Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

broiler Related Abstracts

32 Effects of Cinnamon, Garlic, and Yucca Extracts on Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

Authors: Anguo Chen, Huajie Chen, Caimei Yang, Qihua Hong, Jun Feng

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted with 360 one-day-old Avian commercial broilers to study the effects of dietary cinnamon extract (CE), garlic extract (GE) and yucca extract (YE) on growth performance and serum biochemical parameters in broilers. The chickens were randomly divided equally into 4 treatment groups, each group with 3 replications, and received the same basal corn-bean diets included a starter from 1 d to 21 d and then a grower until 42 d, added with recommended dose 250 mg/kg CE, 25 mg/kg GE and 10 mg/kg YE to relevant group, respectively. The birds were kept in a stainless steel net coop each replication with 24 h light and were fed and drunk ad libitum. At 21 d and 42 d of age, 6 chicks were respectively picked out from every group and were bled to collect serum samples and intestinal samples for laboratory analysis. The results showed that the average daily gain (ADG) of CE, GE and YE group were increased by 7.20% (P<0.05), 3.43% (P>0.05) and 4.89% (P>0.05), feed gain ratio (F/G) was improved by 9.71% (P<0.05), 3.40% (P>0.05) and 3.40% (P>0.05) compared with the control, respectively. At 21 d of age, the content of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and serum uric acid (SUA) and the activity of serum xanthine oxidase (SXO) in CE group were reduced by 35.17% (P<0.01), 13.73% (P<0.01) and 16.33% (P<0.05) compared with the control, respectively. At 42 d of age, SUN and SUA level and SXO activity were lowered by 24.35% (P<0.01), 15.49% (P<0.05) and 23.09% (P<0.01), respectively. The SXO activity in CE group was decreased by 14.86% (P<0.01) and 15.34%(P<0.01) compare with GE and YE group, respectively. Also, adding CE, GE and YE into broiler diets resulted in lower UN and UA level of intestinal contents. It is clear that CE was more significantly decreased the SXO activity and SUA levels than GE and YE, especially at the latter period, thereby it may play a more important role in improving the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: Growth Performance, cinnamon extract, broiler, serum uric acid, serum xanthine oxidase

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31 Effect of Supplementing Different Sources and Levels of Phytase Enzyme to Diets on Productive Performance for Broiler Chickens

Authors: Sunbul Jassim Hamodi, Muna Khalid Khudayer, Firas Muzahem Hussein

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplement sources of Phytase enzyme (bacterial, fungal, enzymes mixture) using levels (250, 500, 750) FTY/ kg feed to diets compared with control on the performance for one thousand fifty broiler chicks (Ross 308) from 1day old with initial weight 39.78 gm till 42 days. The study involved 10 treatments, three replicates per treatment (35 chicks/replicate). Treatments were as follows: T1: control diet (without any addition). T2: added bacterial phytase enzyme 250FTY/ kg feed. T3: added bacterial phytase enzyme 500FTY/ kg feed. T4: added bacterial phytase enzyme 750FTY/ kg feed. T5: added fungal phytase enzyme 250FTY/ kg feed. T6: added fungal phytase enzyme 500FTY/ kg feed. T7: added fungal phytase enzyme 750FTY/ kg feed. T8 added enzymes mixture 250U/ kg feed. T9: added enzymes mixture 500U/ kg feed. T10: added enzymes mixture 750U/ kg feed. The results revealed that supplementing 750 U from enzymes mixture to broiler diet increased significantly (p <0.05) body weight compared with (250 FTY bacterial phytase/Kgfeed), (750 FTY bacterial phytase/Kg feed), (750FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) at 6 weeks, also supplemented different sources and levels from phytase enzyme improved a cumulative weight gain for (500 FTY bacterial phytase/Kgfeed), (250FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed), (500FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed), (250 Uenzymes mixture/Kgfeed), (500 Uenzymes mixture/Kgfeed) and (750 U enzymes mixture/Kgfeed) treatments compared with (750 FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed)treatment, about accumulative feed consumption (500 FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) and (250 Uenzymes mixture/Kgfeed) increased significantly compared with control group and (750FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) during 1-6 weeks. There were significantly improved in cumulative feed conversion for (500U enzymes mixture/Kgfeed) compared with the worse feed conversion ratio that recorded in (250 FTY bacterial phytase/Kgfeed). No significant differences between treatments in internal organs relative weights, carcass cuts, dressing percentage and production index. Mortality was increased in (750FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) compared with other treatments.

Keywords: broiler, phytase, phytic acid, productive performance

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30 The Effect of Protexin and Curcuma Longa on Growth Performance, Serum Lipid and Immune Organ Weight of Broilers at Starter Period

Authors: Farhad Ahmadi, Mehran Mohammadi Khah, Fariba Rahimi, N. Vejdani Far

Abstract:

The aim of present research was to investigate the effect of different levels of protexin (PRT) and Curcuma longa (CUR) on performance, serum lipid and indices of immune system in broiler chickens at the starter stage. A total of 300, one-day-old male broiler (Ross-308) were allotted, in a 2×2+1 factorial design contain 2 levels of protexin (10 and 40 mg/kg diet) and 2 levels of Curcuma longa (200 and 400 mg/kg diet) with four replicate and 15 birds per pens. Experimental diets were: T1 control (basal diet); T2 (2g/kg CUR+0.1g PRT/kg diet), T3 (2g CUR/kg+0.2g PRT/kg diet), T4 (4g CUR/kg+0.1g PRT/kg) and T5 (4g CUR/kg+0.2g PRT/kg). Results indicated that body weight gain and feed conversion ratio had significantly improved (P < 0.05) in birds that fed diet inclusion any levels of additive. The highest BWG and lowest FCR observed in T5 birds group as compared to control (P < 0.05). Relative bursa of Fabricius and spleen weight in T5 and T3 birds groups were higher than control (P > 0.05). The serum of cholesterol, TG, LDL had significantly decreased (P < 0.05). As well, HDL was higher (P < 0.05) in T5 birds group compared to control. In conclusion, results of present trial indicated that blend of mention additive was better than using individual of those and improved performance traits.

