Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Brazil Related Abstracts

30 Embodied Energy in Concrete and Structural Masonry on Typical Brazilian Buildings

Authors: Marco A. S. González, Marlova P. Kulakowski, Luciano G. Breitenbach, Felipe Kirch

Abstract:

The AEC sector has an expressive environmental responsibility. Actually, most building materials have severe environmental impacts along their production cycle. Professionals enrolled in building design may choice the materials and techniques with less impact among the viable options. This work presents a study about embodied energy in materials of two typical Brazilian constructive alternatives. The construction options considered are reinforced concrete structure and structural masonry. The study was developed for the region of São Leopoldo, southern Brazil. Results indicated that the energy embodied in these two constructive systems is approximately 1.72 GJ•m-2 and 1.26 GJ•m-2, respectively. It may be concluded that the embodied energy is lower in the structural masonry system, with a reduction around to 1/4 in relation to the traditional option. The results can be used to help design decisions.

Keywords: Sustainability, civil construction, embodied energy, Brazil

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29 Entrepreneurial Predisposition and Intention of Students from the IFRN – Mossoró, Brazil

Authors: Giovane Gurgel, Cristina S. Rodrigues, Filipa D. Vieira

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IFRN – Mossoró is a Brazilian technical education institute that develops several activities to encourage entrepreneurship, such as a curricular discipline about enterprise management and the existence of a business incubator. Despite efforts, the business incubator does not produce the expected effects. Therefore, what predisposes students to start their own business? If literature review explores determinant factors like the family and personal characteristics, it can be sustained that entrepreneurship skills can be taught since primary level, until university level. This paper presents the results of research project “Empreende IFRN” to understand the entrepreneurial predisposition and intention of the students from technical level courses. Data from 365 students from technical level courses reveal an increased entrepreneurial intention of students during time (from a 2 years period to someday in the future). The entrepreneurial behaviour of parents affects students’ perception about starting their own business. Students also present a cautions behaviour, preferring bank deposit and investment fund instead starting a business.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Brazil, entrepreneurial intention, secondary technical students

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28 The Dimensions of Culture in the Productive Internationalization Process: An Overview about Brazilian Companies in Bolivia

Authors: Renato Dias Baptista

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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the elements of the cultural dimension in the internationalization process of Brazilian companies in Bolivia. This paper is based on research on two major Brazilian transnational companies which have plants in Bolivia. To achieve the objectives, the interconnective characteristics of culture in the process of productive internationalization were analyzed aiming to highlight it as a guiding element opposite the premises of the Brazilian leadership in the integration and development of the continent. The analysis aims to give relevance to the culture of a country and its relations with internationalization.

Keywords: Culture, Transnational, Internationalization, Brazil, Bolivia

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27 The Influence of Republican Culture in the Professional Education Reforms in Brazil (1892-1930)

Authors: Milene Magalhães Pinto, Irlen Antônio Gonçalves

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This paper is within the area of History of Education in Brazil, having a descriptive and exploratory nature. It has been built on the belief that professional education is organized under political guidelines and solidifies through institutionalized discourses, allowing to know its mission concerning the society in which it operates by studying these speeches. Our purpose is to analyze how the Republican political culture yielded changes in public education through reforms to professional education in the First Republic, based on seven procedures of law that occurred in the Legislature of State of Minas Gerais. The Republican effort to reform the teaching was the result of a conception of society that aspired to advance the country by way of the national worker.

Keywords: Education Reforms, Professional Education, Brazil, republican political culture

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26 Digital Preservation Policies in the Institutional Repositories of Brazilian Federal Universities

Authors: Laerte Pereira da Silva Júnior, Maria Manuel Borges

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Institutional Repositories (IR) are complex constructs that depend on political, cultural and technological aspects. Because IRs are a mirror of the organization's intellectual production, their main function is to make that production available worldwide, and also to consider its long term preservation. To this end, there is a need to define clearly the digital preservation policies supported by political decisions. There are several guidelines about the definition of digital preservation policies focusing in different themes from preservation planning to rights and restriction management, sustainability planning, etc., but this work aims to verify the implementation of digital preservation policies on the Institutional Repositories of the Federal Universities of Brazil. The methodology used was to check the information available on the websites of the IRs selected against two fields of the OpenDOAR, policies and OpenDOAR ID, to verify the existence of digital preservation policies. For this purpose a sample of the 21 of the 25 IRs registered at the Directory of Open Access Repositories (DOAR) was used, which is about 1/3 rd of the total of the brazilian universities. The 4 IRs that presented no information by the OpenDOAR team were desconsidered. The main conclusion is that most of the IRs of these universities have no polices clearly stated or no policies at all, and that there is a need to include these concerns at the top level management of IRs. The number of initiatives in digital preservation policies around the world stress the need of awareness of its importance in Brazil and requires measures to raise this awareness.

