Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Buildings Related Abstracts

18 Geographic Information System (GIS) for Structural Typology of Buildings

Authors: Néstor Iván Rojas, Wilson Medina Sierra

Abstract:

Managing spatial information is described through a Geographic Information System (GIS), for some neighborhoods in the city of Tunja, in relation to the structural typology of the buildings. The use of GIS provides tools that facilitate the capture, processing, analysis and dissemination of cartographic information, product quality evaluation of the classification of buildings. Allows the development of a method that unifies and standardizes processes information. The project aims to generate a geographic database that is useful to the entities responsible for planning and disaster prevention and care for vulnerable populations, also seeks to be a basis for seismic vulnerability studies that can contribute in a study of urban seismic microzonation. The methodology consists in capturing the plat including road naming, neighborhoods, blocks and buildings, to which were added as attributes, the product of the evaluation of each of the housing data such as the number of inhabitants and classification, year of construction, the predominant structural systems, the type of mezzanine board and state of favorability, the presence of geo-technical problems, the type of cover, the use of each building, damage to structural and non-structural elements . The above data are tabulated in a spreadsheet that includes cadastral number, through which are systematically included in the respective building that also has that attribute. Geo-referenced data base is obtained, from which graphical outputs are generated, producing thematic maps for each evaluated data, which clearly show the spatial distribution of the information obtained. Using GIS offers important advantages for spatial information management and facilitates consultation and update. Usefulness of the project is recognized as a basis for studies on issues of planning and prevention.

Keywords: Buildings, microzonation, geo-processing, cadastral number

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17 Exergetic and Sustainability Evaluation of a Building Heating System in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Nurdan Yildirim, Arif Hepbasli

Abstract:

Heating, cooling and lighting appliances in buildings account for more than one third of the world’s primary energy demand. Therefore, main components of the building heating systems play an essential role in terms of energy consumption. In this context, efficient energy and exergy utilization in HVAC-R systems has been very essential, especially in developing energy policies towards increasing efficiencies. The main objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a family house with a volume of 326.7 m3 and a net floor area of 121 m2, located in the city of Izmir, Turkey in terms of energetic, exergetic and sustainability aspects. The indoor and exterior air temperatures are taken as 20°C and 1°C, respectively. In the analysis and assessment, various metrics (indices or indicators) such as exergetic efficiency, exergy flexibility ratio and sustainability index are utilized. Two heating options (Case 1: condensing boiler and Case 2: air heat pump) are considered for comparison purposes. The total heat loss rate of the family house is determined to be 3770.72 W. The overall energy efficiencies of the studied cases are calculated to be 49.4% for Case 1 and 54.7% for Case 2. The overall exergy efficiencies, the flexibility factor and the sustainability index of Cases 1 and 2 are computed to be around 3.3%, 0.17 and 1.034, respectively.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Sustainability, Buildings, Exergy, Efficiency, Heating, low exergy

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16 Investigation of Effects and Hazards of Wind Flow on Buildings in Multiple Arrangements Using CFD

Authors: S. C. Gupta

Abstract:

The wind flow over several buildings lying in close vicinity in urban areas generates flow interference effects causing problems related to pedestrian comfort and ventilation within the buildings. This promoted a lot of research interest in the recent years. Airflow over a building creates a positive pressure zone on the upstream side and negative pressure zones (cavities or eddy zones) on the roof and all other sides. Large eddy simulation model is used along with sub-grid-scale model to numerically simulate turbulence for this purpose. The basis of flow outside the building is the pressure difference (between the wind and building interior). Wind Tunnel models are fabricated and tested in the subsonic wind tunnel. Theoretical results are compared with the experimental data. Newer configuration is tried for favorable effects in recovering static pressure values. Results obtained are seen very encouraging. The proposed exhaustive research investigation through numerical simulations and the experimental work are described and some interesting findings are brought out.

