Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Building Related Abstracts

35 Torsional Design Method of Asymmetric and Irregular Building under Horizontal Earthquake Action

Authors: Radhwane Boudjelthia

Abstract:

Based upon elaborate analysis on torsional design methods of asymmetric and irregular structure under horizontal earthquake action, it points out that the main design principles of an asymmetric building subjected to horizontal earthquake are: the torsion of vertical members induced by the torsion angle of the floor (rigid diaphragm) cannot exceed the allowable value, the inter-story displacement at outermost frame or shear wall should be less than that required by design code, stresses in plane of the slab should be controlled within acceptable extent under different intensity earthquakes. That current seismic design code only utilizes the torsion displacement ratio to control the floor torsion, which seems not reasonable enough since its connotation is the multiple of the floor torsion angle and the distance of floor mass center to the edge frame or shear wall.

Keywords: Earthquake, Building, Displacement, Resonance, response, seismic forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
34 Using Recyclable Steel Material in Tall Buildings

Authors: O. Eren, L. Zakar

Abstract:

Recycling steel building components is key to the sustainability of a structure’s end-of-life, as it is the most economical solution. In this paper the effects of usage of recycled steel material in tall buildings aspects are investigated.

Keywords: Building, Structure, steel, recycled material

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
33 The Development of the Quality Management Processes for the Building and Environment of the Basic Education Schools

Authors: Suppara Charoenpoom

Abstract:

The objectives of this research was to design and develop a quality management of the school buildings and environment. A quantitative and qualitative mixed research methodology was used. The population sample included 14 directors of primary schools. Two research tools were used. The first research tool included an in-depth interview and questionnaire. The second research tool included the Quality Business Process and Quality Work Procedure, and a Key Performance Indicator of each activity. The statistics included mean and standard deviation. The findings for the development of a quality management process of buildings and environment administration of the basic schools consisted of one quality business process (QBP) and seven quality work processes (QWP). The result from the experts’ evaluation revealed that the process and implementation of quality management of the school buildings and environment has passed the inspection process with consensus. This implies that the process of quality management of the school buildings and environment is suitable for implementation. Moreover, the level of agreement in the feasibility of the implementation of this plan had the mean in the range of 0.64-1.00 which suggests the design of the new plan is acceptable.

Keywords: Management, Building, Environment, Process

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
32 Interaction Issues at Patan Stepwell in Western India

Authors: Shekhar Chatterjee

Abstract:

Architectural marvels of the Patan stepwell in Gujarat state in India were studied, to look into the cultural and design attributes in them. Direct observation, photography and interviewing the local people (especially senior citizens) were the methodology adopted. The aim was to look for clues into how culture and design affected architectural marvels of a building and convey that to the tourists. These interpretations from this building can offer many ideas to the contemporary design world in the form of design of modern day garments for various occasions, ornaments or accessory products for daily usage like bags, shoes and similar products. These monuments currently lack proper information system for guiding a tourist. Absence of any qualified tourist guides at the site compounds the problem further. This project investigates the feasibility of making the space more interactive for the tourist through proper digital information design and installations at places. Along with this, illumination and sound are also being used to narrate the history of these ancient monuments so that tourists get a flavor of the medieval past. Most importantly, all these digital interventions are low cost and done with easily available throw-away materials and can be replicated for other monuments as well.

Keywords: Building, Interaction, context, well

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
31 Agricultural Solid Wastes Generation in Nigeria and Their Recycling Potentials into Building Materials

Authors: Usman Aliyu Jalam, Shuaibu Alolo Sumaila, Sa’adiya Iliyasu Muhammed

Abstract:

Modern building industry lays much emphasis on sophisticated materials that have high embodied energy with intrinsic distinctiveness for damaging the environment. But today, advances in solid waste management have resulted in alternative building materials as partial or complete replacement of the conventional materials like cement, aggregate etc particularly for low cost housing. Investigations carried out revealed that an estimated 18.0 million tonnes of agricultural solid wastes are being generated in Nigeria annually. This constitutes a problem not only to the natural environment but also to the built environment more particularly with the way the wastes are being dispose of. The paper has discussed the present status on the generation and utilisation of agricultural solid wastes, their recycling potentials and environmental implications. It further discovered that although considerable quantity of these wastes were found to have the potentials of being recycled as building materials, the availability of the appropriate technology remains a big challenge in the country. Moreover, majority of the wastes type have gained popularity as fuel. As such, the economic and environmental benefits of recycling the wastes and the use of the wastes as fuel need further investigation.

