper will discover their hurdles while using internet for their new entrepreneur. It will also examine the prospects of online business in Oman. The mixed research methodology is applied to find out the result.

Keywords: Business, Entrepreneurship, Advertising, tribal barrier

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21 Whistleblowing a Contemporary Topic Concerning Businesses

Authors: Maria Krambia-Kapardis, Andreas Kapardis, Sofia Michaelides-Mateou

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Corruption and economic crime is a serious problem affecting the sustainability of businesses in the 21st century. Nowadays, many corruption or fraud cases come to light thanks to whistleblowers. This article will first discuss the concept of whistleblowing as well as some relevant legislation enacted around the world. Secondly, it will discuss the findings of a survey of whistleblowers or could-have-been whistleblowers. Finally, suggestions for the development of a comprehensive whistleblowing framework will be considered. Whistleblowing can be described as expressing a concern about a wrongdoing within an organization, such as a corporation, an association, an institution or a union. Such concern must be in the public interest and in good faith and should relate to the cover up of matters that could potentially result in a miscarriage of justice, a crime, criminal offence and threats to health and safety. Whistleblowing has proven to be an effective anti-corruption mechanism and a powerful tool that helps deterring fraud, violations, and malpractices within organizations, corporations and the public sector. Research in the field of whistleblowing has concentrated on the reasons for whistleblowing and financial bounties; the effectiveness of whistleblowing; whistleblowing being a prosocial behavior with a psychological perspective and consequences; as a tool in protecting shareholders, saving lives and billions of dollars of public funds. Whilst, no other study of whistleblowing has been carried out on whistleblowers or intended whistleblowers. The study reported in the current paper analyses the findings of 74 whistleblowers or intended whistleblowers, the reasons behind their decision to blow the whistle, or not to proceed to blow the whistle and any regrets they may have had. In addition a profile of a whistleblower is developed concerning their age, gender, marital and family status and position in an organization. Lessons learned from the intended whistleblowers and in response to the questions if they would be willing to blow the whistle again show that enacting legislation to protect the whistleblower is not enough. Similarly, rewarding the whistleblower does not appear to provide the whistleblower with an incentive since the majority noted that “work ethics is more important than financial rewards”. We recommend the development of a comprehensive and holistic framework for the protection of the whistleblower and to ensure that remedial actions are immediately taken once a whistleblower comes forward. The suggested framework comprises (a) hard legislation in ensuring the whistleblowers follow certain principles when blowing the whistle and, in return, are protected for a period of 5 years from being fired, dismissed, bullied, harassed; (b) soft legislation in establishing an agency to firstly ensure psychological and legal advice is provided to the whistleblowers and secondly any required remedial action is immediately taken to avert the undesirable events reported by a whistleblower from occurring and, finally; (c) mechanisms to ensure the coordination of actions taken.

Keywords: Business, Business Ethics, Legislation, whistleblowing

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20 Financial Management Performance in Organization Profitability

Authors: Adekunle Olakunle Felix

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Research will be based on the financial management importance within organization and its important role in non-economic and economic activities that provide us the useful information about the efficient procurement and utilization of finance in a profitable manner. Due to industrialization, financial management become a vital part of business and it is very important for the business concern that with a good financial management to earn maximum profit.

Keywords: Business, Financial, Management, Organization, Efficiency, Profitability

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19 Using Industry Projects to Modernize Business Education

