Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Bridge Related Abstracts

22 Seismic Performance of Isolated Bridge Configurations with Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: Davide Forcellini


The most recent development of earthquake engineering is based on concept of design consisting in prescribed performance rather than the more traditional prescriptive approaches. The paper aims to assess the effects of isolation devices and soil structure interaction on a benchmark bridge adopting a Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology. Several isolated configurations of abutments and pier connections are compared performing the most representative isolation devices. Isolation systems suitability depends on many factors, mainly connected with ground effects. In this regard, the second purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the studied bridge configurations. Contributions of isolation technique and soil structure interaction are assessed evaluating the resistance effects applied to Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) levels in terms of cost and time repair quantities.

Keywords: Earthquake Engineering, Bridge, Soil Structure Interaction, Seismic Assessment, base isolation, non linearity, PBEE methodology

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21 Dynamic Amplification Factors of Some City Bridges

Authors: I. Paeglite, A. Paeglitis


The paper presents a study of dynamic effects obtained from the dynamic load testing of the city highway bridges in Latvia carried out from 2005 to 2012. 9 pre-stressed concrete bridges and 4 composite bridges were considered. 11 of 13 bridges were designed according to the Eurocodes but two according to the previous structural codes used in Latvia (SNIP 2.05.03-84). The dynamic properties of the bridges were obtained by heavy vehicles passing the bridge roadway with different driving speeds and with or without even pavement. The obtained values of the Dynamic amplification factor (DAF) and bridge natural frequency were analyzed and compared to the values of built-in traffic load models provided in Eurocode 1. The actual DAF values for even bridge deck in the most cases are smaller than the value adopted in Eurocode 1. Vehicle speed for uneven pavements significantly influence Dynamic amplification factor values.

Keywords: Bridge, dynamic effects, load testing, dynamic amplification factor

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20 Mitigation of Seismic Forces Effect on Highway Bridge Using Aseismic Bearings

Authors: Kaoutar Zellat, Tahar Kadri


The purpose of new aseismic techniques is to provide an additional means of energy dissipation, thereby reducing the transmitted acceleration into the superstructure. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of aseismic bearings technique and understand the behavior of seismically isolated bridges by such devices a three-span continuous deck bridge made of reinforced concrete is considered. The bridge is modeled as a discrete model and the relative displacements of the isolation bearing are crucial from the design point of view of isolation system and separation joints at the abutment level. The systems presented here are passive control systems and the results of some important experimental tests are also included. The results show that the base shear in the piers is significantly reduced for the isolated system as compared to the non isolated system in the both directions of the bridge. This indicates that the use of aseismic systems is effective in reducing the earthquake response of the bridge.

Keywords: Bridge, Seismic Response, aseismic bearings, bridge isolation

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19 Experimental Investigation on Tsunami Acting on Bridges

Authors: Iman Mazinani, Zubaidah Ismail, Ahmad Mustafa Hashim, Amir Reza Saba


Two tragic tsunamis that devastated the west coast of Sumatra Island, Indonesia in 2004 and North East Japan in 2011 had damaged bridges to various extents. Tsunamis have resulted in the catastrophic deterioration of infrastructures i.e. coastal structures, utilities and transportation facilities. A bridge structure performs vital roles to enable people to perform activities related to their daily needs and for development. A damaged bridge needs to be repaired expeditiously. In order to understand the effects of tsunami forces on bridges, experimental tests are carried out to measure the characteristics of hydrodynamic force at various wave heights. Coastal bridge models designed at a 1:40 scale are used in a 24.0 m long hydraulic flume with a cross section of 1.5 m by 2.0 m. The horizontal forces and uplift forces in all cases show that forces increase nonlinearly with increasing wave amplitude.

Keywords: Tsunami, Bridge, horizontal force, uplift force

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18 Assessment of Bridge Performance with Laminated versus Spring Seismic Isolation

Authors: M. Z. Ramli, A. Adnan, Chee Wei Tan


To gain a better understanding of earthquake forces on reinforced concrete bridge piers with different bearing condition, a series of experiments was conducted on a realistic, 1:4 scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. The normal practices of laminated seismic isolation bearing is compared with the new design spring seismic isolation bearing where invented by Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research (e-SEER), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The nonlinear behavior of piers is modeled using the fibre beam theory to verify the experimental works. The hysteresis of bridge pier with different bearing condition was illustrated under different Peak Ground Acceleration (PGAs). The average slope of the hysteresis respectively to the global stiffness was also investigated.