Keywords: Buildings, CFD, wind flow, static pressure wind tunnel testing

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15 Risks of Climate Change on Buildings

Authors: Abdel Halim Boussabaine, Yahya N. Alfraidi

Abstract:

Climate change risk impacts are one of the most challenging aspects that faces the built environment now and the near future. The impacts of climate change on buildings are considered in four different dimensions: physical, economic, social, and management. For each of these, the risks are discussed as they arise from various effects linked to climate change, including windstorms, precipitation, temperature change, flooding, and sea-level rise. For example, building assets in cities will be exposed to extreme hot summer days and nights due to the urban heat island effect and pollution. Buildings also could be vulnerable to water, electricity, gas, etc., scarcity. Building materials, fabric and systems could also be stressed by the emerging climate risks. More impotently the building users might experience extreme internal and extern comfort conditions leading to lower productivity, wellbeing and health problems. Thus, the main aim of this paper to document the emerging risks from climate change on building assets. An in-depth discussion on the consequences of these climate change risk is provided. It is expected that the outcome of this research will be a set of risk design indicators for developing and procuring resilient building assets.

Keywords: Climate Change, Buildings, Risks of Climate Change, risks on building from climate change

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14 Application of Life Cycle Assessment “LCA” Approach for a Sustainable Building Design under Specific Climate Conditions

Authors: Djeffal Asma, Zemmouri Noureddine

Abstract:

In order for building designer to be able to balance environmental concerns with other performance requirements, they need clear and concise information. For certain decisions during the design process, qualitative guidance, such as design checklists or guidelines information may not be sufficient for evaluating the environmental benefits between different building materials, products and designs. In this case, quantitative information, such as that generated through a life cycle assessment, provides the most value. LCA provides a systematic approach to evaluating the environmental impacts of a product or system over its entire life. In the case of buildings life cycle includes the extraction of raw materials, manufacturing, transporting and installing building components or products, operating and maintaining the building. By integrating LCA into building design process, designers can evaluate the life cycle impacts of building design, materials, components and systems and choose the combinations that reduce the building life cycle environmental impact. This article attempts to give an overview of the integration of LCA methodology in the context of building design, and focuses on the use of this methodology for environmental considerations concerning process design and optimization. A multiple case study was conducted in order to assess the benefits of the LCA as a decision making aid tool during the first stages of the building design under specific climate conditions of the North East region of Algeria. It is clear that the LCA methodology can help to assess and reduce the impact of a building design and components on the environment even if the process implementation is rather long and complicated and lacks of global approach including human factors. It is also demonstrated that using LCA as a multi objective optimization of building process will certainly facilitates the improvement in design and decision making for both new design and retrofit projects.

Keywords: Sustainability, Buildings, Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Impacts, elementary schools

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13 Variation of Compressive Strength of Hollow Sand Crate Block (6”) with Mix Ratio Using Locally Made Cement (Sokoto Cement)

Authors: Idris Adamu Idris

Abstract:

The Nigerian construction industry is faced with problems of failure of structures/buildings. These failures are attributed to the use of low quality construction materials of which sand crate bock is inclusive. The research was conducted to determine the compressive strength of hollow sand crate block (6”) using locally made cement (Sokoto cement). Samples were tested for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days for mix ratio of 1:3 to 1:12. From the laboratory results obtained, a mix ratio of 1:10 corresponding to a minimum compressive strength of 1.9N/mm2 at 7 days should be adopted. This satisfies the BS 2028, 1364 1986 which specified a minimum compressive strength of 1.8N/mm2 at 7 days. At 28 days of curing, the same mix ratio meets the minimum BS standard of 2.5N/mm2 .

Keywords: Construction, Buildings, cement, Nigeria, hollow sand crate block

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12 Seismic Response of Structures of Reinforced Concrete Buildings: Regular and Irregular Configurations

Authors: Abdelhammid Chibane

Abstract:

Often, for architectural reasons or designs, several buildings have a non-uniform profile in elevation. Depending on the configuration of the construction and the arrangements structural elements, the non-uniform profile in elevation (the recess) is considered concept of a combination of non-uniform distributions of strength, stiffness, weight and geometry along the height of irregular structures. Therefore, this type of configuration can induce irregular distribution load causing a serious concentration stresses at the discontinuity. This therefore requires a serious behavioral treatment buildings in an earthquake. If appropriate measures are not taken into account, structural irregularity may become a major source of damage during earthquakesEarth. In the past, several research investigations have identified differences in dynamic response of irregular and regular porches. Among the most notable differences are the increments of displacements and ductility applications in floors located above the level of the shoulder and an increase in the contribution of the higher modes cisaillement1 efforts, ..., 10. The para -ssismiques codes recommend the methods of analysis Dynamic (or modal history) to establish the forces of calculation instead of the static method equivalent, which is basically applicable only to regular structures without major discontinuities in the mass, rigidity and strength along the height 11, 12 .To investigate the effects of irregular profiles on the structures, the main objective of this study was the assessment of the inelastic response, in terms of applications of ductility four types of non-uniform multi-stage structures subjected to relatively severe earthquakes. In the This study, only the parallel responses are analyzed setback.