Keywords: Materials, Building, Environment, Agricultural waste, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
30 Application of Terminal Sliding Mode Control to the Stabilization of the Indoor Temperature in Buildings

Authors: Pawel Skruch, Marek Dlugosz

Abstract:

The paper starts with a general model of the temperature dynamics in buildings. The modelling approach relies on thermodynamics, in particular heat transfer, principles. The model considers heat loses by conduction and ventilation and internal heat gains. The parameters of the model can be determined uniquely from the geometry of the building and from thermal properties of construction materials. The model is presented using state space notation and this form is used in the control design procedure. A sliding surface is defined by the system output and the desired trajectory. The control law is designed to force the trajectory of the system from any initial condition to the sliding surface in finite time. The trajectory of the system after reaching the sliding surface remains on it. A simulation example is included to verify the approach and to demonstrate the achievable performance improvement by the proposed solution in the temperature control in buildings.

Keywords: Modelling, Building, temperature dynamics, sliding-mode control, sliding surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
29 Soil-Structure Interaction in Stiffness and Strength Degrading Systems

Authors: Sittipong Jarernprasert, Enrique Bazan-Zurita, Jacobo Bielak

Abstract:

We study the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the inelastic seismic response of a single-degree-of-freedom system whose hysteretic behaviour exhibits stiffness and/or strength degrading characteristics. Two sets of accelerograms are used as seismic input: the first comprising 87 record from stiff to medium stiff sites in California, and the second comprising 66 records from the soft lakebed of Mexico City. This study focuses in three seismic response parameters: ductility demand, inter-story drift, and total lateral displacement. The results allow quantitative estimates of changes in such parameters in an SSI system in comparison with those corresponding to the associated fixed-base system. We found that degrading features affect significantly both the response of fixed-base structures and the impact of soil-structure interaction. We propose a procedure to incorporate the results of this and similar studies in seismic design regulations for SSI system with anticipated nonlinear degrading behaviour.

Keywords: Building, Seismic, Interaction, inelastic, foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
28 The Environmental Damages Related to Urban Sites

Authors: Kherbache Radhwane

Abstract:

We currently live in the world pressed by technological developments necessary for the construction, where the concept of sustainable development is truly rooted in recent years. Construction or demolitions of buildings necessarily generate environmental pollution, both inside and outside the site. Depending on the size and nature of work and the context surrounding these problems can be more or less important as is the case here in Algeria. They may affect the smooth running of the site. Moreover, there are regulations exist or are under development and should be taken into account by the various players in the act of building. This is, for example, the case of new obligations in terms of sorting and recycling of construction waste. Given this situation, it appears increasingly necessary to integrate the building sites in an effort to better respect the environment and its regulation. Several operations were performed according to this principle. The success of a project is that respects its environment through the involvement of each actor of the operation of the site with a low nuisance. As such, the client assisted by his driver and its operating contractor and the company plays a central role as an initiator of the process. It must ensure the establishment of appropriate means of organizational plans and contract.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Construction, Building, Evolution, Environmental, Regulations, demolition, nuisance, tailings

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
27 Diagrid Structural System

Authors: K. Raghu, Sree Harsha

Abstract:

The interrelationship between the technology and architecture of tall buildings is investigated from the emergence of tall buildings in late 19th century to the present. In the late 19th century early designs of tall buildings recognized the effectiveness of diagonal bracing members in resisting lateral forces. Most of the structural systems deployed for early tall buildings were steel frames with diagonal bracings of various configurations such as X, K, and eccentric. Though the historical research a filtering concept is developed original and remedial technology- through which one can clearly understand inter-relationship between the technical evolution and architectural esthetic and further stylistic transition buildings. Diagonalized grid structures – “diagrids” - have emerged as one of the most innovative and adaptable approaches to structuring buildings in this millennium. Variations of the diagrid system have evolved to the point of making its use non-exclusive to the tall building. Diagrid construction is also to be found in a range of innovative mid-rise steel projects. Contemporary design practice of tall buildings is reviewed and design guidelines are provided for new design trends. Investigated in depths are the behavioral characteristics and design methodology for diagrids structures, which emerge as a new direction in the design of tall buildings with their powerful structural rationale and symbolic architectural expression. Moreover, new technologies for tall building structures and facades are developed for performance enhancement through design integration, and their architectural potentials are explored. By considering the above data the analysis and design of 40-100 storey diagrids steel buildings is carried out using E-TABS software with diagrids of various angle to be found for entire building which will be helpful to reduce the steel requirement for the structure. The present project will have to undertake wind analysis, seismic analysis for lateral loads acting on the structure due to wind loads, earthquake loads, gravity loads. All structural members are designed as per IS 800-2007 considering all load combination. Comparison of results in terms of time period, top storey displacement and inter-storey drift to be carried out. The secondary effect like temperature variations are not considered in the design assuming small variation.

Keywords: Building, Structural, diagrid, bracings

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
26 On Definition of Modulus of Deformation of Ground by Laboratory Method

Authors: Olgha Giorgishvili

Abstract:

The work is mainly concerned with the determination of modulus of deformation by laboratory method. It is known that a modulus of deformation is defining by laboratory and field methods. By laboratory method the modulus of deformation is defined in the compressive devices. Our goal is to conduct experiments by both methods and finally make to interpret the obtained results. In this article is considered the definition by new offered laboratory method of deformation modulus that is closer to the real deformation modulus. Finally, the obtained results gives the possibility to us to raise the issue of change the state norms for determining ground by laboratory method.

