Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

buried pipelines Related Abstracts

3 Study the Effect of Liquefaction on Buried Pipelines during Earthquakes

Authors: Mohsen Hababalahi, Morteza Bastami


Buried pipeline damage correlations are critical part of loss estimation procedures applied to lifelines for future earthquakes. The vulnerability of buried pipelines against earthquake and liquefaction has been observed during some of previous earthquakes and there are a lot of comprehensive reports about this event. One of the main reasons for impairment of buried pipelines during earthquake is liquefaction. Necessary conditions for this phenomenon are loose sandy soil, saturation of soil layer and earthquake intensity. Because of this fact that pipelines structure are very different from other structures (being long and having light mass) by paying attention to the results of previous earthquakes and compare them with other structures, it is obvious that the danger of liquefaction for buried pipelines is not high risked, unless effective parameters like earthquake intensity and non-dense soil and other factors be high. Recent liquefaction researches for buried pipeline include experimental and theoretical ones as well as damage investigations during actual earthquakes. The damage investigations have revealed that a damage ratio of pipelines (Number/km ) has much larger values in liquefied grounds compared with one in shaking grounds without liquefaction according to damage statistics during past severe earthquakes, and that damages of joints and pipelines connected with manholes were remarkable. The purpose of this research is numerical study of buried pipelines under the effect of liquefaction by case study of the 2013 Dashti (Iran) earthquake. Water supply and electrical distribution systems of this township interrupted during earthquake and water transmission pipelines were damaged severely due to occurrence of liquefaction. The model consists of a polyethylene pipeline with 100 meters length and 0.8 meter diameter which is covered by light sandy soil and the depth of burial is 2.5 meters from surface. Since finite element method is used relatively successfully in order to solve geotechnical problems, we used this method for numerical analysis. For evaluating this case, some information like geotechnical information, classification of earthquakes levels, determining the effective parameters in probability of liquefaction, three dimensional numerical finite element modeling of interaction between soil and pipelines are necessary. The results of this study on buried pipelines indicate that the effect of liquefaction is function of pipe diameter, type of soil, and peak ground acceleration. There is a clear increase in percentage of damage with increasing the liquefaction severity. The results indicate that although in this form of the analysis, the damage is always associated to a certain pipe material, but the nominally defined “failures” include by failures of particular components (joints, connections, fire hydrant details, crossovers, laterals) rather than material failures. At the end, there are some retrofit suggestions in order to decrease the risk of liquefaction on buried pipelines.

Keywords: Earthquake, Liquefaction, Finite Element Method, buried pipelines, lifelines

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2 Subway Stray Current Effects on Gas Pipelines in the City of Tehran

Authors: Mohammad Derakhshani, Masoud Samadian, Saeed Reza Allahkarama, Michael Isakhani-Zakaria, Hojjat Sharifi Rasaey


In order to investigate the effects of stray current from DC traction systems (subway) on cathodically protected gas pipelines, the subway and the gas network maps in the city of Tehran were superimposed and a comprehensive map was prepared. 213 intersections and about 100150 meters of parallel sections of gas pipelines were found with respect to the railway right of way which was specified for field measurements. The potential measurements data were logged for one hour in each test point. 24-hour potential monitoring was carried out in selected test points as well. Results showed that dynamic stray current from subway on pipeline potential appears as fluctuations in its static potential that is visible in the diagrams during night periods. These fluctuations can cause the pipeline potential to exit the safe zone and lead to corrosion or overprotection. In this study, a maximum potential shift of 100 mv in the pipe-to-soil potential was considered as a criterion for dynamic stray current effective presence. Results showed that a potential fluctuation range between 100 mV to 3 V exists in measured points on pipelines which exceeds the proposed criterion and needs to be investigated. Corrosion rates influenced by stray currents were calculated using coupons. Results showed that coupon linked to the pipeline in one of the locations at region 1 of the city of Tehran has a corrosion rate of 4.2 mpy (with cathodic protection and under influence of stray currents) which is about 1.5 times more than free corrosion rate of 2.6 mpy.

Keywords: Subway, buried pipelines, DC traction, stray current, cathodic protection list

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1 Stress Analysis of Buried Pipes from Soil and Traffic Loads

Authors: A. Mohamed, A. El-Hamalawi, M. Frost, A. Connell


Often design standards do not provide guidance or formulae for the calculation of stresses on buried pipelines caused by external loads. Frequently engineers rely on other methods and published sources of information to calculate such imposed stresses and a variety of methods can be used. This paper reviews three current approaches to soil pipeline interaction modelling to predict stresses on buried pipelines subjected to soil overburden and traffic loading. The traditional approach to use empirical stress formulas to calculate circumferential bending stresses on pipelines. The alternative approaches considered are the use of a finite element package to compute an estimate of circumferential bending stress and a proprietary stress analysis system (SURFLOAD) to estimate the circumferential bending stress. The results from analysis using the methods are presented and compared to experimental results in terms of predicted and measured circumferential stresses. This study shows that the approach used to assess externally generated stress is important and can lead to an over-conservative analysis. Using FE analysis either through SURFLOAD or a general FE package to predict circumferential stress is the most accurate way to undertake stress analysis due to traffic and soil loads. Although conservative, classical empirical methods will continue to be applied to the analysis of buried pipelines, an opportunity exists, therefore, in many circumstances, to use applied numerical techniques, made possible by advances in finite element analysis.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, buried pipelines, circumferential bending stress, soil overburden, soil pipeline interaction analysis (SPIA), traffic loadings

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