Keywords: Performance, serum, broiler, Curcuma longa, protexin

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29 The Effects of Organic or Inorganic Zinc and Microbial Phytase, Alone or in Combination, on the Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Fed a Diet Low in Available Phosphorus

Authors: Mustafa Salman, Mustafa Midilli, Omer Hakan Muglali, Tülay Ögretmen, Sena Cenesiz, Neslihan Ormanci

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn) from different sources and microbial phytase on the broiler performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of nutrients when they were added to broiler diets containing low available phosphorus. A total of 875, 1-day-old male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were randomly separated into two control groups (positive and negative) and five treatment groups each containing 125 birds; each group was divided into 5 replicates of 25 birds. The positive control (PC) group was fed a diet containing adequate concentration (0.45%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The negative control (NC) group was fed a basal diet including low concentration (0.30%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.30% phosphorus and 500 FTU phytase (PH); 0.30% phosphorus and organic zinc (OZ; 75mg/kg of Zn from Zn-proteinate); 0.30% phosphorus and inorganic zinc (IZ; 75 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4); 0.30% phosphorus, organic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (OZ + PH); and 0.30% phosphorus, inorganic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (IZ + PH) in the treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The lowest value for mean body weight was in the negative control group on a diet containing low available phosphorus. The use of supplementation with organic and inorganic zinc alone or in combination with microbial phytase significantly (P<0.05) increased the digestibility of Zn in the male broilers. Supplementation of those diets with OZ + PH or IZ + PH was very effective for increasing the body weight, body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the effects on broilers of diets with low phosphorus levels may be overcome by the addition of inorganic or organic zinc compounds in combination with microbial phytase.

Keywords: Performance, Phosphorus, broiler, phytase, zinc

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28 Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Thermophilic Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Humans and Poultry in Batna

Authors: Baali Mohamed

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Campylobacter are among the most common human bacterial gastroenteritis cases in many countries, and poultry meat is considered as a major source of human campylobacteriosis. This study is conducted, on one hand, to determine the prevalence of infection with thermotolerant Campylobacter both in broiler flocks and men, and to study their sensitivity to antibiotics, and secondly for comparing the two methods of isolation of Campylobacter thermotolerant: technique of passive filtration and selective isolation technique using the Karmali medium. This study examined 310 samples, 260 of avian origin and 50 of human origin, during the period from June 2011 to March 2012. Detecting Campylobacter thermotolerant is conducted using the standard ISO 10272. The results show that 66% (95% CI : 60-72%) of avian samples are contaminated with C. TT (172/260). The study of antibiotic susceptibility revealed that all strains (100%) are resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 90% to erythromycin, 66.3% to tetracycline, 53.3% to chloramphenicol and 46.7% to enrofloxacin. However, no resistance is noted to gentamycin. In human samples, three strains of C. thermotolerant are detected, with a contamination rate of 6%. The results of the statistical analysis using the chi-square test (χ2) showed that Campylobacter infection, on the one hand, had seasonal variation with a summer peak (p < 0.05) and, on the other hand, are not influenced by the size of the herd.

Keywords: Man, broiler, thermotolerant campylobacter, Karmali

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27 The Effect of Using Levels of Red Tiger Shrimp Meal in Starter Broiler Diet upon Growth Performance

Authors: Mohammed I.A. Al-Neemi, Mohammed S.B., Al-Hlawee, Ilham N. Ezaddin, Soz A. Faris, Omer E. Fakhry, Heemen S. Mageed

Abstract:

This objective of this study was to measure the effect of replacing different levels of animal protein concentrate with Red Tiger shrimp meal (RTSM: 60 % crude protein, 2400 M.E kcal/kg and the source of RTSM was imported from china) in the broiler starter diets. A total 300 broiler chicks (Ross-308) were randomly assigned in treatments dietary contained three different levels of RTSM (0.00, 4.16 and 8.32 %) in experimental diet with a completely randomized design (CRD). Each treatment included four replicates (floor pens) and 25 broilers in each replication (Pen). Therefore, floor space for each boilers was 900 cm2. Initially, the broilers where exposed to a continues lighting of 23:30 hours and dark period of 30 minutes in each 24 hours. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum to the broilers throughout the experimental period (1-21 days). The results of this study indicated that body weight (B.W.), body weight gain (B.W.G), conversion ratio of feed, protein and energy (F.CR, P.C.R and E.C.R) were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased by complete substituting (RTSM) for animal protein concentration (third treatment). Mortality percentage significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased for third dietary treatment. No significant differences were found for feed, protein and energy intake among treatments during the experimental period (three weeks). In conclusion, (RTSM) could be included to 4.16% in the broiler starter diet or substitute the protein Red Tiger shrimp as alternative of protein animal protein concentrate as much as 50%.

Keywords: Growth Performance, broiler, red tiger shrimp, starter diet, animal protein concentrate

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26 Impact of Two Herbal Seeds Supplementation on Growth Performance and Some Biochemical Blood and Tissue Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Kadry M. Sadek, Ayman E. Taha, Hamada A. Ahmed

Abstract:

The effects of basil and/or chamomile seed supplementation on the growth of Hubbard broiler chicks were evaluated. The antioxidant effects of these supplements were also assessed. One hundred and twenty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (group 1) was fed a basal diet (BD) without supplementation. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the BD supplemented with 10g basil, 10g chamomile, and 5g basil plus 5g chamomile per kg of food, respectively. Basil supplementation alone or in combination with chamomile non-significantly (P≥0.05) increased final body weight (3.2% and 0.3%, respectively) and weight gain (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively) over the experimental period. Chamomile supplementation alone non-significantly (P≥0.05) reduced final body weight and weight gain over the experimental period by 1.7% and 1.7%, respectively. In comparison to the control group, herbal seed supplementation reduced feed intake and improved the feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. In general, basil seed supplementation stimulated chicken growth and improved the feed efficiency more effectively than chamomile seed supplementation. The antioxidant activities of basil and/or chamomile supplementation were examined in the thymus, bursa, and spleen. In chickens that received supplements, the level of malondialdehyde was significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Supplementation of basil and/or chamomile did not affect blood protein levels, but had lipid-lowering effects as evidenced by reduced serum levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In conclusion, supplementation of basil and/or chamomile improved growth parameters in broiler chicks and had antioxidant and blood lipid-lowering effects. These beneficial effects of basil and/or chamomile supplementation resulted in economically viable production of high-quality white meat containing no harmful residues.