Keywords: Building, soil mechanic, deformation moulus, compression methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
25 Integrating Best Practices for Construction Waste in Quality Management Systems

Authors: Paola Villoria Sáez, Mercedes Del Río Merino, Jaime Santa Cruz Astorqui, Antonio Rodríguez Sánchez

Abstract:

The Spanish construction industry generates large volumes of waste. However, despite the legislative improvements introduced for construction and demolition waste (CDW), construction waste recycling rate remains well below other European countries and also below the target set for 2020. This situation can be due to many difficulties. i.e.: The difficulty of onsite segregation or the estimation in advance of the total amount generated. Despite these difficulties, the proper management of CDW must be one of the main aspects to be considered by the construction companies. In this sense, some large national companies are implementing Integrated Management Systems (IMS) including not only quality and safety aspects, but also environment issues. However, although this fact is a reality for large construction companies still the vast majority of companies need to adopt this trend. In short, it is common to find in small and medium enterprises a decentralized management system: A single system of quality management, another for system safety management and a third one for environmental management system (EMS). In addition, the EMSs currently used address CDW superficially and are mainly focus on other environmental concerns such as carbon emissions. Therefore, this research determines and implements a specific best practice management system for CDW based on eight procedures in a Spanish Construction company. The main advantages and drawbacks of its implementation are highlighted. Results of this study show that establishing and implementing a CDW management system in building works, improve CDW quantification as the company obtains their own CDW generation ratio. This helps construction stakeholders when developing CDW Management Plans and also helps to achieve a higher adjustment of CDW management costs. Finally, integrating this CDW system with the EMS of the company favors the cohesion of the construction process organization at all stages, establishing responsibilities in the field of waste and providing a greater control over the process.

Keywords: Building, Waste Management, Waste minimization, Quality Management Systems, Construction and demolition waste, best practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
24 Attitude, Practice, and Prevalence of Injuries among Building Construction Workers in Lagos State

Authors: O. J. Makinde, O. A. Abiola

Abstract:

Background: Hazards and injuries are two common phenomena that have been associated with the building construction profession. Apart from injuries, deaths from injuries sustained at work have been high in this profession. This study, therefore, attempts to determine the attitude, practice, and prevalence of injuries among this group of workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 285 respondents. The sampling was multi-staged. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit information such as socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, attitude and practice of occupational safety and prevalence of injuries among the workers. The data were analyzed using epi-info 3.5.1 statistical software. Result: The modal age group is 25-34yrs which made up 40% of the respondents. Most of the respondents were male (86.3%). Most of the respondent (52.3%) have their highest educational level as the secondary school. Most of the respondents (64.9%) had a poor attitude to occupational safety while 91.6% had poor occupational safety practices. The prevalence of occupational injury was very high (64.9%). Particles in the eyes have the highest prevalence (52.3%) while electric shock has the least prevalence (19.6%).None of the respondent working at a height used safety belt while working. Conclusion: Attitude and practice of occupational safety are poor among this group of workers and prevalence of injuries was high.

Keywords: Construction, Building, Injury, Workers, Hazard

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
23 Faults in the Projects, Deviation in the Cost

Authors: S. Ahmed, P. Dlask, B. Hasan

Abstract:

There are several ways to estimate the cost of the construction project: simple and detailed. The process of estimating cost is usually done during the design stage, which should take long-time and the designer must give attention to all details. This paper explain the causes of the deviations occurring in the cost of the construction project, and determines the reasons of these differences between contractual cost and final cost of the construction project, through the study of literature review related to this field, and benefiting from the experience of workers in the field of building (owners, contractors) through designing a questionnaire, and finding the most ten important reasons and explain the relation between the contractual cost and the final cost according to these reasons. The difference between those values will be showed through diagrams drawn using the statistical program. In addition to studying the effects of overrun costs on the advancing of the project, and identify the most five important effects. According to the results, we can propose the right direction for the final cost evaluation and propose some measures that would help to control and adjust the deviation in the costs.

Keywords: Building, Cost, Construction Projects, delay, estimating costs, overrun

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
22 A New Model to Perform Preliminary Evaluations of Complex Systems for the Production of Energy for Buildings: Case Study

Authors: Roberto De Lieto Vollaro, Emanuele de Lieto Vollaro, Gianluca Coltrinari

Abstract:

The building sector is responsible, in many industrialized countries, for about 40% of the total energy requirements, so it seems necessary to devote some efforts in this area in order to achieve a significant reduction of energy consumption and of greenhouse gases emissions. The paper presents a study aiming at providing a design methodology able to identify the best configuration of the system building/plant, from a technical, economic and environmentally point of view. Normally, the classical approach involves a building's energy loads analysis under steady state conditions, and subsequent selection of measures aimed at improving the energy performance, based on previous experience made by architects and engineers in the design team. Instead, the proposed approach uses a sequence of two well known scientifically validated calculation methods (TRNSYS and RETScreen), that allow quite a detailed feasibility analysis. To assess the validity of the calculation model, an existing, historical building in Central Italy, that will be the object of restoration and preservative redevelopment, was selected as a case-study. The building is made of a basement and three floors, with a total floor area of about 3,000 square meters. The first step has been the determination of the heating and cooling energy loads of the building in a dynamic regime by means of TRNSYS, which allows to simulate the real energy needs of the building in function of its use. Traditional methodologies, based as they are on steady-state conditions, cannot faithfully reproduce the effects of varying climatic conditions and of inertial properties of the structure. With TRNSYS it is possible to obtain quite accurate and reliable results, that allow to identify effective combinations building-HVAC system. The second step has consisted of using output data obtained with TRNSYS as input to the calculation model RETScreen, which enables to compare different system configurations from the energy, environmental and financial point of view, with an analysis of investment, and operation and maintenance costs, so allowing to determine the economic benefit of possible interventions. The classical methodology often leads to the choice of conventional plant systems, while RETScreen provides a financial-economic assessment for innovative energy systems and low environmental impact. Computational analysis can help in the design phase, particularly in the case of complex structures with centralized plant systems, by comparing the data returned by the calculation model RETScreen for different design options. For example, the analysis performed on the building, taken as a case study, found that the most suitable plant solution, taking into account technical, economic and environmental aspects, is the one based on a CCHP system (Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power) using an internal combustion engine.

Keywords: Energy, Electrical, Building, System, Cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
21 Research the Causes of Defects and Injuries of Reinforced Concrete and Stone Construction

Authors: Akaki Qatamidze

Abstract:

Implementation of the project will be a step forward in terms of reliability in Georgia and the improvement of the construction and the development of construction. Completion of the project is expected to result in a complete knowledge, which is expressed in concrete and stone structures of assessing the technical condition of the processing. This method is based on a detailed examination of the structure, in order to establish the injuries and the elimination of the possibility of changing the structural scheme of the new requirements and architectural preservationists. Reinforced concrete and stone structures research project carried out in a systematic analysis of the important approach is to optimize the process of research and development of new knowledge in the neighboring areas. In addition, the problem of physical and mathematical models of rational consent, the main pillar of the physical (in-situ) data and mathematical calculation models and physical experiments are used only for the calculation model specification and verification. Reinforced concrete and stone construction defects and failures the causes of the proposed research to enhance the effectiveness of their maximum automation capabilities and expenditure of resources to reduce the recommended system analysis of the methodological concept-based approach, as modern science and technology major particularity of one, it will allow all family structures to be identified for the same work stages and procedures, which makes it possible to exclude subjectivity and addresses the problem of the optimal direction. It discussed the methodology of the project and to establish a major step forward in the construction trades and practical assistance to engineers, supervisors, and technical experts in the construction of the settlement of the problem.

Keywords: Building, expertise, Reinforced Concrete, stone structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
20 Operational Characteristics of the Road Surface Improvement

Authors: Iuri Salukvadze

Abstract:

Construction takes importance role in the history of mankind, there is not a single thing-product in our lives in which the builder’s work was not to be materialized, because to create all of it requires setting up factories, roads, and bridges, etc. The function of the Republic of Georgia, as part of the connecting Europe-Asia transport corridor, is significantly increased. In the context of transit function a large part of the cargo traffic belongs to motor transport, hence the improvement of motor roads transport infrastructure is rather important and rise the new, increased operational demands for existing as well as new motor roads. Construction of the durable road surface is related to rather large values, but because of high transport-operational properties, such as high-speed, less fuel consumption, less depreciation of tires, etc. If the traffic intensity is high, therefore the reimbursement of expenses occurs rapidly and accordingly is increasing income. If the traffic intensity is relatively small, it is recommended to use lightened structures of road carpet in order to pay for capital investments amounted to no more than normative one. The road carpet is divided into the following basic types: asphaltic concrete and cement concrete. Asphaltic concrete is the most perfect type of road carpet. It is arranged in two or three layers on rigid foundation and will be compacted. Asphaltic concrete is artificial building material, which due stratum will be selected and measured from stone skeleton and sand, interconnected by bitumen and a mixture of mineral powder. Less strictly selected similar material is called as bitumen-mineral mixture. Asphaltic concrete is non-rigid building material and well durable on vertical loadings; it is less resistant to the impact of horizontal forces. The cement concrete is monolithic and durable material, it is well durable the horizontal loads and is less resistant related to vertical loads. The cement concrete consists from strictly selected, measured stone material and sand, the binder is cement. The cement concrete road carpet represents separate slabs of sizes from 3 ÷ 5 op to 6 ÷ 8 meters. The slabs are reinforced by a rather complex system. Between the slabs are arranged seams that are designed for avoiding of additional stresses due temperature fluctuations on the length of slabs. For the joint behavior of separate slabs, they are connected by metal rods. Rods provide the changes in the length of slabs and distribute to the slab vertical forces and bending moments. The foundation layers will be extremely durable, for that is required high-quality stone material, cement, and metal. The qualification work aims to: in order for improvement of traffic conditions on motor roads to prolong operational conditions and improving their characteristics. The work consists from three chapters, 80 pages, 5 tables and 5 figures. In the work are stated general concepts as well as carried out by various companies using modern methods tests and their results. In the chapter III are stated carried by us tests related to this issue and specific examples to improving the operational characteristics.