Keywords: Brazil, institutional repositories, digital preservation policies, openDOAR

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25 Accounting Performance of the Leading Companies in the Construction Sector in Brazil during the Period 2009-2012

Authors: Fabrício José Piacente, Vanessa de Cillos Silva, Thiago Luiz Mello Melato

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The construction industry has been demonstrating increased growth and importance in Brazil’s national economic development. This study aims to evaluate the financial performance of the leading companies in the construction sector in Brazil in the period from 2009 to 2012. An analysis is made of the capital structure, liquidity, and profitability of the six largest companies in the construction sector in Brazil: Brookfield, Cyrela, Gafisa, MRV, PDG and Rossi. The results are then compared with standard industry ratios. It was found that among the companies analyzed, MRV and Cyrela showed the best relative performance in the period under consideration.

Keywords: Construction, Financial Performance, Brazil, accounting ratios

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24 Causes of Institutionalization of Children and Adolescents in a Shelter in Brazil

Authors: Eduardo Guilherme, Sabrina Duarte

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Shelters or orphanages are institutions responsible for ensuring the physical and mental integrity of children and adolescents who had their rights violated or neglected, whether from a social-leavers, is at personal risk to which they were exposed or the negligence of its parents; in Brazil about twenty thousand children and adolescents living in about five hundred registered shelters that receive funds from the federal government. We evaluated the records of institutionalized children and adolescents from the foundation of municipal shelter in Rio Negro/Parana State, Brazil since June/2000 to February/2015. Institutionalization of the causes cited were: lack of family/guardian material resources, abandonment by parents/guardians, domestic violence, substance abuse of parents/guardians, street experience, orphans and others. In Brazil, poverty and extreme poverty are closely related to the institutionalization of causes of children and adolescents. Census data in 2010, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) indicate that 40% of Brazilians living in poverty are girls and boys up to 14 years in a total of approximately 23 million individuals. Poverty denies children and adolescents their rights, representing a vulnerability which predisposes to some causes of shelter.

Keywords: Institutionalization, Brazil, shelter, orphanages

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23 Analysis of the Brazilian Trade Balance in Relation to Mercosur: A Comparison between the Period 1989-1994 and 1994-2012

Authors: Luciana Aparecida Bastos, Tatiana Diair L. F. Rosa, Jesus Creapldi

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The idea of Latin American integration occurred from the ideals of Simón Bolívar that, in 1824, called the Ibero-American nations to Amphictyonic Congress of Panama, on June 22, 1826, where he would defend the importance of Latin American unity. However, this congress was frustrating and the idea of Bolívar went no further. It was only after the European Union to start the process, driven by the end of World War II that the subject returned to emerge in Latin America. Thus, in 1960, supported by the European integration process, started in 1957 with the excellent result of the ECSC - European Coal and Steel Community, a result of the Customs Union of the BENELUX (integration between Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) in 1948, was created in Latin America, LAFTA - Latin American Free Trade Association, in 1960. In 1980, LAFTA was replaced by LAAI- Latin American Association, both with the same goal: to integrate Latin America, it´s economy and its trade. Most researchers in this period agree that the regional market would be expanded through the integration. The creation of one or more economic blocs in the region would provide the union of Latin American countries through a fusion of common interests and by their geographical proximity, which would try to develop common projects to promote mutual growth and economic development, tariff reductions, promotion of increased trade between, among many other goals set together. Thus, taking into account Mercosur, the main Latin-American block, created in 1994, the aim of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the trade balance performance of Brazil (larger economy of the block) in Mercosur in the periods: 1989-1994 and 1994-2012. The choice of this period was because the objective is to compare the period before and after the integration of Brazil in Mercosur. The methodologies used were the literature review and descriptive statistics. The results showed that after the integration of Brazil in Mercosur, the exports and imports grew within the bloc and the country turned out to become the leading importer of other economies of Mercosur after integration, that is, Brazil, after integration to Mercosur, was largely responsible for promoting the expansion of regional trade through the import of products from other members of the block.