Authors: Marie Sams, Kate Barnett-Richards, Jacqui Speculand, Gemma Tombs

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Business education in the United Kingdom has seen a number of improvements over the years in moving from delivering traditional chalk and talk lectures to using digital technologies and inviting guest lectures from industry to deliver sessions for students. Engaging topical industry talks to enhance course delivery is generally seen as a positive aspect of enhancing curriculum, however it is acknowledged that perhaps there are better ways in which industry can contribute to the quality of business programmes. Additionally, there is a consensus amongst UK industry managers that a bigger involvement in designing and inputting into business curriculum will have a greater impact on the quality of business ready graduates. Funded by the Disruptive Media Learning Lab at Coventry University in the UK, a project (SOPI - Student Online Projects with Industry) was initiated to enable students to work in project teams to respond and engage with real problems and challenges faced by five managers in various industries including retail, events and manufacturing. Over a semester, approximately 200 students were given the opportunity to develop their management, facilitation, problem solving and reflective skills, whilst having some exposure to real challenges in industry with a focus on supply chain and project management. Face to face seminars were re-designed to enable students to work on live issues in a competitive environment, and were guided to consider the theoretical aspects of their module delivery to underpin the solutions that they were generating. Dialogue between student groups and managers took place using Google+ community; an online social media tool which enables private discussions to take place and can be accessed on mobile devices. Results of the project will be shared in how this development has added value to students experience and understanding of the two subject areas. Student reflections will be analysed and evaluated to assess how the project has contributed to their perception of how the theoretical nature of these two business subjects are applied in practical situations.

Keywords: Education, Business, Industry, projects

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18 A Qualitative Analysis of People Views of Microfinance in Lebanon

Authors: Ali Abu Ali, Mohammad Salhab

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Introduction: In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) microfinance struggles to find momentum. The Lebanese economy has been struggling through the years due to domestic and external, political and social instability. Although as of 2014 there are around 23 MFIs that are mainly subsidized by the USAID, operating in the country, the Lebanese microfinance market is mostly dominated by three microfinance institutions: Al Majmoua, Vitas, and Al Quard Al Hassan Association. Methodology: A quantitative approach using a standardized questionnaire would analyse the perception of the average Lebanese towards microfinance. A questionnaire was designed and validated. Results: Almost half of the respondents earn a monthly income ranged between $100 and $600. Almost 52% of the respondents were university graduates, around 25% finished secondary and high school, and 12% hold a masters or MBA degree. Topic understanding towards microfinance differs across Lebanese areas. The highest percentage of respondents who claim that microfinance offers financial services to low income people are the residents of Beirut (35.1%), Bekaa (30.8%), and South of Lebanon (24.7%). Higher levels of topic understanding were associated with lower levels of age range. Al Quard el Hassan foundation was regarded as the most known micro financial institution operating in Lebanon. In general, Lebanese people tend to believe that microfinance can play an important role in reducing unemployment rates and poverty levels in Lebanon. When people were asked what would motivate you to get a loan from MFIs, most of the respondent (57.4%) across all the Lebanese region claimed that it was the need for money to satisfy a need such as paying back a loan, to fix something at home, or for self-consideration like buying a car. Conclusion: Our findings showed that in general Lebanese tend to have a positive perception towards microfinance. However, most Lebanese perceive microfinance as the process of just providing loans without specifying for whom it is intended. We advise that government introduces laws to regulate the microfinance market.

Keywords: Economics, Business, Finance, Analysis, Theory, Microfinance

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17 Information and Communication Technology and Business Education in Nigeria

Authors: Oloniyo Kemisola Eunice, Odere Oladunni Oluwafeyikemi

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Technological change and globalization have created a new global economy with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) occupying a complex position in relation to globalization. The emergence of this new global economy has serious implications on the nature and purpose of educational institutions. The paper is basically a theoretical discourse. Data for analysis were obtained from secondary sources. The paper found that significant challenges confront the integration of ICTs in education in the areas of educational policy and planning, infrastructure, language and content, capacity building and financing in Nigeria. The paper concluded that business education needs to be well equipped to anticipate and respond to opportunities created by ICTs in order to participate productively and equitably in an increasingly technology-rich and knowledge-driven world. The paper recommended, among others, that the investments in ICTs should be used to promote the development of basic skills, problem-solving and communication skills and the professional development of teachers.