Keywords: Building, cement, Asphalt, cylindrikal sample of asphalt

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
19 Factors Affecting Time Performance in Building Construction Projects

Authors: Ibraheem A. K. Mahameed

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to identify the risks affecting time performance of building construction projects in the West Bank in Palestine from contractors’ viewpoint. 38 risks that might affect time performance of building construction projects were defined through a detailed literature review. These risks have been classified into 6 groups: project, managerial, consultant, financial, external, and construction items. A questionnaire survey was performed to rank the considered risks in terms of severity and frequency. The analysis of the survey indicated that the top five risks affecting time performance of building construction projects in Palestine are: award project to the lowest price, political situation, poor communication and coordination between construction parties, change orders, and financial status of contractor.

Keywords: Construction, Building, delay, time performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
18 Study on Seismic Assessment of Earthquake-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chien-Kuo Chiu, Fu-Pei Hsiao, Fung-Chung Tu

Abstract:

In this work, to develop a method for detailed assesses of post-earthquake seismic performance for RC buildings in Taiwan, experimental data for several column specimens with various failure modes (flexural failure, flexural-shear failure, and shear failure) are used to derive reduction factors of seismic capacity for specified damage states. According to the damage states of RC columns and their corresponding seismic reduction factors suggested by experimental data, this work applies the detailed seismic performance assessment method to identify the seismic capacity of earthquake-damaged RC buildings. Additionally, a post-earthquake emergent assessment procedure is proposed that can provide the data needed for decision about earthquake-damaged buildings in a region with high seismic hazard. Finally, three actual earthquake-damaged school buildings in Taiwan are used as a case study to demonstrate application of the proposed assessment method.

Keywords: Building, Reinforced Concrete, Seismic Assessment, post-earthquake, seismic reduction factor, residual seismic ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
17 Nonlinear Analysis of a Building Surmounted by a RC Water Tank under Hydrodynamic Load

Authors: Hocine Hammoum, Karima Bouzelha, Lounis Ziani, Lounis Hamitouche

Abstract:

In this paper, we study a complex structure which is an apartment building surmounted by a reinforced concrete water tank. The tank located on the top floor of the building is a container with capacity of 1000 m3. The building is complex in its design, its calculation and by its behavior under earthquake effect. This structure located in Algiers and aged of 53 years has been subjected to several earthquakes, but the earthquake of May 21st, 2003 with a magnitude of 6.7 on the Richter scale that struck Boumerdes region at 40 Kms East of Algiers was fatal for it. It was downgraded after an investigation study because the central core sustained serious damage. In this paper, to estimate the degree of its damages, the seismic performance of the structure will be evaluated taking into account the hydrodynamic effect, using a static equivalent nonlinear analysis called pushover.

Keywords: Building, Performance Analysis, Nonlinear Analysis, Seismic Analysis, hydrodynamic, reinforced concrete tank, pushover

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
16 Dynamic Exergy Analysis for the Built Environment: Fixed or Variable Reference State

Authors: Valentina Bonetti

Abstract:

Exergy analysis successfully helps optimizing processes in various sectors. In the built environment, a second-law approach can enhance potential interactions between constructions and their surrounding environment and minimise fossil fuel requirements. Despite the research done in this field in the last decades, practical applications are hard to encounter, and few integrated exergy simulators are available for building designers. Undoubtedly, an obstacle for the diffusion of exergy methods is the strong dependency of results on the definition of its 'reference state', a highly controversial issue. Since exergy is the combination of energy and entropy by means of a reference state (also called "reference environment", or "dead state"), the reference choice is crucial. Compared to other classical applications, buildings present two challenging elements: They operate very near to the reference state, which means that small variations have relevant impacts, and their behaviour is dynamical in nature. Not surprisingly then, the reference state definition for the built environment is still debated, especially in the case of dynamic assessments. Among the several characteristics that need to be defined, a crucial decision for a dynamic analysis is between a fixed reference environment (constant in time) and a variable state, which fluctuations follow the local climate. Even if the latter selection is prevailing in research, and recommended by recent and widely-diffused guidelines, the fixed reference has been analytically demonstrated as the only choice which defines exergy as a proper function of the state in a fluctuating environment. This study investigates the impact of that crucial choice: Fixed or variable reference. The basic element of the building energy chain, the envelope, is chosen as the object of investigation as common to any building analysis. Exergy fluctuations in the building envelope of a case study (a typical house located in a Mediterranean climate) are confronted for each time-step of a significant summer day, when the building behaviour is highly dynamical. Exergy efficiencies and fluxes are not familiar numbers, and thus, the more easy-to-imagine concept of exergy storage is used to summarize the results. Trends obtained with a fixed and a variable reference (outside air) are compared, and their meaning is discussed under the light of the underpinning dynamical energy analysis. As a conclusion, a fixed reference state is considered the best choice for dynamic exergy analysis. Even if the fixed reference is generally only contemplated as a simpler selection, and the variable state is often stated as more accurate without explicit justifications, the analytical considerations supporting the adoption of a fixed reference are confirmed by the usefulness and clarity of interpretation of its results. Further discussion is needed to address the conflict between the evidence supporting a fixed reference state and the wide adoption of a fluctuating one. A more robust theoretical framework, including selection criteria of the reference state for dynamical simulations, could push the development of integrated dynamic tools and thus spread exergy analysis for the built environment across the common practice.