Keywords: Integration, Brazil, comparison, mercosur, trade balance

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22 Analysis of the Keys Indicators of Sustainable Tourism: A Case Study in Lagoa da Confusão/to/Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska C. Dutra, Lucio F.M. Adorno

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Since it recognized the importance of planning sustainable tourism, which has been discussed effective methods of monitoring tourist. In this sense, the indicators, can transmit a set of information about complex processes, events or trends, showing up as an important monitoring tool and aid in the environmental assessment, helping to identify the progress of it and to chart future actions, contributing, so for decision making. The World Tourism Organization - WTO recognizes the importance of indicators to appraise the tourism activity in the point of view of sustainability, launching in 1995 eleven Keys Indicators of Sustainable Tourism to assist in the monitoring of tourist destinations. So we propose a case study to examine the applicability or otherwise of a monitoring methodology and aid in the understanding of tourism sustainability, analyzing the effectiveness of local indicators on the approach defined by the WTO. The study was applied to the Lagoa da Confusão City, in the state of Tocantins - North Brazil. The case study was carried out in 2006/2007, with the guiding deductive method. The indicators were measured by specific methodologies adapted to the study site, so that could generate quantitative results which could be analyzed at the proposed scale WTO (0 to 10 points). Applied indicators: Attractive Protection – AP (level of a natural and cultural attractive protection), Sociocultural Impact–SI (level of socio-cultural impacts), Waste Management - WM (level of management of solid waste generated), Planning Process-PP (trip planning level) Tourist Satisfaction-TS (satisfaction of the tourist experience), Community Satisfaction-CS (satisfaction of the local community with the development of local tourism) and Tourism Contribution to the Local Economy-TCLE (tourist level of contribution to the local economy). The city of Lagoa da Confusão was presented as an important object of study for the methodology in question, as offered condition to analyze the indicators and the complexities that arose during the research. The data collected can help discussions on the sustainability of tourism in the destination. The indicators TS, CS, WM , PP and AP appeared as satisfactory as allowed the measurement "translating" the reality under study, unlike TCLE and the SI indicators that were not seen as reliable and clear and should be reviewed and discussed for an adaptation and replication of the same. The application and study of various indicators of sustainable tourism, give better able to analyze the local tourism situation than monitor only one of the indicators, it does not demonstrate all collected data, which could result in a superficial analysis of the tourist destination.

Keywords: Sustainability, monitoring, indicators, Brazil, Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins

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21 Comparative Techno-Economic Assessment and LCA of Selected Integrated Sugarcane-Based Biorefineries

Authors: Edgard Gnansounoua, Pavel Vaskan, Elia Ruiz Pachón

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This work addresses the economic and environmental performance of integrated biorefineries based on sugarcane juice and residues in the context of Brazil. We have considered four multiproduct scenarios; two from existing Brazilian sugar mills and the others from ethanol autonomous distilleries. They are integrated biorefineries producing first (1G) and second (2G) generation ethanol, sugar, molasses (for animal feed) and electricity. We show the results for the analysis and comparison of the different scenarios using a techno-economic value-based approach and LCA methodology. We have found that all the analysed scenarios show positive values of Climate change and Fossil depletion reduction as compared to the reference systems. However the scenario producing only ethanol shows less efficiency in Human toxicity, Freshwater ecotoxicity and Freshwater eutrophication impacts. The best economic configuration is provided by the scenario with the largest ethanol production. On the other hand, the best environmental performance is presented by the scenario with full integration sugar – 1G2G ethanol production. The integration of 2G based residues in a 1G ethanol production plant leads to positive environmental impacts compared to the conventional 1G industrial plant but proves to be more expensive.