Keywords: Bridge, Stiffness, peak ground acceleration, laminated seismic isolation, spring seismic isolation

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17 IEP Curriculum to Include For-Credit University English Classes

Authors: Cheyne Kirkpatrick


In an attempt to make the university intensive English program more worthwhile for students, many English language programs are redesigning curriculum to offer for-credit English for Academic Purposes classes, sometimes marketed as “bridge” courses. These programs are designed to be accredited to national language standards, provide communicative language learning, and give students the opportunity to simultaneously earn university language credit while becoming proficient in academic English. This presentation will discuss the curriculum design of one such program in the United States at a large private university that created its own for-credit “bridge” program. The planning, development, piloting, teaching, and challenges of designing this type of curriculum will be presented along with the aspects of accreditation, communicative language learning, and integration within various university programs. Attendees will learn about how such programs are created and what types of objectives and outcomes are included in American EAP classes.

Keywords: Bridge, Curriculum, IEP, AEP, CEFR, University Credit

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16 Fatigue Truck Modification Factor for Design Truck (CL-625)

Authors: Mohamad Najari, Gilbert Grondin, Marwan El-Rich


Design trucks in standard codes are selected based on the amount of damage they cause on structures-specifically bridges- and roads to represent the real traffic loads. Some limited numbers of trucks are run on a bridge one at a time and the damage on the bridge is recorded for each truck. One design track is also run on the same bridge “n” times -“n” is the number of trucks used previously- to calculate the damage of the design truck on the same bridge. To make these damages equal a reduction factor is needed for that specific design truck in the codes. As the limited number of trucks cannot be the exact representative of real traffic through the life of the structure, these reduction factors are not accurately calculated and they should be modified accordingly. Started on July 2004, the vehicle load data were collected in six weigh in motion (WIM) sites owned by Alberta Transportation for eight consecutive years. This database includes more than 200 million trucks. Having these data gives the opportunity to compare the effect of any standard fatigue trucks weigh and the real traffic load on the fatigue life of the bridges which leads to a modification for the fatigue truck factor in the code. To calculate the damage for each truck, the truck is run on the bridge, moment history of the detail under study is recorded, stress range cycles are counted, and then damage is calculated using available S-N curves. A 2000 lines FORTRAN code has been developed to perform the analysis and calculate the damages of the trucks in the database for all eight fatigue categories according to Canadian Institute of Steel Construction (CSA S-16). Stress cycles are counted using rain flow counting method. The modification factors for design truck (CL-625) are calculated for two different bridge configurations and ten span lengths varying from 1 m to 200 m. The two considered bridge configurations are single-span bridge and four span bridge. This was found to be sufficient and representative for a simply supported span, positive moment in end spans of bridges with two or more spans, positive moment in interior spans of three or more spans, and the negative moment at an interior support of multi-span bridges. The moment history of the mid span is recorded for single-span bridge and, exterior positive moment, interior positive moment, and support negative moment are recorded for four span bridge. The influence lines are expressed by a polynomial expression obtained from a regression analysis of the influence lines obtained from SAP2000. It is found that for design truck (CL-625) fatigue truck factor is varying from 0.35 to 0.55 depending on span lengths and bridge configuration. The detail results will be presented in the upcoming papers. This code can be used for any design trucks available in standard codes.

Keywords: Bridge, Fatigue, fortran, fatigue design truck, rain flow analysis

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15 Effect of Stirrup Corrosion on Concrete Confinement Strength

Authors: Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya


This study investigated how the concrete confinement strength and axial load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete columns are affected by corrosion damage to the stirrups. A total of small-scale 12 test specimens were cast for evaluating the effect of stirrup corrosion on confinement strength of concrete. The results of this study show that the stirrup corrosion alone dramatically decreases the axial load carrying capacity of corroded reinforced concrete columns. Recommendations were presented for improved inspection practices which will allow estimating concrete confinement strength of corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete bridge columns.