Keywords: Education, Business, Communication, Information, Technology

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16 Surrogacy in India: Emerging Business or Disguised Human Trafficking

Authors: Priya Sepaha

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Commercial Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy for intended parents. There are two types of surrogacy; first, Traditional Surrogacy, in which, sperm of the donor or father is artificially inseminated in the women and carries the fetus till birth. Second, Gestational Surrogacy, in which the egg and sperm of the intended parent are collected for artificial fertilization through In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) technique and after the embryo formation, it is transferred into the womb of a surrogate mother with the help of Assisted Reproductive Technique. Surrogacy has become so widespread in India that it has now been nicknamed the "rent-a-womb" capital of the world due to relatively low cost and lack of stringent regulatory legalisation. The legal aspects surrounding surrogacy are complex, diverse and mostly unsettled. Although this appears to be beneficial for the parties concerned, there are certain sensitive issues which need to be addressed to ensure ample protection to all stakeholders. Commercial surrogacy is an emerging business and a new means of human trafficking particularly in India. Poor and illiterate women are often lured in such deals by their spouse or broker for earning easy money. Traffickers also use force, fraud, or coercion at times to intimidate the probable surrogate mothers. A major chunk of money received from covert surrogacy agreement is taken away by the brokers. The Law Commission of India has specifically reviewed the issue as India is emerging as a major global surrogacy destination. The Supreme Court of India held in the Manji's case in 2008, that commercial surrogacy can be permitted with certain restrictions but had directed the Legislature to pass an appropriate Law for governing Surrogacy in India. The draft Assisted Reproductive Technique (ART) Bill, 2010 is still pending for approval. At present, the Surrogacy Contract between the parties and the ART Clinics Guidelines are perhaps the only guiding force. The Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act (ITPA), 1956 and Sections 366(A) and 372 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 are perhaps the only existing laws, which deal with human trafficking. Yet, none of these provisions specifically deal with the serious issue of trafficking for the purpose of Commercial Surrogacy. India remains one of the few countries that still allow commercial surrogacy. International Surrogacy involves bilateral issues, where the laws of both the nations have to be at par in order to ensure that the concerns and interests of parties involved get amicably resolved. There is urgent need to pass a comprehensive law by incorporating the latest developments in this field in order to make it ethical on the one hand and to curb disguised human trafficking on the other.

Keywords: Business, Legal, Human trafficking, surrogacy

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15 ‘Ethical Relativism’ in Offshore Business: A Critical Assessment

Authors: Biswanath Swain

Abstract:

Ethical relativism, as an ethical perspective, holds that moral worth of a course of action is dependent on a particular space and time. Moral rightness or wrongness of a course of action varies from space to space and from time to time. In short, ethical relativism holds that morality is relative to the context. If we reflect conscientiously on the scope of this perspective, we will find that it is wide-spread amongst the marketers involved in the offshore business. However, the irony is that most of the marketers gone along with ethical relativism in their offshore business have been found to be unsuccessful in terms of loss in market-share and bankruptcy. The upshot is purely self-defeating in nature for the marketers. GSK in China and Nestle Maggi in India are some of the burning examples of that sort. The paper argues and recommends that a marketer, as an alternative, should have recourse to Kantian ethical perspective to deliberate courses of action sensitive to offshore business as Kantian ethical perspective is logically and methodologically sound in nature.

Keywords: Business, Offshore, Relativism, morality‎, kant, Course of Action

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14 Using Businesses for Governance and Creating Sustainable Cities

Authors: Parisa Toloue Hayat Azar

Abstract:

Businesses have been playing an important role in the economic growth and social welfare of cities; however, they generally have negative reputations regarding their impact on environmental issues regarding sustainability. However, some believe that by incorporating strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities, businesses will be able to solve problems in society, including environmental ones. Besides economic, social and environmental aspects, governance is another essential pillar for creating sustainable communities and cities. Governance plays a key role in the success of sustainable projects or creating long lasting legacies; an example of this can be creating circular supply chain with collaboration between different businesses, which in the end results in positive economic, social and environmental outcomes for everyone. Governance is a very important parameter in creating the legacy of low carbon and environmentally friendly city due to the fact that, besides building energy efficient buildings and infrastructure, citizens who are also part of the success of this system should know about how to behave and collaborate with others to make the system work. By deploying the philosophy of cultural historical activity theory, this paper explains how influential businesses have been and can be still used as a mediating tool for governance purposes, and succeed in creating shared value and lasting legacy within society.