Keywords: Buildings, Designs, Ductility, concentration stresses, irregular structures

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11 High-Rise Building with PV Facade

Authors: Jiří Hirš, Jitka Mohelnikova

Abstract:

A photovoltaic system integrated into a high-rise building façade was studied. The high-rise building is located in the Central Europe region with temperate climate and dominant partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions. The PV façade has been monitored since 2013. The three-year monitoring of the façade energy generation shows that the façade has an important impact on the building energy efficiency and sustainable operation.

Keywords: Energy, Buildings, Solar Radiation, PV façade

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10 Renovation of Pipeline in Residential Buildings by Polymeric Composites

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi

Abstract:

In this paper, rehabilitation methods for pipeline by advanced polymeric coating such as relining are reviewed. A number of diverse methods which are globally used are described and a brief summary of advances in technology, methods and materials is provided. The paper explains why it is claimed that sewerage rehabilitation with relining in residential buildings is environmentally friendly and economical, the importance of the quality control procedure is discussed and several quality tests are proposed.

Keywords: Buildings, Material, Composite, renovation

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9 Utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Analysis of Natural Ventilation in Buildings

Authors: I. H. Ibrahim, A. W. J. Wong

Abstract:

Increasing urbanisation has driven building designers to incorporate natural ventilation in the designs of sustainable buildings. This project utilises Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to investigate the natural ventilation of an academic building, [email protected], using an assessment criterion based on daily mean temperature and mean velocity. The areas of interest are the pedestrian level of first and fourth levels of the building. A reference case recommended by the Architectural Institute of Japan was used to validate the simulation model. The validated simulation model was then used for coupled simulations on [email protected] and neighbouring geometries, under two wind speeds. Both steady and transient simulations were used to identify differences in results. Steady and transient results are agreeable with the transient simulation identifying peak velocities during flow development. Under a lower wind speed, the first level was sufficiently ventilated while the fourth level was not. The first level has excessive wind velocities in the higher wind speed and the fourth level was adequately ventilated. Fourth level flow velocity was consistently lower than those of the first level. This is attributed to either simulation model error or poor building design. [email protected] is concluded to have a sufficiently ventilated first level and insufficiently ventilated fourth level. Future works for this project extend to modifying the urban geometry, simulation model improvements, evaluation using other assessment metrics and extending the area of interest to the entire building.

Keywords: Buildings, CFD simulations, natural ventilation, urban airflow

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8 Designing the Procedures of Building and Environment Management for Basic Education Schools by Using Quality Management

Authors: Suppara Charoenpoom

Abstract:

This study focuses on 1) a good-quality management procedures of buildings and environment in schools 2) designing the management procedures and 3) creating an operation manual for the procedures. This study is the combination of qualitative and quantitative research method. Populations in the research were 83 deans and directors of primary and secondary schools from the 10th educational district in Samut Songkram. Sample group was selected from the voluntary deans and directors. There were 14 participants in sample group. Research tools in this study were divided into 2 categories. The first one was data-collecting tools, which were in-depth interview and questionnaires. The second one was the designing tools to help creating management procedures: quality business, quality work procedure and key quality indicator of each activity in schools. All data were analyzed by mean and standard deviation. The result from this study has found out 1 effective process of building and environment management for basic education schools which is called Quality Business Process (QBP) and 7 Quality Work Procedures (QWP). In terms of academic feasibility checkup by experts, the research had shown that new design of building and environment management was approved unanimously. It means that new process of building and environment management in schools works very well and can be adapted. After examining the possibility of management process being used in schools by calculating the mean value among sample group (14 school deans and directors), the mean value was between 0.64-1.00. It means that the new design of building and environment management can be operated effectively in schools. For the satisfaction part, deans and school directors gave the satisfaction score in the highest level (Mean = 4.7372, S.D. = 0.4385).