Keywords: Concrete, Corrosion, Inspection, Bridge, column, stirrup reinforcement

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14 Technical Non-Destructive Evaluation of Burnt Bridge at CH. 57+450 Along Abuja-Abaji-Lokoja Road, Nigeria

Authors: Abraham O. Olaniyi, Oluyemi Oke, Atilade Otunla


The structural performance of bridges decreases progressively throughout their service life due to many contributing factors (fatigue, carbonation, fire incidents etc.). Around the world, numerous bridges have attained their estimated service life and many have approached this limit. The structural integrity assessment of the burnt composite bridge located at CH57+450, Koita village along Abuja-Abaji-Lokoja road, Nigeria, is presented as a case study and shall be forthwith referred to as the 'Koita bridge' in this paper. From the technical evaluation, the residual compressive strength of the concrete piers was found to be below 16.0 N/mm2. This value is very low compared to the expected design value of 30.0 N/mm2. The pier capping beam at pier location 1 has a very low residual compressive strength. The cover to the reinforcement of certain capping beams has an outline of reinforcement which signifies poor concrete cover and the mean compressive strength is also less than 20.0 N/mm2. The steel girder indicated black colouration as a result of the fire incident without any significant structural defect like buckling or warping of the steel section. This paper reviews the structural integrity assessment and repair methodology of the Koita bridge; a composite bridge damaged by fire, highlighting the various challenges of limited obtainable guidance documents about the bridge. The objectives are to increase the understanding of processes and versatile equipment required to test and assess a fire-damaged bridge in order to improve the quality of structural appraisal and rehabilitation; thus, eliminating the prejudice associated with current visual inspection techniques.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Sustainability, Assessment, Bridge

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13 Numerical Simulation of the Remaining Life of Ramshir Bridge over the Karoon River

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, V.Tavvaf, E. Akhlaghi, H. Mohammadi Majd, A. Shirani, S. M. Moravvej, M. Kazemi, A. R. Aboudi Asl, A. Jaderi


The static and corrosion behavior of the bridge using for pipelines in the south of country have been evaluated. The bridge was constructed more than 40 years ago on the Karoon River. Mentioned bridge is located in Khuzestan province and at a distance of 15 km east from the suburbs of Ahwaz. In order to determine the mechanical properties, the experimental tools such as measuring the thickness and static simulations based on the actual load were used. In addition, the metallurgical studies were used to achieve a rate of corrosion of pipes in the river and in the river bed. The aim of this project is to determine the remaining life of the bridge using mechanical and metallurgical studies.

Keywords: Corrosion, Bridge, stress, FEM

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12 Implication of Soil and Seismic Ground Motion Variability on Dynamic Pile Group Impedance for Bridges

Authors: Muhammad Tariq Chaudhary


Bridges constitute a vital link in a transportation system and their functionality after an earthquake is critical in reducing disruption to social and economic activities of the society. Bridges supported on pile foundations are commonly used in many earthquake-prone regions. In order to properly design or investigate the performance of such structures, it is imperative that the effect of soil-foundation-structure interaction be properly taken into account. This study focused on the influence of soil and seismic ground motion variability on the dynamic impedance of pile-group foundations typically used for medium-span (about 30 m) urban viaduct bridges. Soil profiles corresponding to various AASHTO soil classes were selected from actual data of such bridges and / or from the literature. The selected soil profiles were subjected to 1-D wave propagation analysis to determine effective values of soil shear modulus and damping ratio for a suite of properly selected actual seismic ground motions varying in PGA from 0.01g to 0.64g, and having variable velocity and frequency content. The effective values of the soil parameters were then employed to determine the dynamic impedance of pile groups in horizontal, vertical and rocking modes in various soil profiles. Pile diameter was kept constant for bridges in various soil profiles while pile length and number of piles were changed based on AASHTO design requirements for various soil profiles and earthquake ground motions. Conclusions were drawn regarding variability in effective soil shear modulus, soil damping, shear wave velocity and pile group impedance for various soil profiles and ground motions and its implications for design and evaluation of pile-supported bridges. It was found that even though the effective soil parameters underwent drastic variation with increasing PGA, the pile group impedance was not affected much in properly designed pile foundations due to the corresponding increase in pile length or increase in a number of piles or both when subjected to increasing PGA or founded in weaker soil profiles.