Keywords: Growth Performance, antioxidant, broiler, herbal additives, basil, chamomile

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25 Effect of Different Levels of Vitamin E and L-Carnitine on Performance of Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

Authors: R. Jahanian, S. Salari, M. A. Shirali, S. Tabatabaei, M. Sari

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of vitamin E and L-carnitine on performance, blood parameters and immune responses of broilers under heat stress. For this purpose 396 one- day- old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 9 treatments with 4 replicates (11 birds in each replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of three levels of vitamin E (0, 100 and 200 mg/ kg) and three levels of L-carnitine (0, 50 and 100 mg/ kg) that was done in completely randomized design with 3X3 factorial arrangement for 42 days. During the first three weeks, chickens were reared at normal temperature. From the beginning of the fourth week, all chickens were maintenance in a temperature range from 24-38 ° C for heat stress. Performance parameters including average feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. The results showed that the levels of vitamin E had no significant effect on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the experiment. The use of L-carnitine decreased feed intake during the experiment (P < 0/05). But did not affect average daily gain and feed conversion ratio. Also, there was not significant interaction between vitamin E and L-carnitine for performance parameters except average daily gain during the starter period. The results of this study indicate that the use of different levels of vitamin E and L-carnitine under heat stress did not affected performance parameters of broiler chickens.

Keywords: Performance, Heat Stress, broiler, l-carnitine

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24 The Efferent of Different Levels of Recycled Soybean Oil(RSO) on Growth and Performance of Broilers

Authors: Seyed Babak Asadi

Abstract:

In this experiment the effect of recycled soybean oil (RSO) on the growth and performance carcass of broiler was investigated. The percentages of recycled soybean oil (RSO) used in this experiment were 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. In this regard, 300 one-day-old broilers were selected randomly consisting of five treatments and three replicates(20 chickens per replicate). The chicks were kept in an accumulated manner for the first week, then divided between treatments and kept until they reached the age of 42 days. Body weight at 21 and 42, weight gain, food intake and food conversion ratio in starter (0-21 d), finisher (21-42 d) and overall were measured. At the end of the experiment (42 days-old) 2 chicks from each replicate which had the nearest weight to the average group in their group were selected, slaughtered and different parts of their carcass were weight separately. The result showed that the rate of feed intake and feed conversion coefficient have significantly increased with higher levels of recycled soybean oil. There was not a significant different between experimental groups for liver, heart, intestine and the weight of carcass. Results from this experiment showed that it is possible to use recycled soybean oil for up to 8 percent of food ration for broiler chicks without any significant effects on carcass quality.

Keywords: Growth, Performance, broiler, recycled soybean oil (RSO)

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23 Effect of Garlic Extract on Growth Performance and Immune System of Broiler

Authors: Merry Muspita Dyah Utami

Abstract:

The positive effect of garlic extract have been reported by many studies. It has antibiotical potential, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antifungal, and growth promoting. Supplementary garlic for broilers could mediate in getting the bioactive compounds in garlic. The avian bursa must be essential for antibody-mediated immunity. The size of bursa of fabricius must be some sort of endocrine or lymphoid gland associated with growth and sexual development. The research was conducted to evaluate the effects of garlic extract on growth performance and immune system of broiler. Seventy-two day old chick were equally divided into four group, three replication and six chicks each. Group I was control without garlic extract, then garlic extraxt was administrated to the experimental group II, III and IV (2, 4, 6% in ration). The experiment was conducted for three weeks period from day old chick to 21 days. Body weight of broiler were determined at day 1 and 21, feed intake was determined at the same period, feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At 21 day age, four birds per replicate were slaughtered , bursa was collected, weight and calculated as a percentage of live body weight. Mortality was recorded as it occurred and was used to ajust the total number of broiler to determine the total feed intake and feed conversion rasio. Data were expressed as the mean was compare by one way analysis of variance (Anova) follow by Duncan Test, which used to identify differences between groups. A value of P<0.05 was accepted as significance. The body weight, feed conversion rasio, and the weight of bursa of fabricius showed a significant differences, but feed consumption and the percentage of bursa of live body weight were not significantly different (P > 0.05) influenced by dietary treatments. The results of this research, garlic extract has a potential role as natural growth promoter and immunomodulatory system in broiler.

Keywords: Growth, Immunity, broiler, garlic extract

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22 Essential Oil Blend Containing Capsaicin, Carvacrol, and Cinnamaldehyde in Broiler Production Performance and Intestinal Morphometrics

Authors: Marianne D. M. Rendon, Sonia P. Acda, Veneranda A. Magpantay, Norma N. Fajardo, Amado A. Angeles

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The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of supplementing broiler starter diet with different levels of an essential oil blend (EOB) containing capsaicin, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on the performance of broilers. A total of 300 day-old straight-run Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to three treatments after 7-day group brooding following a completely randomized design (CRD). Birds assigned in treatment 1 were given starter basal diet while those in treatments 2 and 3 were given starter basal diet with 400 mg/kg antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) and 150 mg/kg EOB, respectively, until the 28th day. Basal finisher feed were given for all the treatments until harvest. Following 37 d feeding, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage, livability and jejunal villi height were determined. Results showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance. However, villi height and crypt depth was significantly lower for birds fed EOB.