Keywords: Quality management, Environment, Buildings, procedures

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7 An Environmental Method for Renovation of Sewer Systems in Building Structures

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi

Abstract:

Degradation of building materials particularly pipelines causes environmental damage during the renovation or replacement, disturbance for people living in the buildings, is time-consuming and last but not least is very costly. Rehabilitation by composite materials is a solution for renovation of degraded pipeline in residential buildings and any other structures which is less costly, faster and causes less damage to the environment. This study provides a brief state of technology, methods, and materials which are being used in Nordic and some other European countries and an investigation on the performance of the relined pipes after they have been in working condition. The investigation was carried by different analyses in laboratory as well as numerous field inspections.

Keywords: Polymer Materials, Rehabilitation, Buildings, Pipeline

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6 An Overview of Bioclimatic Design Strategies for Energy Efficient Buildings: A Case Study of Semi-Arid Climate, Lahore

Authors: Beenish Mujahid, Sana Malik

Abstract:

Bioclimatic design Strategies plays a dynamic role in construction of Sustainable Buildings. This approach leads to reduction in the mechanical cooling of building which provides comfort to the occupants in sustainable manner. Such bioclimatic measures provide a complete framework of building design through responding to climatic features of particular site. The featured Passive cooling techniques for hot climatic region provides comfortable indoor temperature with ecological and financial benefits. The study is based on highlighting this approach to produce energy efficient buildings for Semi-Arid climate like Lahore, Pakistan. Being part of developing country, energy savings in Lahore city would help the Power Sector and resolves the World Issues of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion. This article reviews the bioclimatic design strategies and their critical analysis to drive guidelines for Sustainable buildings in Lahore. The study shows that the demand for mechanical cooling systems including air conditioning, fans, and air coolers can be reduced through regional climatic design.

Keywords: Buildings, Energy Efficient, bioclimatic design, Lahore, comfort

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5 Estimating Occupancy in Residential Context Using Bayesian Networks for Energy Management

Authors: Stéphane Ploix, Manar Amayri, Hussain Kazimi, Quoc-Dung Ngo

Abstract:

A general approach is proposed to determine occupant behavior (occupancy and activity) in residential buildings and to use these estimates for improved energy management. Occupant behaviour is modelled with a Bayesian Network in an unsupervised manner. This algorithm makes use of domain knowledge gathered via questionnaires and recorded sensor data for motion detection, power, and hot water consumption as well as indoor CO₂ concentration. Two case studies are presented which show the real world applicability of estimating occupant behaviour in this way. Furthermore, experiments integrating occupancy estimation and hot water production control show that energy efficiency can be increased by roughly 5% over known optimal control techniques and more than 25% over rule-based control while maintaining the same occupant comfort standards. The efficiency gains are strongly correlated with occupant behaviour and accuracy of the occupancy estimates.

Keywords: Sensor Networks, Artificial Intelligence, Energy, Management, Optimization, Control, Buildings, Learning theory, Bayesian Methods, knowledge modelling and knowledge based systems

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4 Fire Resilient Cities: The Impact of Fire Regulations, Technological and Community Resilience

Authors: Fanny Guay

Abstract:

Building resilience, sustainable buildings, urbanization, climate change, resilient cities, are just a few examples of where the focus of research has been in the last few years. It is obvious that there is a need to rethink how we are building our cities and how we are renovating our existing buildings. However, the question remaining is how can we assure that we are building sustainable yet resilient cities? There are many aspects one can touch upon when discussing resilience in cities, but after the event of Grenfell in June 2017, it has become clear that fire resilience must be a priority. We define resilience as a holistic approach including communities, society and systems, focusing not only on resisting the effects of a disaster, but also how it will cope and recover from it. Cities are an example of such a system, where components such as buildings have an important role to play. A building on fire will have an impact on the community, the economy, the environment, and so the entire system. Therefore, we believe that fire and resilience go hand in hand when we discuss building resilient cities. This article aims at discussing the current state of the concept of fire resilience and suggests actions to support the built of more fire resilient buildings. Using the case of Grenfell and the fire safety regulations in the UK, we will briefly compare the fire regulations in other European countries, more precisely France, Germany and Denmark, to underline the difference and make some suggestions to increase fire resilience via regulation. For this research, we will also include other types of resilience such as technological resilience, discussing the structure of buildings itself, as well as community resilience, considering the role of communities in building resilience. Our findings demonstrate that to increase fire resilience, amending existing regulations might be necessary, for example, how we performed reaction to fire tests and how we classify building products. However, as we are looking at national regulations, we are only able to make general suggestions for improvement. Another finding of this research is that the capacity of the community to recover and adapt after a fire is also an essential factor. Fundamentally, fire resilience, technological resilience and community resilience are closely connected. Building resilient cities is not only about sustainable buildings or energy efficiency; it is about assuring that all the aspects of resilience are included when building or renovating buildings. We must ask ourselves questions as: Who are the users of this building? Where is the building located? What are the components of the building, how was it designed and which construction products have been used? If we want to have resilient cities, we must answer these basic questions and assure that basic factors such as fire resilience are included in our assessment.