Keywords: Bridge, pile foundation, shear wave velocity, dynamic foundation impedance, soil profile, seismic ground motion, seismic wave propagation

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11 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bridge Structures Using 3D Finite Element Methods in South Korea

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Bu Seog Ju


This study described the seismic performance evaluation of bridge structures, located near Daegu metropolitan city in Korea. The structural design code or regulatory guidelines is focusing on the protection of brittle failure or collapse in bridges’ lifetime during an earthquake. This paper illustrated the procedure in terms of the safety evaluation of bridges using simple linear elastic 3D Finite Element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform. The design response spectra based on KBC 2009 were then developed, in order to understand the seismic behavior of bridge structures. Besides, the multiple directional earthquakes were applied and it revealed that the most dominated earthquake direction was transverse direction of the bridge. Also, the bridge structure under the compressive stress was more fragile than the tensile stress and the vertical direction of seismic ground motions was not significantly affected to the structural system.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Seismic, Evaluation, Bridge, FEM

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10 Reinforcing Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bridge Decks with Steel Plates

Authors: M. Alpaslan Koroglu


Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge decks have become an innovative alternative, and they have offered many advantages, and this has been increasing attention for applications in not only reinforcement of existing bridges decks but also construction of new bridges decks. The advantages of these FRP decks are; lightweight, high-strength FRP materials, corrosion resistance. However, this high strength deck is not ductile. In this study, the behaviour of hybrid FRP-steel decks are investigated. All FRP decks was analysed with the commercial package ABAQUS. In the FE model, the webs and flanges were discretised by 4 nodes shell elements. A full composite action between the steel and the FRP composite was assumed in the FE analysis because the bond-slip behaviour was unknown at that time. The performance of the proposed hybrid FRP deck panel with steel plates was evaluated by means of FE analysis.

Keywords: Bridge, FRP, finite element, deck

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9 Seismic Fragility Curves Methodologies for Bridges: A Review

Authors: Amirmozafar Benshams, Khatere Kashmari, Farzad Hatami, Mesbah Saybani


As a part of the transportation network, bridges are one of the most vulnerable structures. In order to investigate the vulnerability and seismic evaluation of bridges performance, identifying of bridge associated with various state of damage is important. Fragility curves provide important data about damage states and performance of bridges against earthquakes. The development of vulnerability information in the form of fragility curves is a widely practiced approach when the information is to be developed accounting for a multitude of uncertain source involved. This paper presents the fragility curve methodologies for bridges and investigates the practice and applications relating to the seismic fragility assessment of bridges.

Keywords: Uncertainty, Bridge, fragility curve, NLTHA, IDA

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8 Formulation of a Rapid Earthquake Risk Ranking Criteria for National Bridges in the National Capital Region Affected by the West Valley Fault Using GIS Data Integration

Authors: George Mariano Soriano


In this study, a Rapid Earthquake Risk Ranking Criteria was formulated by integrating various existing maps and databases by the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS). Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) software, the above-mentioned maps and databases were used in extracting seismic hazard parameters and bridge vulnerability characteristics in order to rank the seismic damage risk rating of bridges in the National Capital Region.

Keywords: Earthquake, Risk, Bridge, Vulnerability, GIS, Hazard

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7 Early Detection of Damages in Railway Steel Truss Bridges from Measured Dynamic Responses

Authors: Dinesh Gundavaram


This paper presents an investigation on bridge damage detection based on the dynamic responses estimated from a passing vehicle. A numerical simulation of steel truss bridge for railway was used in this investigation. The bridge response at different locations is measured using CSI-Bridge software. Several damage scenarios are considered including different locations and severities. The possibilities of dynamic properties of global modes in the identification of structural changes in truss bridges were discussed based on the results of measurement.