Keywords: Biorefinery, sugarcane, Brazil, LCA

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20 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Rabies Incidence in Herbivores of Economic Interest in Brazil

Authors: Francisco Miroslav Ulloa-Stanojlovic, Gina Polo, Ricardo Augusto Dias

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In Brazil, there is a high incidence of rabies in herbivores of economic interest (HEI) transmitted by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, the presence of human rabies cases and the huge economic losses in the world's largest cattle industry, it is important to assist the National Program for Control of Rabies in herbivores in Brazil, that aims to reduce the incidence of rabies in HEI populations, mainly through epidemiological surveillance, vaccination of herbivores and control of vampire-bat roosts. Material and Methods: A spatiotemporal retrospective Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic based on a Poisson model and Monte Carlo simulation and an Anselin's Local Moran's I statistic were used to uncover spatial clustering of HEI rabies from 2000 – 2014. Results: Were identify three important clusters with significant year-to-year variation (Figure 1). In 2000, was identified one area of clustering in the North region, specifically in the State of Tocantins. Between the year 2000 and 2004, a cluster centered in the Midwest and Southeast region including the States of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo and São Paulo was prominent. And finally between 2000 and 2005 was found an important cluster in the North, Midwest and South region. Conclusions: The HEI rabies is endemic in the country, in addition, appears to be significant differences among the States according to their surveillance services, that may be difficulting the control of the disease, also other factors could be influencing in the maintenance of this problem like the lack of information of vampire-bat roosts identification, and limited human resources for realization of field monitoring. A review of the program control by the authorities it’s necessary.

Keywords: Rabies, Brazil, herbivores, Desmodus rotundus

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19 Innovation Management: A Comparative Analysis among Organizations from United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Brazil and China

Authors: Asmaa Abazaid, Maram Al-Ostah, Nadeen Abu-Zahra, Ruba Bawab, Refaat Abdel-Razek

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Innovation audit is defined as a tool that can be used to reflect on how the innovation is managed in an organization. The aim of this study is to audit innovation in the second top Engineering Firms in the world, and one of the Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) companies that are working in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The obtained results are then compared with four international companies from China and Brazil. The Diamond model has been used for auditing innovation in the two companies in UAE to evaluate their innovation management and to identify each company’s strengths and weaknesses from an innovation perspective. The results of the comparison between the two companies (Jacobs and Hyper General Contracting) revealed that Jacobs has support for innovation, its innovation processes are well managed, the company is committed to the development of its employees worldwide and the innovation system is flexible. Jacobs was doing best in all innovation management dimensions: strategy, process, organization, linkages and learning, while Hyper General Contracting did not score as Jacobs in any of the innovation dimensions. Furthermore, the audit results of both companies were compared with international companies to examine how well the two construction companies in UAE manage innovation relative to SABIC (Saudi company), Poly Easy and Arnious (Brazilian companies), Huagong tools and Guizohou Yibai (Chinese companies). The results revealed that Jacobs is doing best in learning and organization dimensions, while PolyEasy and Jacobs are equal in the linkage dimension. Huagong Tools scored the highest score in process dimension among all the compared companies. However, the highest score of strategy dimension was given to PolyEasy. On the other hand, Hyper General Contracting scored the lowest in all of the innovation management dimensions. It needs to improve its management of all the innovation management dimensions with special attention to be given to strategy, process, and linkage as they got scores below 4 out of 7 comparing with other dimensions. Jacobs scored the highest in three innovation management dimensions related to the six companies. However, the strategy dimension is considered low, and special attention is needed in this dimension.

Keywords: Innovation Management, Saudi Arabia, China, United Arab Emirates, Brazil, innovation audit, innovation evaluation

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18 Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis In Brazil

Authors: Elisangela Sobreira, Denise Teixeira

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Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem in Brazil, it is the main reservoir dog. In the period 2012-2016 78 diagnoses were performed in dogs suspected. Blood samples were collected from the cephalic vein obtaining serum used for the indirect immunofluorescence test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while it collected a drop of blood for the rapid chromatographic immunoassay. Obtained in 32 dogs positive. The test is important for the control of this disease and is used routinely in the Zoonoses Control Center.