Keywords: Essential Oil, broiler, Capsaicin, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde

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21 Effect of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Leaves on Wheat Offal Replacement for Chicks Feed Production

Authors: C. C. Okafor, T. M. Ezeh

Abstract:

The effect of addition of sweet potato leaves in replacement of wheat offal in the production of broiler chicks feed was studied. 72 day-old marshal strain chicks were used and brooded for two weeks with a normal commercial feed in Nigeria called top feed and weighed separately at the end of the two weeks, complete randomized design (CRD) was used. The weighed broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated to twice with eighteen birds per replicate. The four dietary treatment identified as T1, T2, T3 and T4. T1 served as control diet with 21% crude protein content, while T2 was prepared with Enzyme and in T3 and T4, wheat offal was replaced with sweet potato leaves and in T4 with inclusion of enzyme. Growth performance was studied using the following daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed efficiency. The result in daily weight gain showed that chicks fed with T2 feed had the highest weight gain (93.75) while chicks fed with T3 had the least weight gain of (34.5 gm). In daily feed intake chicks fed with T4 fed more (53.06 gm) than chicks fed with T2 (51.08 gm). In feed efficiency T3 had the highest value of 30% while the T2 had the least efficiency of 22%. There was no significant difference (P≥ 0.05) in all the three parameter tested. Sweet potato leaves can replace wheat offal in broiler feed production without any adverse effect on the growth performance.

Keywords: diet, dietary, broiler, potato leaves, wheat offal

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20 The Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Performance Traits, Carcass Quality, Gut Morphology and Haematological Parameters of Broilers Fed Wet Diet

Authors: Farhad Ahmadi, Vafa Pahlavani, Pejman Bidar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (Nano-ZnO) on carcass quality, blood parameters, and gut morphology in broiler chickens feeding wet diets. This research was conducted by total of 300 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-308) were distributed into a completely randomized design inclusion of 5 treatments in 4 replicated and 15 birds in each from 1 to 42 d. The experimental diets contain: 1) diet-based on corn-soybean dry (without Nano-ZnO), 2) dry diet whit 25 mg Nano-ZnO, 3) wet diet whit 25 mg Nano-ZnO, 4) dry diet whit 50 mg Nano-ZnO, 5) wet diet whit 50 mg Nano-ZnO to wet diet. The results indicated that trail diets had no significant effect on carcass and fraction cuts in 21 age (P > 0.05). Wet feeding increased (P < 0.05) live, carcass, pancreas, gizzard, proventriculus, breast, wing and SI weight index so that the birds fed wet diet contain 50mg/kg of Nano-ZnO had the highest (P < 0.05) live, carcass, pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard, breast, wing, and gut weights at 42d compared other treatments. The birds fed diet contain 25mg/kg Nano-ZnO had the higher (P < 0.05) leg weight and lowest gizzard and gut weight than others treatment. Wet diet inclusion of 50mg Nano-ZnO increased (P < 0.05) liver weight on d 42. Experimental treatments had no significant effect on blood hematology on 21 and 42. The lymphocyte count had increased (P < 0.05) in dry than wet diet, however, monocyte Percent had significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in dry and increased in wet diets. The birds of height and height: crypts villi ratio had significantly (P < 0.05) increased on d 42, so that the highest and lowest villus height observed in 50 mg Nano-ZnO to form dry and control, respectively. In conclusion, the results of indicated that used of Nano-ZnO and wet feeding had no effect on performance parameters. Wet diet caused increased monocyte percent and 50 mg level Nano-ZnO to form dry caused increased height of villi.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Performance, Blood, broiler, gut

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19 A Review: Role of Chromium in Broiler

Authors: Shakeel Ahmad, Naveed Zahra, Zahid Kamran

Abstract:

Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effect of heat stress results in reduction in the productive performance of poultry with high incidences of mortality. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry production through dietary manipulation. Supplementation with Chromium (Cr) might have some positive effects on some aspect of blood parameters and broilers performance. Chromium (Cr) the element whose trivalent Cr (III) organic state is present in trace amounts in animal feed and water is found to be a key element in evading heat stress and thus cutting down the heavy expenditure on air conditioning in broiler sheds. Chromium, along with other essential minerals is lost due to increased excretion during heat stress and thus its inclusion in broiler diet is kind of mandatory in areas of hot climate. Chromium picolinate in broiler diet has shown a hike in growth rate including muscle gain with body fat reduction under environmental stress. Fat reduction is probably linked to the ability of chromium to increase the sensitivity of the insulin receptors on tissues and thus the uptake of sugar from blood increases which decreases the amount of glucose to be converted to amino acids and stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides. Organic chromium has also shown to increase lymphocyte proliferation rate and antioxidant levels. So, the immune competency, muscle gain and fat reduction along with evasion of heat stress are good enough signs that indicate the fruitful inclusion of dietary chromium for broiler. This promising element may bring the much needed break in the local poultry industry. The task is now to set the exact dose of the element in the diet that would be useful enough and still not toxic to broiler. In conclusion there is a growing body of evidence which suggest that chromium may be an essential trace element for livestock and poultry. The nutritional requirement for chromium may vary with different species and physiological state within a species.

Keywords: Performance, Chromium, Heat Stress, broiler

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18 Protective Effects of Urtica dioica Seed Extract in Aflatoxicosis: Histopathological and Biochemical Findings

Authors: Ahmet Uyar, Zabit Yener, Abdulahad Dogan

Abstract:

(1). The ameliorative potential and antioxidant capacity of an extract of Urtica dioica seeds (UDS) were investigated using histopathological changes in liver and kidney of broiler, measuring serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) content in various tissues of broilers exposed to aflatoxin (AF). (2). A total of 32 broilers were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, UDS extract-treated, AF-treated and AF+UDS extract-treated. Broilers in control and UDS extract-treated groups were fed on a diet without AF. The AF-treated group and AF+UDS extract-treated groups were treated with an estimated 1 mg total AF/kg feed. The AF+UDS extract groups received in addition 30 ml UDS extract/kg diet for 21 days. (3). The AF-treated group had significantly decreased body weight gain when compared to the other groups. (4). Biochemical analysis showed a small increase in the concentrations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the AF-treated group compared to that of the control group, whereas concentrations of these enzymes were decreased in the AF+UDS group compared to that of the AF-treated group. (5). Administration of supplementary UDS extract helped restore the AF-induced increase in MDA and reduced the antioxidant system towards normality, particularly in the liver, brain, kidney and heart. Hepatorenal protection by UDS extracts was further supported by the almost normal histology in AF +UDS extract-treated group as compared to the degenerative changes in the AF-treated broilers. (6). It was concluded that UDS extract has a protective hepatorenal effect in broilers affected by aflatoxicosis, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defence systems.