Keywords: Building, Dynamic, Exergy, reference state

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
15 Sports as a Powerful Tool in Building Peace among Countries of the World

Authors: Mohammed Usman Sani

Abstract:

Worldwide it is observed that sport plays an important role in our communities and is capable of bringing about the need for peaceful coexistence within and among nations which include tolerating one another, building team spirit, showing loyalty and fair play. In addition, sport builds character and the development of skills, which are necessary in fulfilling a desirable and happy life among nations. Sport builds discipline, endurance, courage and self-motivation among nations. Sports for Peace was set up to answer the question of whether sport can foster common ideals. In sports as a powerful tool in building peace, athletes all over the world come together to promote the core values of sport, such as fair play, tolerance, the Olympic ideal of freedom and intercultural understanding. Sport as a powerful tool is used to address varieties of social issues that is widely accepted in countries mostly affected by poverty, violence and conflict. In building peace through sports among nations, a wide range of individuals and nonprofit organizations which includes the United Nations (UN) and international development agencies have accepted sport as an important social catalyst. This paper therefore seeks to define sports, sports and its fundamental rights, sports as a powerful tool, and ways in which sport may bring about peace building among countries and finally the status of Sport Development and Peace initiatives in Nigeria. It concluded that the international community has acknowledged the importance of sport in peace building efforts among nations. It further recommended that countries should engage in the design and delivery of sports, adhering to generally accepted principles of openness and sustainability through sports collaboration, sports partnerships and coordinated effort.

Keywords: Sports, Building, Peace, powerful tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
14 Sustainable Material Selection for Buildings: Analytic Network Process Method and Life Cycle Assessment Approach

Authors: Samira Mahmoudkelayeh, Katayoun Taghizade, Mitra Pourvaziri, Elnaz Asadian

Abstract:

Over the recent decades, depletion of resources and environmental concerns made researchers and practitioners present sustainable approaches. Since construction process consumes a great deal of both renewable and non-renewable resources, it is of great significance regarding environmental impacts. Choosing sustainable construction materials is a remarkable strategy presented in many researches and has a significant effect on building’s environmental footprint. This paper represents an assessment framework for selecting best sustainable materials for exterior enclosure in the city of Tehran based on sustainability principles (eco-friendly, cost effective and socio-cultural viable solutions). To perform a comprehensive analysis of environmental impacts, life cycle assessment, a cradle to grave approach is used. A questionnaire survey of construction experts has been conducted to determine the relative importance of criteria. Analytic Network Process (ANP) is applied as a multi-criteria decision-making method to choose sustainable material which consider interdependencies of criteria and sub-criteria. Finally, it prioritizes and aggregates relevant criteria into ultimate assessed score.

Keywords: Building, Sustainable Materials, Life Cycle Assessment, analytic network process

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
13 Mitigation of Wind Loads on a Building Using Small Wind Turbines

Authors: Arindam Chowdhury, Andres Tremante, Mohammadtaghi Moravej, Bodhisatta Hajra, Ioannis Zisis, Peter Irwin

Abstract:

Extreme wind events, such as hurricanes, have caused significant damage to buildings, resulting in losses worth millions of dollars. The roof of a building is most vulnerable to wind-induced damage due to the high suctions experienced by the roof in extreme wind conditions. Wind turbines fitted to buildings can help generate energy, but to our knowledge, their application to wind load mitigation is not well known. This paper presents results from an experimental study to assess the effect of small wind turbines (developed and patented by the first and second authors) on the wind loads on a low rise building roof. The tests were carried out for an open terrain at the Wall of Wind (WOW) experimental facility at Florida International University (FIU), Miami, Florida, USA, for three cases – bare roof, roof fitted with wind turbines placed closer to the roof edges, and roof with wind turbines placed away from the roof edges. Results clearly indicate that the presence of the wind turbines reduced the mean and peak pressure coefficients (less suction) on the roof when compared to the bare deck case. Furthermore, the peak pressure coefficients were found to be lower (less suction) when the wind turbines were placed closer to the roof, than away from the roof. Flow visualization studies using smoke and gravel clearly showed that the presence of the turbines disrupted the formation of vortices formed by cornering winds, thereby reducing roof suctions and preventing lift off of roof coverings. This study shows that the wind turbines besides generating wind energy, can be used for mitigating wind induced damage to the building roof. Future research must be directed towards understanding the effect of these wind turbines on other roof geometries (e.g. hip/gable) in different terrain conditions.