Keywords: Dogs, Brazil, Leismaniasis, Zoonoses center

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17 Social Impact Evaluation in the Housing Sector

Authors: Edgard Barki, Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira, Felipe Zambaldi

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The social enterprise sector can be characterized as organizations that aim to solve social problems with financial sustainability and using market mechanisms. This sector has shown an increasing interest worldwide. Despite the growth and relevance of the sector, there is still a gap regarding the assessment of the social impact resulting from the initiatives of the organizations in this field. A number of metrics have been designed worldwide to evaluate the impact of social enterprises (e.g., IRIS, GIIRS, BACO), as well as some ad hoc studies that have been carried out, mainly in the microcredit sector, but there is still a gap to be filled in the development of research in social impact evaluation. Therefore, this research seeks to evaluate the social impact of two social enterprises (Terra Nova and Vivenda) in the area of housing in Brazil. To evaluate these impacts and their dimensions, we conducted an exploratory research, through three focus groups, thirty in-depth interviews and a survey with beneficiaries of both organizations. The results allowed us to evaluate how the two organizations were able to create a deep social impact in the populations served. Terra Nova has a more collective perspective, with a clear benefit of social inclusion and improvement of the community’s infrastructure, while Vivenda has a more individualized perspective, improving self-esteem, sociability and family coexistence.

Keywords: Housing, Social Enterprise, Brazil, social impact evaluation

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16 Tax Evasion in Brazil: The Case of Specialists

Authors: Felippe Clemente, Viviani S. Lírio

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Brazilian tax evasion is very high. It causes many problems for economics as budget realization, income distribution and no allocation of productive resources. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to use the instrumental game theory to understand tax evasion agents and tax authority in Brazil (Federal Revenue and Federal Police). By means of Game Theory approaches, the main results from considering cases both with and without specialists show that, in a high dropout situation, penalizing taxpayers with either high fines or deprivations of liberty may not be very effective. The analysis also shows that audit and inspection costs play an important role in driving the equilibrium system. This would suggest that a policy of investing in tax inspectors would be a more effective tool in combating non-compliance with tax obligations than penalties or fines.

Keywords: Game theory, Tax Evasion, Brazil, specialists

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15 Economic Development and New Challenges: Biomass Energy and Sustainability

Authors: Fabricia G. F. S. Rossato, Ieda G. Hidalgo, Andres Susseta, Felipe Casale, Leticia H. Nakamiti

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This research was conducted to show the useful source of biomass energy provided from forest waste and the black liquor from the pulping process. This energy source could be able to assist and improve its area environment in a sustainable way. The research will demonstrate the challenges from producing the biomass energy and the implantation of the pulp industry in the city of Três Lagoas, MS. – Brazil. Planted forest’s potential, energy production in the pulp industries and its consequence of impacts on the local region environmental was also studied and examined. The present study is classified as descriptive purposes as it exposes the characteristics of a given population and the means such as bibliographical and documentary. All the data and information collected and demonstrate in this study was carefully analyzed and provided from reliable sources such as official government agencies.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Brazil, pulp industry, Três Lagoas

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14 A Bibliographical Research on the Use of Social Media Websites by the Deaf in Brazil

Authors: Juliana Guimarães Faria

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The article focus on social networks and deaf people. It aims to analyze the studies done about this topic published in journals, as well as the ones done through dissertations and theses. It also aims to identify the thematic focus of the studies produced and to identify how the deaf relates to social networks, more specifically, trying to identify, starting with those productions, what are the benefits, or not, of social networks for the deaf and if there is some reflection about the way the deaf community has been organizing politically in search of bilingual education and inclusion, making use of the softwares of social networks. After reading, description and analysis of the eleven works identified about social networks and the deaf, we detected three thematic groups: four studies presented discussions about social networks and the socialization of the deaf; four works presented discussions about the contribution of social networks to the linguistic and cognitive development of the deaf; and three works presented discussions about the political bias of the use of social networks in favor of the deaf. We also identified that the works presented an optimistic view of social networks.

Keywords: Social Networks, Internet, Deaf, Brazil

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13 Measuring Corruption from Public Justifications: Insights from the Brazilian Anti-Corruption Agency

Authors: Ana Luiza Aranha

Abstract:

This paper contributes to the discussions that consider corruption as a challenge to the establishment of more democratically inclusive societies in Latin America. The paper advocates an intrinsic connection between democratic principles and corruption control – it is only possible to achieve just forms of democratic life if accountability institutions are able to control corruption, and therefore control the political exclusions that it brings. Departing from a non-trivial approach to corruption, and recognizing a gap in democratic theory when thinking about this phenomenon, corruption is understood as the breakdown of the democratic inclusive rule, whereby political decisions are made (and actions were taken) in spite of those potentially affected by them. Based on this idea, this paper proposes a new way of measuring corruption, moving away from usual aggregate measures – such as the Corruption Perception Index – and case studies of corruption scandals. The main argument sustains that corruption is intrinsically connected with the ability to be accountable and to provide public justification for the political conduct. The point advocated is that corruption involves a dimension of political exclusion. It generates a private benefit which is, from a democratic point of view, illegitimate, since it benefits some at the expense of the decisions made by the political community. Corruption is then a form of exclusion based on deception and opacity - for corruption, there is no plausible justification. Empirically, the paper uses the audit reports produced by the Brazilian anti-corruption agency (the CGU - Office of the Comptroller General) in its Inspections From Public Lotteries Program to exemplify how we can use this definition to separate corruption cases from mismanagement irregularities. On one side, there is poor management and inefficiencies, and, on the other, corruption, defined by the implausibility of public justifications – because the public officials would have to publicize illegitimate privileges and undue advantages. CGU reports provide the justifications given by the public officials for the irregularities found and also the acceptance or not by the control agency of these justifications. The analysis of this dialogue – between public officials and control agents – makes it possible to divide the irregularities on those that can be publicly justified versus those that cannot. In order to hold public officials accountable for their actions, making them responsible for the exclusions that they may cause (such as corruption), the accountability institutions fulfil an important role in reinforcing and empowering democracy and its basic inclusive condition.

Keywords: Democracy, Corruption, Accountability, Brazil

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12 Strategic Environmental Assessment and Climate Change: From European Experiences to Brazilian Needs

Authors: Amália S. Botter Fabbri

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This paper proposes the analysis of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in relation to the three pillars of the sustainable development, highlighting its particular importance to combat climate change. Theoretical and practical examples from Europe show how SEA has been implemented under the SEA Directive in the recent years, while the Brazilian case study shows a situation in which no regulation on SEA was implemented, despite the strong demand for it, as revealed by past experiences and future planning needs. In the end, some aspects to the formulation of a SEA Act are suggested, in an attempt to contribute to a better Brazilian environmental governance in relation to the future plans, programmes and policies required to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions.

Keywords: Climate Change, Europe, Brazil, strategic environmental assessment

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11 Carolina Maria De Jesus' Narrative in a Fundamental Rights Perspective

Authors: Eliziane Fernanda Navarro, Aparecida Eleonora Sitta

Abstract:

Child of the Dark is the work of the Brazilian author Carolina Maria de Jesus, published at the first time by Ática and Francisco Alves in 1960. It is, mostly, a story of lack of rights. It lacks to men who live in the slums what is essential in order to take advantage of the privilege of rationality to develop themselves as civilized humans. It is, therefore, in the withholding of the basic rights that inequality finds space to build itself to be the main misery on Earth. Antonio Candido, a Brazilian sociologist claims that it is the right to literature has the ability to humanize men, once the aptitude to create fiction and fable is essential to the social balance. Hence, for the forming role that literature holds, it must be thought as the number of rights that assure human dignity, such as housing, education, health, freedom, etc. When talking about her routine, Carolina puts in evidence something that has great influence over the formation of human beings, contributing to the way they live: the slum. Even though it happens in a distinct way and using her own linguistics variation, Carolina writes about something that will only be discussed later on Brazil’s Cities Statute and Erminia Maricato: the right to the city, and how the slums are, although inserted in the city, an attachment, an illegal city, a dismissing room. It interests ourselves, for that matter, in this work, to analyse how the deprivation of the rights to the city and literature, detailed in Carolina’s journal, conditions human beings to a life where the instincts overcome the social values.

Keywords: Literature, Fundamental Rights, Brazil, slum, Child of the Dark, architecture and urbanism

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10 Diagnosis on Environmental Impacts of Tourism at Caju Beach in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil

Authors: Jr., Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska, C. Dutra, Keity L. F. Oliveira, Patrícia A. Santos, Alana C. M. Santana

Abstract:

Environmental impacts are the changes in the physical, chemical or biological properties of natural areas that are most often caused by human actions on the environment and which have consequences for human health, society and the elements of nature. The identification of the environmental impacts is important so that they are mitigated, and above all that the mitigating measures are applied in the area. This work aims to identify the environmental impacts generated in the Praia do Caju area in the city of Palmas/Brazil and show that the lack of structure on the beach intensifies the environmental impacts. The present work was carried out having as parameter, the typologies of exploratory and descriptive and quantitative research through a matrix of environmental impacts through direct observation and registration. The study took place during the holidays from August to December 2016 and photographic record of impacts. From the collected data it was possible to verify that Caju beach suffers constant degradation due to irregular deposition.