Keywords: Biochemistry, Histopathology, broiler, aflatoxicosis, Urtica dioica seed extract

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17 Effects of Propolis on Immunomodulatory and Antibody Production in Broilers

Authors: Yu-Hsiang Yu

Abstract:

The immunomodulatory effect of propolis has been widely investigated in the past decade. However, the beneficial effects in broilers are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propolis added in drinking water on immunomodulatory and antibody production in broiler. Total of 48 chicks were randomly allocated into four groups with 12 broilers per group. All birds were intranasal inoculated with Newcastle Disease vaccine at 4 and 14 days old of age. Four groups, including control without any treatment, groups of A, B and F [3 days of anterior (A), 3 days of posterior (P) and 6 days of full (F)] were supplied the propolis at 300 ppm in drinking water when vaccination was performed, respectively. Our results showed that no significant difference was found in growth performance, antibody production and immune organ index among groups. However, propolis treatments in broilers significantly reduced IL-4 expression in spleen at 14 days-old of age and bursa at 28 days-old of age compared with control group. The expression of IFN-gamma in spleen (A, P and F group) and bursal (F group) were elevated compared with control group at 28 days-old of age. In conclusion, our results indicated that propolis-treated birds could bear the capability for immunomodulatory effects by change Th1 subset cytokine expression in vaccination.

Keywords: Vaccination, propolis, broiler, immunomodulatory

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16 Influence of Canola Oil and Lysine Supplementation Diets on Growth Performance and Fatty Acid Composition of Meat in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Ali Kiani, Seyed Davod. Sharifi, Shokoufeh Ghazanfari

Abstract:

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets containing different levels of lysine and canola oil on growth performance and fatty acid composition of meat of broilers chicks. 240-day old Ross broiler chicks were used in a 3×2 factorial arrangement with canola oil (1, 3, and 5%) and lysine (recommended, and 25% more than recommended by Ross broiler manual) in completely randomized design with four replicates and 10 birds per each. The experimental diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Feed intake and body weight gain were recorded at the end of starter (10 d), grower (24 d) and finisher (42 d) periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. The results showed that the weight gain of chickens fed diets containing 5% canola oil were greater than those of birds fed on other diets (P<0.05). The dietary lysine had significant effect on feed intake and diets with 25% more than recommended, increased feed intake significantly (P<0.05). The canola oil×lysine interaction effects on performance were not significant. Among all treatment birds, those fed diets containing 5% canola oil had the highest meristic acid and oleic acid content in their meat. Broilers fed diets containing 3 or 5% canola oil possessed the higher content of linolenic acid and lower content of arachidonic acid in their meat (P<0.05). The results of the present experiment indicated that the diets containing canola oil (5%) and lysine at 25% higher than requirement, improve the growth performance, carcass and breast yield of broiler, and increase the accumulation of Omega-3 fatty acids in breast meat.

Keywords: broiler, fatty acid, canola oil. lysine

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15 Counteract Heat Stress on Broiler Chicks by Adding Anti-Heat Stress Vitamins (Vitamin C and E) with Organic Zinc

Authors: Omnia Y. Shawky, Asmaa M. Megahed, Alaa E. ElKomy, A. E. Abd-El-Hamid, Y. A. Attia

Abstract:

This study was carried out to elevate the broilers physiological response against heat stress and reduce this impact by adding vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) alone/or with organic zinc (Zn) to chicks’ rations. A total of 192, 26-day-old Arbor Acers male chicks were randomly divided into equal 8 groups (4 replicates for each). All experimental groups were treated as follow: Group 2 was served as a heat stress control that reared at 37ºC with relative humidity 53 ± 8% for 6 hours/day for three successive days/week and fed the basal diet only. Groups 3-8 were heat stressed in a like manner to group 2 and fed basal diet inclusion 200mg VC (group 3), 200mg VE (group 4), 200mg VC+200mg VE (group 5), 200mg VC+30mg Zn (group 6), 200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 7) and 200mg VC+200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 8) /kg feed, while Group 1 was served as a positive control that reared on a neutral temperature (NT) (approximately 21ºC) and fed the basal diet only. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were boosted of HS chicks (80.8 breath/min and 41.97ºC) compared to NT group (60.12 breath/min and 40.9ºC), while, adding VC alone and with VE or Zn resulted in decrease these measurements. Heat stress had a significantly negative effect on chicks body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio compared to the NT group, this harmful effect could be overcome by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. Chicks exposed to heat stress showed slightly increase hemoglobin concentration compared to NT group, while, adding VC, VE individually or with Zn alleviated this effect. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly increased in HS group than the NT group, but adding VC, VE individually or with Zn resulted in a reduction plasma glucose level, which it was still higher than the NT group. Heat stress caused an increase in plasma total lipids and cholesterol concentration compared to the NT group and inclusion VC or VE alone or with Zn was not able to reduce this effect. The increased liver enzymes activities (AST and ALT) that observed in HS group compared to NT group were removed by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. As well, exposure of broiler chicks to heat stress resulted in a slightly decrease in plasma total antioxidant capacity level (TAC) superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes activities, while inclusion VC and VE individually or with Zn in chicks rations caused an increased in these measurements. Broiler chicks that exposed to HS revealed a significant increase in heat shock protein (Hsp 70) compared to the NT group, while, adding VC or VE individually or with Zn resulted in a significant decrease in Hsp70 than the HS group and VE alone or with VC had the greatest effect. In conclusion, it could be overcome the harmful and the negative effect of heat stress on broiler chicks’ productive performance and physiological status by inclusion VC (200mg) or VE (200mg) individual or in a combination with organic zinc (30 mg) in chicks’ rations.