Keywords: Building, Wind turbine, wall of wind, wind loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
12 CFD Modelling and Thermal Performance Analysis of Ventilated Double Skin Roof Structure

Authors: A. I. Ibrahim, A. O. Idris, J. Virgone, D. David, E. Vergnault

Abstract:

In hot countries, the major challenge is the air conditioning. The increase in energy consumption by air conditioning stems from the need to live in more comfortable buildings, which is understandable. But in Djibouti, one of the countries with the most expensive electricity in the world, this need is exacerbated by an architecture that is inappropriate and unsuitable for climatic conditions. This paper discusses the design of the roof which is the surface receiving the most solar radiation. The roof determines the general behavior of the building. The study presents Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling and analysis of the energy performance of a double skin ventilated roof. The particularity of this study is that it considers the climate of Djibouti characterized by hot and humid conditions in winter and very hot and humid in summer. Roof simulations are carried out using the Ansys Fluent software to characterize the flow and the heat transfer induced in the ventilated roof in steady state. This modeling is carried out by comparing the influence of several parameters such as the internal emissivity of the upper surface, the thickness of the insulation of the roof and the thickness of the ventilated channel on heat gain through the roof. The energy saving potential compared to the current construction in Djibouti is also presented.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Building, CFD, natural convection, forced convection, double skin roof, thermo-fluid analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
11 Analytical Approach to Study the Uncertainties Related to the Behavior of Structures Submitted to Differential Settlement

Authors: Pierre Rahme, Elio El Kahi, Michel Khouri, Olivier Deck, Rasool Mehdizadeh

Abstract:

Recent developments in civil engineering create multiple interaction problems between the soil and the structure. One of the major problems is the impact of ground movements on buildings. Consequently, managing risks associated with these movements, requires a determination of the different influencing factors and a specific knowledge of their variability/uncertainty. The main purpose of this research is to study the behavior of structures submitted to differential settlement, in order to assess their vulnerability, taking into consideration the different sources of uncertainties. Analytical approach is applied to investigate on one hand the influence of these uncertainties that are related to the soil, and on the other hand the structure stiffness variation with the presence of openings and the movement transmitted between them as related to the origin and shape of the free-field movement. Results reveal the effect of taking these uncertainties into consideration, and specify the dominant and most significant parameters that control the ground movement associated with the Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) phenomenon.

Keywords: Building, Soil-Structure Interaction, Damage, uncertainties, differential settlement, analytical approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
10 Service Life Study of Polymers Used in Renovation of Heritage Buildings and Other Structures

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi

Abstract:

Degradation of building materials particularly pipelines causes environmental damage during renovation or replacement and is a time consuming and costly process. Rehabilitation by polymer composites is a solution for renovation of degraded pipeline in heritage buildings and other structures which are less costly, faster and causes less damage to the environment; however, it is still not clear for how long these materials can perform as expected in the field and working condition. To study their service life, two types of composites based on Epoxy and Polyester resins have been evaluated by accelerated exposure and field exposure. The primary degradation agent used in accelerated exposure has been cycling temperature with half of the tests performed in presence of water. Thin films of materials used in accelerated testing were prepared in laboratory by using the same amount of material as well as technique of multi-layers application used in majority of the field installations. Extreme intensity levels of degradation agents have been used only to evaluate materials properties and as also mentioned in ISO 15686, are not directly correlated with degradation mechanisms that would be experienced in service. In the field exposure study, the focus has been to identify possible failure modes, causes, and effects. In field exposure, it has been observed that there are other degradation agents present which can be investigated further such as presence of contaminants and rust before application which prevents formation of a uniform layer of polymer or incompatibility between dissimilar materials. This part of the study also highlighted the importance of application’s quality of the materials in the field for providing the expected performance and service life. Results from extended accelerated exposure and field exposure can help in choosing inspection techniques, establishing the primary degradation agents and can be used for ageing exposure programs with clarifying relationship between different exposure periods and sites.

Keywords: Building, service life, Pipelines, renovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
9 Registration of Multi-Temporal Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Images for Facility Monitoring

Authors: Choonghyun Kang, Jungwon Huh, Dongyeob Han, Quang Huy Tran

Abstract:

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been used for surveillance, monitoring, inspection, and mapping. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for automatic registration of UAV images for monitoring facilities such as building, green house, and civil structures. The two-step process is applied; 1) an image matching technique based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Feature) and RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus), 2) bundle adjustment of multi-temporal images. Image matching to find corresponding points is one of the most important steps for the precise registration of multi-temporal images. We used the SURF algorithm to find a quick and effective matching points. RANSAC algorithm was used in the process of finding matching points between images and in the bundle adjustment process. Experimental results from UAV images showed that our approach has a good accuracy to be applied to the change detection of facility.