Keywords: Business, Governance, Sustainability, CSR

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13 The Flipped Classroom Used in Business Curricula

Authors: Hedia Mhiri Sellami

Abstract:

This case study used the principles of the flipped classroom (FC) in courses dealing with the use of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in three business curricula. The FC was used because our first goal is to devote more time to practice the theoretical concepts, so, before the class session, students had to watch videos introducing the concept they will learn. The videos weren't designed for our course, they are on Youtube and correspond to real cases of the ICT use in companies. This choice was also made in order to meet our second goal; it was to motivate students by showing them that the aspects covered by the course are very useful in the business. This case study reinforced the positive reputation of the FC as it was globally appreciated by our students. Beside, we managed to achieve our objectives relating to the motivation and application of concepts studied.

Keywords: Learning, Business, video, ICT, Flipped Classroom

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12 Innovating Development: An Exploratory Study of Social Enterprises in Nigeria

Authors: Akor Omachile Opaluwah

Abstract:

Entrepreneurs are heralded as a very vital force in the growth of economies. This is because they create businesses, employ people, have direct access to the local consumer, and primarily utilize local sources of raw materials, have an understanding of the immediate need of consumers, and they have the capacity to keep in motion the economy. The rise of social enterprises takes these advantages further beyond the business and economic benefits. These Social enterprises help address developmental issues in the society while maintaining a profit for their investors and shareholders. These combined roles create a unique synergy between the civil society and the market, therefore placing the social enterprise in a position where they can access directly, the benefits of the market while meeting the needs of the citizens and their environment. With such a unique position, social enterprises hold a place in the development discourse that has previously been left unexplored. This hybridisation of the functions of civil societies and the market can provide to development, practices, and benefits that have previously been only available in trace amounts. It, therefore, is imperative to understand the efficacy of social enterprises. With the discourse of social enterprises still in its early stages. This paper looks at selected social enterprise cases in Nigeria and analyses their approach and contribution to development.

Keywords: Business, Development, Innovation, Civil Society, Market, Entrepreneurs, Social Enterprise, Nigeria

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11 Startup Ecosystem in India: Development and Impact

Authors: Soham Chakraborty

Abstract:

This article examines the development of start-up culture in India, its development as well as related impact on the Indian society. Another vibrant synonym of start-up in the present century can be starting afresh. Startups have become the new flavor of this decade. A startup ecosystem is formed by mainly the new generation in the making. A startup ecosystem involves a variety of elements without which a startup can never prosper, they are—ideas, inventions, innovations as well as authentic research in the field into which one is interested, mentors, advisors, funding bodies, service provider organizations, angel, venture and so on. The culture of startup is quiet nascent but rampant in India. This is largely due to the widespread of media as a medium through which the newfangled entrepreneurs can spread their word of mouth far and wide. Different kinds of media such as Television, Radio, Internet, Print media and so on, act as the weapon to any startup company in India. The article explores how there is a sudden shift in the growing Indian economy due to the rise of startup ecosystem. There are various reasons, which are the result of the growing success of startup in India, firstly, entrepreneurs are building up startup ideas on the basis of various international startup but giving them a pinch of Indian flavor; secondly, business models are framed based on the current problems that people face in the modern century; thirdly, balance between social and technological entrepreneurs and lastly, quality of mentorship. The Government of India boasts startup as a flagship initiative. Bunch full of benefits and assistance was declared in an event named as 'Start Up India, Stand Up India' on 16th January 2016 by the current Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi. One of the biggest boon that increasing startups are creating in the society is the proliferation of self-employment. Noted Startups which are thriving in India are like OYO, Where’s The Food (WTF), TVF Pitchers, Flipkart and so on are examples of India is getting covered up by various innovative startups. The deep impact can be felt by each Indian after a few years as various governmental and non-governmental policies and agendas are helping in the sprawling up of startups and have mushroom growth in India. The impact of startup uprising in India is also possible due to increasing globalization which is leading to the eradication of national borders, thereby creating the environment to enlarge one’s business model. To conclude, this article points out on the correlation between rising startup in Indian market and its increasing developmental benefits for the people at large. Internationally, various business portals are tagging India to be the world’s fastest growing startup ecosystem.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Business, Media, Entrepreneurs, Globalization, startup

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10 A Literature Review on the Role of Local Potential for Creative Industries

Authors: Maya Irjayanti

Abstract:

Local creativity utilization has been a strategic investment to be expanded as a creative industry due to its significant contribution to the national gross domestic product. Many developed and developing countries look toward creative industries as an agenda for the economic growth. This study aims to identify the role of local potential for creative industries from various empirical studies. The method performed in this study will involve a peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers review addressing local potential and creative industries. The literature review analysis will include several steps: material collection, descriptive analysis, category selection, and material evaluation. Finally, the outcome expected provides a creative industries clustering based on the local potential of various nations. In addition, the finding of this study will be used as future research reference to explore a particular area with well-known aspects of local potential for creative industry products.