Keywords: Heat Stress, broiler, vitamin C, vitamin E, organic zinc

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14 Effect of Herbal Mineral Blend on Growth Performance of Broilers

Authors: S. Ahmad, M. Rizwan, U. Farooq, U. Mahmood, S. U. Rehman, P. Akhtar

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of herbal and mineral mixture on growth performance of boilers. One hundred and eighty birds were randomly distributed into 6 experimental units of 3 replicates (10 birds/replicate) as: negative control (basal diet), positive control (Lincomycin at the rate of 5g/bag), commercially available herbal-mineral product FitFat™ at the rate of 150g/bag and 200g/bag, and herbal-mineral mixture at the rate of 150g/bag and herbal-mineral mixture at the rate of 300g/bag. The data regarding weekly feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded, and fecal samples were collected at the end of starter and finisher phase for nutrient digestibility trial. The results of body weight gain showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in 3rd week of age (506.90g), also, feed intake showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 1st (297.22g), 3rd (936.7g) and 4th (967.8g) week and feed conversion ratio indicated significant (P < 0.05) variations in 1st (1.14) and 3rd (1.74) week of age. The starter phase indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences among all treatments groups in body weight gain (902.2g), feed intake (1843.9g) and feed conversion ratio (1.78). In case of nutrient digestibility trial, results showed significant (P < 0.05) values of dry matter, crude protein, and crude fat in starter phase as 77.74%, 69.37%, and 61.18% respectively and 77.65%, 68.79% and 61.03% respectively, in finisher phase. Based on overall results, it was concluded that the dietary inclusion of combination of herbs and mineral can increase the production performance of broilers.

Keywords: Minerals, broiler, nutrient digestibility, herbal blend, crop filling

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13 Influence of Dietary Herbal Blend on Crop Filling, Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Broiler Chickens

Authors: S. Ahmad, M. Rizwan, P. Akhtar, B. Ayub, S. Mehmood

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of pure herbal blend on growth performance of boilers. One hundred and twenty birds were randomly distributed into 4 experimental units of 3 replicates (10 birds/replicate) as: negative control (basal diet), positive control (Lincomycin at the rate of 5g/bag), pure herbal blend at the rate of 150g/bag and pure herbal blend at the rate of 300g/bag. The data regarding weekly feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded, and fecal samples were collected at the end of starter and finisher phase for nutrient digestibility trial. The results of feed intake showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 1st (305g), 2nd (696.88g), 3rd (1046.9g) and 4th (1173.2g) week and feed conversion ratio indicated significant (P < 0.05) variations in 1st (2.54) and 4th (2.28) week of age. Also, both starter and finisher phase indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences among all treatment groups in feed intake (2023.4g) and (2302.6g) respectively. The statistical analysis indicated significant (P < 0.05) results in crop filling percentage (86.6%) after 2 hours of first feed supplementation. In case of nutrient digestibility trial, results showed significant (P < 0.05) values of crude protein and crude fat in starter phase as 69.65% and 56.62% respectively, and 69.57% and 48.55% respectively, in finisher phase. Based on overall results, it was concluded that the dietary inclusion of pure herbal blend containing neem tree leaves powder, garlic powder, ginger powder and turmeric powder increase the production performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler, garlic, ginger, herbal blend, neem tree leave

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12 The Effect of the Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as the Source of Protein Feed and Pathogen Antibacterial for Broiler

Authors: Waode Nurmayani, Nikmatul Riswanda

Abstract:

Broilers are chickens which are kept with the most efficient time and hoped get a good body weight. All things are done, for example with the improvement of feed and use antibiotics. Feed cost is the most cost to be spent. Nearly 80% of the cost is spent just for buy feed. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is a good choice to reduce the cost of feed protein source. The Earthworm has a high crude protein content of about 48.5%-61.9%, rich with proline amino acid about 15% of the 62 amino acids. Not only about protein, this earthworm also has a role in disease prevention. Prevention of disease in livestock usual with use feed supplement. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is one of the natural materials used as feed. In addition, several types of earthworms that have been known to contain active substances about antibacterial pathogens namely Lumbricus rubellus. The earthworm could be used as an antibiotic because it contain the antibody of Lumbricine active substance. So that, this animal feed from Lumbricus rubellus could improve the performance of broilers. Bioactive of anti-bacterial is called Lumbricine able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal wall so that the population of pathogenic bacteria is reduced. The method of write in this scientific writing is divided into 3 techniques, namely data completion, data analysis, and thinking pan from various literature about earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as broiler feed. It is expected that innovation of feed material of earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) could reduce the cost of protein feed and the use of chemical antibiotics.

Keywords: Protein, Antibiotic, broiler, earthworm

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11 The Application of to Optimize Pellet Quality in Broiler Feeds

Authors: Reza Vakili

Abstract:

The aim of this experiment was to optimize the effect of moisture, the production rate, grain particle size and steam conditioning temperature on pellet quality in broiler feed using Taguchi method and a 43 fractional factorial arrangement was conducted. Production rate, steam conditioning temperatures, particle sizes and moisture content were performed. During the production process, sampling was done, and then pellet durability index (PDI) and hardness evaluated in broiler feed grower and finisher. There was a significant effect of processing parameters on PDI and hardness. Based on the results of this experiment Taguchi method can be used to find the best combination of factors for optimal pellet quality.

Keywords: Hardness, processing parameters, broiler, PDI, feed physical quality

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10 Sound Analysis of Young Broilers Reared under Different Stocking Densities in Intensive Poultry Farming

Authors: Kaiying Wang, Xiaoyang Zhao

Abstract:

The choice of stocking density in poultry farming is a potential way for determining welfare level of poultry. However, it is difficult to measure stocking densities in poultry farming because of a lot of variables such as species, age and weight, feeding way, house structure and geographical location in different broiler houses. A method was proposed in this paper to measure the differences of young broilers reared under different stocking densities by sound analysis. Vocalisations of broilers were recorded and analysed under different stocking densities to identify the relationship between sounds and stocking densities. Recordings were made continuously for three-week-old chickens in order to evaluate the variation of sounds emitted by the animals at the beginning. The experimental trial was carried out in an indoor reared broiler farm; the audio recording procedures lasted for 5 days. Broilers were divided into 5 groups, stocking density treatments were 8/m², 10/m², 12/m² (96birds/pen), 14/m² and 16/m², all conditions including ventilation and feed conditions were kept same except from stocking densities in every group. The recordings and analysis of sounds of chickens were made noninvasively. Sound recordings were manually analysed and labelled using sound analysis software: GoldWave Digital Audio Editor. After sound acquisition process, the Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC) was extracted from sound data, and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used as an early detector and classifier. This preliminary study, conducted in an indoor reared broiler farm shows that this method can be used to classify sounds of chickens under different densities economically (only a cheap microphone and recorder can be used), the classification accuracy is 85.7%. This method can predict the optimum stocking density of broilers with the complement of animal welfare indicators, animal productive indicators and so on.