Keywords: Building, Image matching, Unmanned aerial vehicle, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
8 Causes of Cost Overrun in Building Construction Projects: Case Study from Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Z. Hamed, K. Sa'deya, E. Abdelrasheed, I. Mahamid

Abstract:

The construction industry is one of the main sectors that play basic role in the urban and rural development of a society. It provides important ingredients for the development of an economy. However, many construction projects experience extensive cost overrun. This study was conducted to identify the causes of cost overrun in building construction contracts in Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia and test the importance of these causes from contractors' perspective. To achieve the study objectives, a questionnaire survey was conducted to identify and rank cost overrun causes from the perspective of contractors. The findings found that the top five cost overrun causes are: lack of experience in the line of work, lack of labor productivity, delay in payments, rework and material waste. It is hoped that the findings will guide efforts to improve the performance of construction industry in Saudi Arabia and other developing countries.

Keywords: Building, contractor, cost overrun, cost increase

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
7 Environmental Impact of a New-Build Educational Building in England: Life-Cycle Assessment as a Method to Calculate Whole Life Carbon Emissions

Authors: Monkiz Khasreen

Abstract:

In the context of the global trend towards reducing new buildings carbon footprint, the design team is required to make early decisions that have a major influence on embodied and operational carbon. Sustainability strategies should be clear during early stages of building design process, as changes made later can be extremely costly. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) could be used as the vehicle to carry other tools and processes towards achieving the requested improvement. Although LCA is the ‘golden standard’ to evaluate buildings from 'cradle to grave', lack of details available on the concept design makes LCA very difficult, if not impossible, to be used as an estimation tool at early stages. Issues related to transparency and accessibility of information in the building industry are affecting the credibility of LCA studies. A verified database derived from LCA case studies is required to be accessible to researchers, design professionals, and decision makers in order to offer guidance on specific areas of significant impact. This database could be the build-up of data from multiple sources within a pool of research held in this context. One of the most important factors that affects the reliability of such data is the temporal factor as building materials, components, and systems are rapidly changing with the advancement of technology making production more efficient and less environmentally harmful. Recent LCA studies on different building functions, types, and structures are always needed to update databases derived from research and to form case bases for comparison studies. There is also a need to make these studies transparent and accessible to designers. The work in this paper sets out to address this need. This paper also presents life-cycle case study of a new-build educational building in England. The building utilised very current construction methods and technologies and is rated as BREEAM excellent. Carbon emissions of different life-cycle stages and different building materials and components were modelled. Scenario and sensitivity analyses were used to estimate the future of new educational buildings in England. The study attempts to form an indicator during the early design stages of similar buildings. Carbon dioxide emissions of this case study building, when normalised according to floor area, lie towards the lower end of the range of worldwide data reported in the literature. Sensitivity analysis shows that life cycle assessment results are highly sensitive to future assumptions made at the design stage, such as future changes in electricity generation structure over time, refurbishment processes and recycling. The analyses also prove that large savings in carbon dioxide emissions can result from very small changes at the design stage.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Construction, Building, Architecture, Life-cycle assessment, Carbon Dioxide, England, educational buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
6 Determination of the Thermophysical Characteristics of the Composite Material Clay Cement Paper

Authors: A. Ouargui, N. Belouaggadia, M. Ezzine

Abstract:

In Morocco, the building sector is largely responsible for the evolution of energy consumption. The control of energy in this sector remains a major issue despite the rise of renewable energies. The design of an environmentally friendly building requires mastery and knowledge of energy and bioclimatic aspects. This implies taking into consideration of all the elements making up the building and the way in which energy exchanges take place between these elements. In this context, thermal insulation seems to be an ideal starting point for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, thermal insulation seems to be an ideal starting point for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this work is to provide some solutions to reduce energy consumption while maintaining thermal comfort in the building. The objective of our work is to present an experimental study on the characterization of local materials used in the thermal insulation of buildings. These are paper recycling stabilized with cement and clay. The thermal conductivity of these materials, which were constituted based on sand, clay, cement; water, as well as treated paper, was determined by the guarded-hot-plate method. It involves the design of two materials that will subsequently be subjected to thermal and mechanical tests to determine their thermophysical properties. The results show that the thermal conductivity decreases as well in the case of the paper-cement mixture as that of the paper-clay and seems to stabilize around 40%. Measurements of mechanical properties such as flexural strength have shown that the enrichment of the studied material with paper makes it possible to reduce the flexural strength by 20% while optimizing the conductivity.

Keywords: Building, Thermal Conductivity, Composite Material, insulation, paper residue

Procedia PDF Downloads 4