Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Brucellosis Related Abstracts

4 Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis under Diverse Production Systems in Central Punjab, Paksitan

Authors: A. Hussain, M. Farooq, A. Khan, M. A. Ali, M. Younus, I. Khan, S. E. Haque, U. Waheed, H. Neubauer, A. A. Anjum, S. A. Muhammad, A. Idrees T. Abbas, S. Raza, M. Mahmood, H. Danish, U. Tayyab, M. Zafar, M. Aslam.

Abstract:

Brucellosis is one of the major problems of milk producing animals in our country which deteriorate the health of livestock. It is a disease of zoonotic significance which is capable of producing disease in humans leading to infertility, orchitis, abortions, and synovitis. In this particular study, milk and serum samples of cattle and buffalo (n=402) were collected from different districts of Punjab including Narowal, Gujranwala and Gujrat. Milk samples were analyzed by Milk Ring Test (MRT), while serum samples were tested through Rose Bengal Plate agglutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (i-ELISA). The sample tested with MRT were 9.5% positive, including cattle 9.6% and buffalo 9.3%. While using the RBPT test for the detection of serum samples and for screening purpose it was observed that 16.4% animals were seropositive, cattle were 18.8% and buffalo were 13.9% seropositive. The higher prevalence of brucellosis indicates the danger of the disease to human population. The serum samples positive by RBPT were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 11.4% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle 13.5% seropositive and buffalo 9.3%. The results indicated high seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle as compared to buffalos. Different risk factors were also studied to know the association between disease and their spread. Advanced age, larger herds, history of abortion and pregnancy of the animals is considered to be the important factors for the prevalence and spread of the hazardous zoonotic disease. It is a core issue of developing countries like Pakistan and has major public health impact.

Keywords: Humans, Brucellosis, infertility, seroprevalence, bovines, orchitis, abortions

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3 Current Status and Prospects of Further Control of Brucellosis in Humans and Domestic Ruminants in Bangladesh

Authors: A. K. M. Anisur Rahman

Abstract:

Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world's most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. Its current status in humans and domestic ruminants along with probable means to control further in Bangladesh are described. The true exposure prevalence of brucellosis in cattle, goats, and sheep seems to be low: 0.3% in cattle, 1% in goats and 1.2% in sheep. The true prevalence of brucellosis in humans was also reported to be around 2%. In such a low prevalence scenario both in humans and animals, the positive predictive values of the diagnostic tests were very low. The role Brucella species in the abortion of domestic ruminants is less likely. Still now, no Brucella spp. was isolated from animal and human samples. However, Brucella abortus DNA was detected from seropositive humans, cattle, and buffalo; milk of cow, goats, and gayals and semen of an infected bull. Consuming raw milk and unpasteurized milk products by Bangladeshi people are not common. Close contact with animals, artificial insemination using semen from infected bulls, grazing mixed species of animals together in the field and transboundary animal movement are important factors, which should be considered for the further control of this zoonosis in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Human, Control, Brucellosis, Zoonosis

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2 Sensitivity and Specificity of Some Serological Tests Used for Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in Egypt on Bacteriological and Molecular Basis

Authors: Hosein I. Hosein, Ragab Azzam, Ahmed M. S. Menshawy, Sherin Rouby, Khaled Hendy, Ayman Mahrous, Hany Hussien

Abstract:

Brucellosis is a highly contagious bacterial zoonotic disease of a worldwide spread and has different names; Infectious or enzootic abortion and Bang's disease in animals; and Mediterranean or Malta fever, Undulant Fever and Rock fever in humans. It is caused by the different species of genus Brucella which is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming, facultative intracellular bacterium. Brucella affects a wide range of mammals including bovines, small ruminants, pigs, equines, rodents, marine mammals as well as human resulting in serious economic losses in animal populations. In human, Brucella causes a severe illness representing a great public health problem. The disease was reported in Egypt for the first time in 1939; since then the disease remained endemic at high levels among cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat and is still representing a public health hazard. The annual economic losses due to brucellosis were estimated to be about 60 million Egyptian pounds yearly, but actual estimates are still missing despite almost 30 years of implementation of the Egyptian control programme. Despite being the gold standard, bacterial isolation has been reported to show poor sensitivity for samples with low-level of Brucella and is impractical for regular screening of large populations. Thus, serological tests still remain the corner stone for routine diagnosis of brucellosis, especially in developing countries. In the present study, a total of 1533 cows (256 from Beni-Suef Governorate, 445 from Al-Fayoum Governorate and 832 from Damietta Governorate), were employed for estimation of relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of buffered acidified plate antigen test (BPAT), rose bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis revealed (19.63%). Relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of BPAT,RBT and CFT were estimated as, (96.27 %, 96.76 %, 87.65 % and 99.10 %), (93.42 %, 96.27 %, 90.16 % and 98.35%) and (89.30 %, 98.60 %, 94.35 %and 97.24 %) respectively. BPAT showed the highest sensitivity among the three employed serological tests. RBT was less specific than BPAT. CFT showed the least sensitivity 89.30 % among the three employed serological tests but showed the highest specificity. Different tissues specimens of 22 seropositive cows (spleen, retropharyngeal udder, and supra-mammary lymph nodes) were subjected for bacteriological studies for isolation and identification of Brucella organisms. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 could be recovered from 12 (54.55%) cows. Bacteriological examinations failed to classify 10 cases (45.45%) and were culture negative. Bruce-ladder PCR was carried out for molecular identification of the 12 Brucella isolates at the species level. Three fragments of 587 bp, 1071 bp and 1682 bp sizes were amplified indicating Brucella melitensis. The results indicated the importance of using several procedures to overcome the problem of escaping of some infected animals from diagnosis.Bruce-ladder PCR is an important tool for diagnosis and epidemiologic studies, providing relevant information for identification of Brucella spp.

Keywords: Brucellosis, Egypt, relative sensitivity, relative specificity, Bruce-ladder

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1 Determining the Presence of Brucella abortus Antibodies by the Indirect Elisa Method in Bovine Bulk Milk and Risk Factors in the Peri-Urban Zones of Bamenda Cameroon

Authors: Cha-ah C. N., Awah N. J., Mouiche M. M. M.

Abstract:

Brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease of animals and man caused by bacteria of genus Brucella. Though eradicated in some parts of the world, it remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa including Cameroon. The aim of this study was to contribute to the epidemiology of brucellosis in the North-West region of Cameroon by detecting the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies in bovine bulk milk as this serves as a route of transmission from animals to man. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk in the peri-urban zones of Bamenda. One hundred bulk milk samples were collected from 100 herds and tested by milk I-ELISA test. The conducted study revealed the presence of anti-Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk. The study revealed that bovine brucellosis is widespread in animal production systems in this area. The animal infection pressure in these systems has remained strong due to movement of livestock in search of pasture, co-existence of animal husbandry, communal sharing of grazing land, concentration of animals around water points, abortions in production systems, locality of production systems and failure to quarantine upon introduction of new animals. The circulation of Brucella abortus antibodies in cattle farms recorded in the study revealed potential public health implication and suggest economic importance of brucellosis to the cattle industry in the Northwest region of Cameroon. The risk for re-emergence and transmission of brucellosis is evident as a result of the co-existence of animal husbandry activities and social-cultural activities that promote brucellosis transmission. Well-designed countrywide, evidence-based studies of brucellosis are needed. These could help to generate reliable frequency and potential impact estimates, to identify Brucella reservoirs, and to propose control strategies of proven efficacy.

Keywords: Brucellosis, Prevalence, bulk milk, northwest region Cameroon

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