Keywords: Bridge, Detection, Damage, dynamic responses

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6 Probabilistic-Based Design of Bridges under Multiple Hazards: Floods and Earthquakes

Authors: Kuo-Wei Liao, Jessica Gitomarsono


Bridge reliability against natural hazards such as floods or earthquakes is an interdisciplinary problem that involves a wide range of knowledge. Moreover, due to the global climate change, engineers have to design a structure against the multi-hazard threats. Currently, few of the practical design guideline has included such concept. The bridge foundation in Taiwan often does not have a uniform width. However, few of the researches have focused on safety evaluation of a bridge with a complex pier. Investigation of the scouring depth under such situation is very important. Thus, this study first focuses on investigating and improving the scour prediction formula for a bridge with complicated foundation via experiments and artificial intelligence. Secondly, a probabilistic design procedure is proposed using the established prediction formula for practical engineers under the multi-hazard attacks.

Keywords: Reliability, Bridge, scour, multi-hazards

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5 Seismic Behavior of Pile-Supported Bridges Considering Soil-Structure Interaction and Structural Non-Linearity

Authors: Muhammad Tariq A. Chaudhary


Soil-structure interaction (SSI) in bridges under seismic excitation is a complex phenomenon which involves coupling between the non-linear behavior of bridge pier columns and SSI in the soil-foundation part. It is a common practice in the study of SSI to model the bridge piers as linear elastic while treating the soil and foundation with a non-linear or an equivalent linear modeling approach. Consequently, the contribution of soil and foundation to the SSI phenomenon is disproportionately highlighted. The present study considered non-linear behavior of bridge piers in FEM model of a 4-span, pile-supported bridge that was designed for five different soil conditions in a moderate seismic zone. The FEM model of the bridge system was subjected to a suite of 21 actual ground motions representative of three levels of earthquake hazard (i.e. Design Basis Earthquake, Functional Evaluation Earthquake and Maximum Considered Earthquake). Results of the FEM analysis were used to delineate the influence of pier column non-linearity and SSI on critical design parameters of the bridge system. It was found that pier column non-linearity influenced the bridge lateral displacement and base shear more than SSI for majority of the analysis cases for the class of bridge investigated in the study.

Keywords: Bridge, Soil-Structure Interaction, Seismic Loading, pile foundation, FEM model, reinforced concrete pier

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4 Seismic Response Control of Multi-Span Bridge Using Magnetorheological Dampers

Authors: B. Neethu, Diptesh Das


The present study investigates the performance of a semi-active controller using magneto-rheological dampers (MR) for seismic response reduction of a multi-span bridge. The application of structural control to the structures during earthquake excitation involves numerous challenges such as proper formulation and selection of the control strategy, mathematical modeling of the system, uncertainty in system parameters and noisy measurements. These problems, however, need to be tackled in order to design and develop controllers which will efficiently perform in such complex systems. A control algorithm, which can accommodate un-certainty and imprecision compared to all the other algorithms mentioned so far, due to its inherent robustness and ability to cope with the parameter uncertainties and imprecisions, is the sliding mode algorithm. A sliding mode control algorithm is adopted in the present study due to its inherent stability and distinguished robustness to system parameter variation and external disturbances. In general a semi-active control scheme using an MR damper requires two nested controllers: (i) an overall system controller, which derives the control force required to be applied to the structure and (ii) an MR damper voltage controller which determines the voltage required to be supplied to the damper in order to generate the desired control force. In the present study a sliding mode algorithm is used to determine the desired optimal force. The function of the voltage controller is to command the damper to produce the desired force. The clipped optimal algorithm is used to find the command voltage supplied to the MR damper which is regulated by a semi active control law based on sliding mode algorithm. The main objective of the study is to propose a robust semi active control which can effectively control the responses of the bridge under real earthquake ground motions. Lumped mass model of the bridge is developed and time history analysis is carried out by solving the governing equations of motion in the state space form. The effectiveness of MR dampers is studied by analytical simulations by subjecting the bridge to real earthquake records. In this regard, it may also be noted that the performance of controllers depends, to a great extent, on the characteristics of the input ground motions. Therefore, in order to study the robustness of the controller in the present study, the performance of the controllers have been investigated for fourteen different earthquake ground motion records. The earthquakes are chosen in such a way that all possible characteristic variations can be accommodated. Out of these fourteen earthquakes, seven are near-field and seven are far-field. Also, these earthquakes are divided into different frequency contents, viz, low-frequency, medium-frequency, and high-frequency earthquakes. The responses of the controlled bridge are compared with the responses of the corresponding uncontrolled bridge (i.e., the bridge without any control devices). The results of the numerical study show that the sliding mode based semi-active control strategy can substantially reduce the seismic responses of the bridge showing a stable and robust performance for all the earthquakes.