Keywords: Poultry farming, Support Vector Machine (SVM), broiler, stocking density, sound monitoring, Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC)

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9 The Expression of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene with Fat Accumulations and Serum Biochemical Levels in Betong (KU Line) and Broiler Chickens

Authors: W. Loongyai, N. Saengsawang, W. Danvilai, C. Kridtayopas, P. Sopannarath, C. Bunchasak

Abstract:

Betong chicken is a slow growing and a lean strain of chicken, while the rapid growth of broiler is accompanied by increased fat. We investigated the growth performance, fat accumulations, lipid serum biochemical levels and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression of female Betong (KU line) at the age of 4 and 6 weeks. A total of 80 female Betong chickens (KU line) and 80 female broiler chickens were reared under open system (each group had 4 replicates of 20 chicks per pen). The results showed that feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) of broiler chicken were significantly higher than Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01), while feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Betong (KU line) at week 6 were significantly lower than broiler chicken (P < 0.01) at 6 weeks. At 4 and 6 weeks, two birds per replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. Carcass weight did not significantly differ between treatments; the percentage of abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat yield was higher in the broiler (P < 0.01) at 4 and 6 week. Total cholesterol and LDL level of broiler were higher than Betong (KU line) at 4 and 6 weeks (P < 0.05). Abdominal fat samples were collected for total RNA extraction. The cDNA was amplified using primers specific for LPL gene expression and analysed using real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression of LPL gene was not different when compared between Betong (KU line) and broiler chickens at the age of 4 and 6 weeks (P > 0.05). Our results indicated that broiler chickens had high growth rate and fat accumulation when compared with Betong (KU line) chickens, whereas LPL gene expression did not differ between breeds.

Keywords: Gene expression, broiler, lipoprotein lipase gene, Betong (KU line), abdominal fat

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8 Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex with Cell Mediated Immunity

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni

Abstract:

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the best characterized genetic regions associated with immune responses and controlling disease resistance in chicken. Association of the MHC with a wide range of immune responses makes it a valuable predictive factor for the disease pathogenesis and outcome. In this study, the association of MHC with cell-mediated immune responses was analyzed in commercial broiler chicken. The tandem repeat LEI0258 was applied to investigate the MHC polymorphism. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated by peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assay using MTT method. Association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on cellular immune responses in this population. Alleles 385 and 448 bp were associated with elevated cell-mediated immunity. Haplotypes associated with improved immune responses could be considered as candidate markers for disease resistance and applied to breeding strategies.

Keywords: Chicken, broiler, MHC, cell-mediated immunity

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7 Effect of Fatty Acids in Feed on Levels of Antibody Titers and CD4 and CD8 T-Lymphocyte against Newcastle Disease Virus of Vaccinated Broiler Chicken

Authors: Alaa A. Shamaun Al-Abboodi, Yunis A. A. Bapeer

Abstract:

400 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross-308) randomly divided to 2 main groups, 1st main group (GA) was feeding basal diet with medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) at rate of 0.15% and divided to four subgroups, 3 subgroups vaccinated with different routes with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and non-vaccinated group. The 2nd main group (GB) feeding basal diet without MCFA and divided the same as 1st main group. The parameters used in this study included: ND antibody titers at 1, 10, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age and values of CD4 and CD8 at 1, 20, 30 and 42 days of age. This experiment detected increase in ND antibodies titers in (G1, G2, G3) groups were fed on basal diet MCFA comparing to groups were fed without adding MCFA (G5, G6, G7) and control groups (G4, G8). The results of cellular immune response (CD4 and CD8) T-cells in broiler chicks indicated that there was obviously significant relationship between dietary Fatty Acid (FA) versus the diet without FA on the level of CD4 parameter, for the entire experimental period. The effect of different ages was statistically significant in creating different values of CD4 level, whereas the CD4 level decreases markedly with age. However, analyzing the data of different vaccination methods, oculonasal method of vaccination led to the highest value of CD4 compared with the oral, S/C and control groups. There were statistical differences in CD8 values due to supplementation of FA versus the basal diet and due to the effect of different age periods. As for the age effect, the CD8 value at 20 days of age was significantly higher than at 42 and 30 days.

Keywords: Fatty Acids, broiler, Newcastle disease, CD4 and CD8

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6 The Economic Impact Analysis of the Use of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Broiler Feed

Authors: Hanan Al-Khalaifah, Afaf Al-Nasser

Abstract:

Probiotics and prebiotics claimed to serve as effective alternatives to antibiotics in the poultry. This study aims to investigate the effect of different probiotics and prebiotics on the economic impact analysis of the use of probiotics and prebiotics in broiler feed. The study involved four broiler cycles, two during winter and two during summer. In the first two cycles (summer and winter), different types of prebiotics and probiotics were used. The probiotics were Bacillus coagulans (1 g/kg dried culture) and Lactobacillus (1 g/kg dried culture of 12 commercial strains), and prebiotics included fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) (5 g/kg) and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (5 g/kg). Based on the results obtained, the best treatment was chosen to be FOS, from which different ratios were used in the last two cycles during winter and summer. The levels of FOS chosen were 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7% of the diet. From an economic point of view, it was generally concluded that in all dietary treatments, food was consumed less in cycle 1 than in cycle 2, the total body weight gain was more in cycle 1 than cycle 2, and the average feed efficiency was less in cycle l than cycle 2. This indicates that the weather condition affected better in cycle 1. Also, there were very small differences between the dietary treatments in each cycle. In cycle 1, the best total feed consumption was for the FOS treatment, the highest total body weight gain and average feed efficiency were for B. coagulans. In cycle 2, all performance was better in FOS treatment. FOS significantly reduced the Salmonella sp. counts in the intestine, where the environment was driven towards acidity. FOS was the best on the average taste panel study of the produced meat. Accordingly, FOS prebiotic was chosen to be the best treatment to be used in cycles 3 and 4. The economic impact analysis generally revealed that there were no big differences between the treatments in all of the studied indicators, but there was a difference between the cycles.