Keywords: Tourism, Environmental Impacts, Leisure, Brazil

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9 Child of the Dark by Carolina Maria De Jesus in a Fundamental Rights Perspective

Authors: Eliziane Navarro, Aparecida Citta

Abstract:

Child of the dark is the work of the Brazilian author Carolina Maria de Jesus published at the first time by Ática & Francisco Alves in 1960. It is, mostly, a story of lack of rights. It lacks to men who live in the slums what is essential in order to take advantage of the privilege of rationality to develop themselves as civilized humans. It is, therefore, in the withholding of the basic rights that inequality finds space to build itself to be the main misery on Earth. Antonio Candido, a Brazilian sociologist, claims that it is the right to literature has the ability to humanize men, once the aptitude to create fiction and fable is essential to the social balance. Hence, for the forming role that literature holds, it must be thought as the number of rights that assure human dignity, such as housing, education, health, freedom, etc. When talking about her routine, Carolina puts in evidence something that has great influence over the formation of human beings, contributing to the way they live: the slum. Even though it happens in a distinct way and using her linguistics variation, Carolina writes about something that will only be discussed later on Brazil’s Cities Statute and Ermia Maricato: the right to the city, and how the slums are, although inserted in the city, an attachment, an illegal city, a dismissing room. It interests ourselves, for that matter, in this work, to analyse how the deprivation of the rights to the city and literature, detailed in Carolina’s journal, conditions human beings to a life where the instincts overcome the social values.

Keywords: Brazil, slum, Child of the Dark, architecture and literature

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8 Law and Literature: The Testimony in Pedro Casaldaliga's Poetic

Authors: Eliziane Navarro

Abstract:

It is intended, in this study, from some poems from the work of the poet and Bishop of São Félix do Araguaia-MT Brazil Dom Pedro Casaldáliga, to analyze his poetics from the perspective of the environmental law. In his work, Casaldáliga made a considerable manifest against the oppression experienced especially by Xavante people inside the constryside of the state of Mato Grosso when some government programs benefited a large number of landowners in instead of that minority as a power and control self-affirmation process. The attention which Casaldáliga dismissed to the cause of indigenous eviction of their land called Maraiwatsede resulted in numerous death threats against the poet who was not silenced in face of the landowners’ grievances. His voice contributed significantly to the process of land returning to the indigenous people. Because of the international pressure, the Italian company AGIP, owner of the land, tried to return it to the hands of the indigenous, unfortunately, in the middle of the process, the land was occupied by politicians and big landowners of the region. Another objective of this research is to check the connection of his testimonial literature with the actual legal context of the state in the 50s and also to analyze his poetry as a complaint that led the cause of the state's indigenous to the Eco 92 discussion in Rio de Janeiro.

Keywords: Indigenous, Law and Literature, Brazil, Pedro Casaldaliga

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7 Internationalization and Multilingualism in Brazil: Possibilities of Content and Language Integrated Learning and Intercomprehension Approaches

Authors: Kyria Rebeca Finardi

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The study discusses the role of foreign languages in general and of English in particular in the process of internationalization of higher education (IHE), defined as the intentional integration of an international, intercultural or global dimension in the purpose, function or offer of higher education. The study is bibliographical and offers a brief outline of the current political, economic and educational scenarios in Brazil, before discussing some possibilities and challenges for the development of multilingualism and IHE there. The theoretical background includes a review of Brazilian language and internationalization policies. The review and discussion concludes that the use of the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach and the Intercomprehension approach to foreign language teaching/learning are relevant alternatives to foster multilingualism in that context.