Keywords: Business, Creativity, local wisdom, local potential

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9 Data Mining and Knowledge Management Application to Enhance Business Operations: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Zeba Mahmood

Abstract:

The modern business organizations are adopting technological advancement to achieve competitive edge and satisfy their consumer. The development in the field of Information technology systems has changed the way of conducting business today. Business operations today rely more on the data they obtained and this data is continuously increasing in volume. The data stored in different locations is difficult to find and use without the effective implementation of Data mining and Knowledge management techniques. Organizations who smartly identify, obtain and then convert data in useful formats for their decision making and operational improvements create additional value for their customers and enhance their operational capabilities. Marketers and Customer relationship departments of firm use Data mining techniques to make relevant decisions, this paper emphasizes on the identification of different data mining and Knowledge management techniques that are applied to different business industries. The challenges and issues of execution of these techniques are also discussed and critically analyzed in this paper.

Keywords: Business, Knowledge Management, Data Mining, Information, Knowledge, operational, knowledge discovery in databases

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8 Entrepreneurship Education: The Impact in Today’s World

Authors: Oghenerume V. Edah, Damilola T. Aladejana

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship Education is the process of developing and acquiring entrepreneur skills on how to identify a new business and launching the business with the realization of yielding profit optimally. It’s the process of knowing how to take risk and handle challenges that accompanies a new business without the mindset of closing it when it fails. It includes steps to take when a business is recognized, combined with acquiring resources (e.g. finances, labor, land) in the face of risk and launching the new business. Additionally, Entrepreneurship is defined as the ability and willingness to set a business in the event of making profit. It is the act of starting up a business to solve big problems or present a new life-changing solution in the society to generate profit. It’s a process where a business opportunity is identified; planned, acquired and needful steps are taken to launch a business. This involves taking up financial risk, acquiring natural resources, combined with land, capital and building up a team of people who would individually contribute or add value in order to make the new business a success. Moreover, Education is the learning of new skills or value. It’s the acquiring of knowledge and capability of doing new things. It is been able to differentiate what you know and what you don’t know yet. In this modern world, the emergence of entrepreneurship education has been magnificent. An average of 60 percent humans wants to start a business or become an entrepreneur without knowing the steps on how to startup. Moreover, many of them are good starters and they end up failing when the business is not managed well. The introduction of Entrepreneur Education in our world today would change the face of business phenomenally. It would involve the acquisition of entrepreneur skills, knowledge and attitude towards initiating a business venture. The impact of Entrepreneurship Education in our world today would increase the chances of business success because it would generate better entrepreneurs. The skills, values, concept and processes acquired through learning have changed the face of business to a positive direction globally and the impact can be felt. Entrepreneurship can be taught and also can be learnt. Like any skills it can be known.

Keywords: Education, Business, Entrepreneurship, Skills, entrepreneur

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7 The Role of Technology in Entrepreneurship: Key Findings from Women Start-Ups in Kaduna

Authors: Ogola Lois Kange

Abstract:

The study looked at the role technology had previously played and now plays in small and medium scale women-owned businesses starting up in Kaduna, which is an emerging entrepreneurship hub state in Nigeria. The study selected a random population of 20 businesses drawn from the north and south of Kaduna. The selection was based on a survey administered to 100 Women-owned businesses that had started up within the last 3-5years. Questionnaires were administered and analyzed based on the participants’ backgrounds, upbringing, exposure and access to technology. One of the key findings is that women-owned businesses can no longer thrive without the application of basic technology.

Keywords: Business, Entrepreneurship, Women, Technology, start-up

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