Keywords: Buildings, Resilience, cities, Fire

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3 Comparison of Allowable Stress Method and Time History Response Analysis for Seismic Design of Buildings

Authors: Naohiro Nakamura, Sayuri Inoue, Tsubasa Hamada

Abstract:

The seismic design method of buildings is classified into two types: static design and dynamic design. The static design is a design method that exerts static force as seismic force and is a relatively simple design method created based on the experience of seismic motion in the past 100 years. At present, static design is used for most of the Japanese buildings. Dynamic design mainly refers to the time history response analysis. It is a comparatively difficult design method that input the earthquake motion assumed in the building model and examine the response. Currently, it is only used for skyscrapers and specific buildings. In the present design standard in Japan, it is good to use either the design method of the static design and the dynamic design in the medium and high-rise buildings. However, when actually designing middle and high-rise buildings by two kinds of design methods, the relatively simple static design method satisfies the criteria, but in the case of a little difficult dynamic design method, the criterion isn't often satisfied. This is because the dynamic design method was built with the intention of designing super high-rise buildings. In short, higher safety is required as compared with general buildings, and criteria become stricter. The authors consider applying the dynamic design method to general buildings designed by the static design method so far. The reason is that application of the dynamic design method is reasonable for buildings that are out of the conventional standard structural form such as emphasizing design. For the purpose, it is important to compare the design results when the criteria of both design methods are arranged side by side. In this study, we performed time history response analysis to medium-rise buildings that were actually designed with allowable stress method. Quantitative comparison between static design and dynamic design was conducted, and characteristics of both design methods were examined.

Keywords: Buildings, Seismic Design, allowable stress design, time history response analysis, Japanese seismic code

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2 Evaluation of Response Modification Factors in Moment Resisting Frame Buildings Considering Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: K. Farheen, A. Munir

Abstract:

Seismic response of the multi-storey buildings is created by the interaction of both the structure and underlying soil medium. The seismic design philosophy is incorporated using response modification factor 'R'. Current code based values of 'R' factor does not reflect the SSI problem as it is based on fixed base condition. In this study, the modified values of 'R' factor for moment resisting frame (MRF) considering SSI are evaluated. The response of structure with and without SSI has been compared using equivalent linear static and nonlinear static pushover analyses for 10-storied moment resisting frame building. The building is located in seismic zone 2B situated on different soils with shear wave velocity (Vₛ) of 300m/sec (SD) and 1200m/s (SB). Code based 'R' factor value for building frame system has been taken as 5.5. Soil medium is modelled using identical but mutually independent horizontal and vertical springs. It was found that the modified 'R' factor values have been decreased by 47% and 43% for soil SD and SB respectively as compared to that of code based 'R' factor.

Keywords: Buildings, shear wave velocity, SSI, R factor

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1 A Dynamic Approach for Evaluating the Climate Change Risks on Building Performance

Authors: X. Lu, T. Lu, S. Javadi

Abstract:

A simple dynamic approach is presented for analyzing thermal and moisture dynamics of buildings, which is of particular relevance to understanding climate change impacts on buildings, including assessment of risks and applications of resilience strategies. With the goal to demonstrate the proposed modeling methodology, to verify the model, and to show that wooden materials provide a mechanism that can facilitate the reduction of moisture risks and be more resilient to global warming, a wooden church equipped with high precision measurement systems was taken as a test building for full-scale time-series measurements. Sensitivity analyses indicate a high degree of accuracy in the model prediction regarding the indoor environment. The model is then applied to a future projection of climate indoors aiming to identify significant environmental factors, the changing temperature and humidity, and effective response to the climate change impacts. The paper suggests that wooden building materials offer an effective and resilient response to anticipated future climate changes.

Keywords: Buildings, forecast, dynamic model, climate change impact, wooden structure

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