Keywords: Antibiotic, Economic impact, probiotic, broiler, prebiotic

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5 Efficacy of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and a Zeolite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate) in the Amelioration of Aflatoxicosis in Broilers

Authors: Ryan Stevens, Wayne L. Bryden

Abstract:

This study focused on the effects of ginger and a zeolite (toxin binder) in reducing the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens 7 to 49 days of age. The chicks were maintained normally until experimental diets were introduced on day 7 post-hatching. Nine hundred and thirty six, 7-d-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 18 treatment groups; each group had four replicates, each with 13 chickens. The experimental groups or diets had factorial combinations of the following; AFB1 0, 1 and 2 mg/kg diet, ginger 0 and 5g/kg diet, and zeolite 0, 15 and 30 g/kg diet. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and a starter diet was fed from 1 to 14 days, a grower diet from15 to 28 days and a finisher diet was provided from day 29 until the end of the experiment. Both dietary levels of AFB1 decreased (P<0.05) body weight and feed conversion, and increased relative liver weights. Independent dietary inclusion of ginger or zeolite restored chick performance when diets contained 1mg/kg but not at 2mg/kg. Supplementation of zeolite together with ginger improved performance of birds fed contaminated diets. Interestingly, adding ginger to the control diet that was not contaminated with AFB1 improved (P<0.05) performance. Our results suggest that toxin binders and ginger can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on performance of broiler chicks.

Keywords: Zeolite, broiler, ginger, aflatoxin

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4 Effect of Replacing Maize with Acha Offal in Broiler Chicken Diets on Performance, Haematology and Serum Biochemicals

Authors: Sudik S. D., Raymon J. B., Maidala A., Lawan A., Bagudu I. A.

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted with 240 Abor Acre broilers to determine the effect of replacing maize with acha offal (Digitaria exilis) on performance, haematology, and serum biochemical. Chicks were allotted to six diets (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6) with acha offal (AO) at 0.0%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, 12.5% and 15.0% respectively as replacement of maize with 4 replicates consisting of 10 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. They were allowed ad libitum accessed to feed and water throughout a 42 days experiment. The results showed that at the starter phase, only feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly affected (p < 0.05). Chicks fed T5 had best FCR more than those fed T1 while those fed T2, T3, T4, and T6 had similar FCR comparable with T1. At the finisher stage, final weight (FW), total weight change (TWC), average daily gain (ADG), and FCR were significantly affected (p < 0.05). Chickens fed T3, T4, T5, and T6 had similar FW, TWC, and ADG and higher than those fed T1; those fed T2 had similar FW, TWG, and DWG with T1. Chickens fed T6 had best FCR, followed by those fed T3, T4, and T5, while those T2 had worse FCR similar with those fed T1. Eviscerated weight was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by treatment. Birds fed T4, T5, and T6 had higher eviscerated weight followed by T3 while those fed T2 had least eviscerated weight comparable with those fed T1. The entire organs (Gizzard, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, and proventriculus) were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by treatments. Packed cell volume (PCV) and red blood cell (RBC) were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by treatment. Birds fed T4, T5, and T6 had higher and similar PCV and RBC with those fed T1 while those fed T2 and T3 had lower PCV and RBC. The entire serum metabolites were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by treatments. In conclusion, acha offal can replace maize in starter and finisher broilers’ diets at 12.5% and 15.0%, respectively, without an adverse effect.

Keywords: Performance, Haematology, serum, maize, broiler, acha offal, eviscerated

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3 Full Fat Soybean Meal as a Substitute for Soybean Meal in Broiler Rations

Authors: R. M. K. S. Chandana, A. P. D. G. Pathirana, N. Priyankarage, W. A. D. Nayananjalie, S. S. P. Silva

Abstract:

Full fat soybean meal (FFSBM) has been used in many parts of the world together with solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in livestock feeds. Although some local FFSBM is available, their use has not been assessed experimentally. This study was carried out to evaluate the use of local extruded FFSBM in broiler rations. Four treatment diets were formulated by incorporating locally produced FFSBM (0, 10, 20, and 30%) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) in a two-phase (starter and finisher) feeding program. Two hundred Hubbard F 15 day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into four treatments with five replicates per each. Bodyweight gain (BWG), feed intakes (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated for a period of 42 days. Nutrient utilization in the form of dry matter (DM), energy, nitrogen, and fat retention were estimated by the total collection method in three weeks old broilers. At the end of the experiment, carcass weight was measured, and the dressing percentage was calculated. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SAS. There was no significant effect of FFSBM on feed intakes of chicks fed different diets (p > 0.05). Birds fed the control diet, and FF10 (10% FFSBM diet) gained significantly more than that of birds fed FF20 or FF30 diets (p > 0.05). In the finisher period, control birds gained more than all the other treatment birds. FCR was poorer in bird fed higher levels of FFSBM compared to the control or FF10 birds during their early life, but that was not evident in the latter part of the experiment. Treatments did not alter (p > 0.05) the retention of DM and nitrogen, but energy utilization was lowest (p < 0.05) in birds fed with 0% FFSBM, and the highest fat digestibility was observed in birds fed with 30% FFSBM diets. Thus, it can be concluded that FFSBM can be used as a substitute for SBM in broiler rations and could be incorporated up to 10% of the diet safely with no adverse effects on broiler performances.

Keywords: digestibility, broiler, body weight, soybean meal, full fat soybean meal

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