Keywords: Bridge, Sliding Mode Control, semi active control, MR damper

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3 Performance of Bridge Approach Slabs in Bridge Construction: A Case Study

Authors: Aurora Cerri, Niko Pullojani


Long-term differential settlement between the bridge structure and the bridge embankment typically results in an abrupt grade change, causing driver discomfort, impairing driver safety, and exerting a potentially excessive impact traffic loading on the abutment. This paper has analysed a case of study showing the effect of an approaching slab realized in a bridge constructed at Tirane-Elbasan Motorway. The layer thickness under the slab is modeled as homogenous, the slab is a reinforced concrete structure and over that the asphaltic layers take place. Analysis indicates that reinforced concrete approaching slab distributes the stresses quite uniformly into the road fill layers and settlements varies in a range less than 2.50 cm in the total slab length of 6.00 m with a maximum slope of 1/240. Results taken from analytical analysis are compared with topographic measurements done on field and they carry great similarities.

Keywords: Bridge, differential settlement, road pavement, approach slab

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2 Applications of Drones in Infrastructures: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Jin Fan, M. Ala Saadeghvaziri


Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, equipped with various kinds of advanced detecting or surveying systems, are effective and low-cost in data acquisition, data delivery and sharing, which can benefit the building of infrastructures. This paper will give an overview of applications of drones in planning, designing, construction and maintenance of infrastructures. The drone platform, detecting and surveying systems, and post-data processing systems will be introduced, followed by cases with details of the applications. Challenges from different aspects will be addressed. Opportunities of drones in infrastructure include but not limited to the following. Firstly, UAVs equipped with high definition cameras or other detecting equipment are capable of inspecting the hard to reach infrastructure assets. Secondly, UAVs can be used as effective tools to survey and map the landscape to collect necessary information before infrastructure construction. Furthermore, an UAV or multi-UVAs are useful in construction management. UVAs can also be used in collecting roads and building information by taking high-resolution photos for future infrastructure planning. UAVs can be used to provide reliable and dynamic traffic information, which is potentially helpful in building smart cities. The main challenges are: limited flight time, the robustness of signal, post data analyze, multi-drone collaboration, weather condition, distractions to the traffic caused by drones. This paper aims to help owners, designers, engineers and architects to improve the building process of infrastructures for higher efficiency and better performance.

Keywords: Information, Construction, Infrastructure, Bridge, Drones

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1 Review and Classification of the Indicators and Trends Used in Bridge Performance Modeling

Authors: S. Rezaei, Z. Mirzaei, M. Khalighi, J. Bahrami


Bridges, as an essential part of road infrastructures, are affected by various deterioration mechanisms over time due to the changes in their performance. As changes in performance can have many negative impacts on society, it is essential to be able to evaluate and measure the performance of bridges throughout their life. This evaluation includes the development or the choice of the appropriate performance indicators, which, in turn, are measured based on the selection of appropriate models for the existing deterioration mechanism. The purpose of this article is a statistical study of indicators and deterioration mechanisms of bridges in order to discover further research capacities in bridges performance assessment. For this purpose, some of the most common indicators of bridge performance, including reliability, risk, vulnerability, robustness, and resilience, were selected. The researches performed on each index based on the desired deterioration mechanisms and hazards were comprehensively reviewed. In addition, the formulation of the indicators and their relationship with each other were studied. The research conducted on the mentioned indicators were classified from the point of view of deterministic or probabilistic method, the level of study (element level, object level, etc.), and the type of hazard and the deterioration mechanism of interest. For each of the indicators, a number of challenges and recommendations were presented according to the review of previous studies.

Keywords: Lifecycle, Bridge, performance indicator, deterioration mechanism

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