Keywords: Higher Education, Multilingualism, Internationalization, Brazil

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6 An Evaluation of the Effects of Special Safeguards in Meat upon International Trade and the Brazilian Economy

Authors: Cinthia C. Costa, Heloisa L. Burnquist, Joaquim J. M. Guilhoto

Abstract:

This study identified the impact of special agricultural safeguards (SSG) for the global market of meat and for the Brazilian economy. The tariff lines subject to SSG were selected and the period of analysis was 1995 (when the rules about the SSGs were established) to 2015 (more recent period for which there are notifications). The value of additional tariff was calculated for each of the most important tariff lines. The import volume and the price elasticities for imports were used to estimate the impacts of each additional tariff estimated on imports. Finally, the effect of Brazilian exports of meat without SSG taxes was calculated as well as its impact in the country’s economy by using an input-output matrix. The most important markets that applied SSGs were the U.S. for beef and European Union for poultry. However, the additional tariffs could be estimated in only two of the sixteen years that the U.S. applied SSGs on beef imports, suggesting that its use has been enforced when the average annual price has been higher than the trigger price level. The results indicated that the value of the bovine and poultry meat that could not be exported by Brazil due to SSGs to both markets (EU and the U.S.) was equivalent to BRL 804 million. The impact of this loss in trade was about: BRL 3.7 billion of the economy’s production value (at 2015 prices) and almost BRL 2 billion of the Brazilian Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Keywords: Brazil, beef, poultry meat, SSG tariff, input-output matrix

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5 Use of Shipping Containers as Office Buildings in Brazil: Thermal and Energy Performance for Different Constructive Options and Climate Zones

Authors: Lucas Caldas, Pablo Paulse, Karla Hora

Abstract:

Shipping containers are present in different Brazilian cities, firstly used for transportation purposes, but which become waste materials and an environmental burden in their end-of-life cycle. In the last decade, in Brazil, some buildings made partly or totally from shipping containers started to appear, most of them for commercial and office uses. Although the use of a reused container for buildings seems a sustainable solution, it is very important to measure the thermal and energy aspects when they are used as such. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the thermal and energy performance of an office building totally made from a 12-meter-long, High Cube 40’ shipping container in different Brazilian Bioclimatic Zones. Four different constructive solutions, mostly used in Brazil were chosen: (1) container without any covering; (2) with internally insulated drywall; (3) with external fiber cement boards; (4) with both drywall and fiber cement boards. For this, the DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus was used for the computational simulation in 8760 hours. The EnergyPlus Weather File (EPW) data of six Brazilian capital cities were considered: Curitiba, Sao Paulo, Brasilia, Campo Grande, Teresina and Rio de Janeiro. Air conditioning appliance (split) was adopted for the conditioned area and the cooling setpoint was fixed at 25°C. The coefficient of performance (CoP) of air conditioning equipment was set as 3.3. Three kinds of solar absorptances were verified: 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 of exterior layer. The building in Teresina presented the highest level of energy consumption, while the one in Curitiba presented the lowest, with a wide range of differences in results. The constructive option of external fiber cement and drywall presented the best results, although the differences were not significant compared to the solution using just drywall. The choice of absorptance showed a great impact in energy consumption, mainly compared to the case of containers without any covering and for use in the hottest cities: Teresina, Rio de Janeiro, and Campo Grande. This study brings as the main contribution the discussion of constructive aspects for design guidelines for more energy-efficient container buildings, considering local climate differences, and helps the dissemination of this cleaner constructive practice in the Brazilian building sector.

Keywords: Brazil, bioclimatic zones, shipping containers, thermal and energy performance

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4 Analysis of Environmental Impacts Generated in the Seasons of Holidays from Praia Dos Buritis in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Alana C. M. Santana

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T Sustainable development is very important for the existence of life on the planet. The use of any space without planning can cause impacts on the environment, which depending on the proportion may be irreversible. Buritis beach is very frequented by visitors, but it has no information on use and does not have enough infrastructure to collaborate with the preservation of the environment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to adopt a simple control list of environmental impacts in river beaches, in order to identify the environmental impacts generated in the post-holiday seasons of Buritis beach and to characterize the beach in terms of infrastructure. The holidays that carried out the analyzes were the nationals of the second half of 2017, as well as the universal fraternization holiday of 2018. The results show that the beach needs investments in its infrastructure and educational campaigns to minimize environmental impacts caused by anthropic action.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Environmental Impacts, Brazil, Buritis Beach

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3 Analysing Environmental Licensing of Infrastructure Projects in Brazil

Authors: Ronaldo Seroa Da Motta, Gabriela Santiago

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The main contribution of this study is the identification of the factors influencing the environmental licensing process of infrastructure projects in Brazil. These factors will be those that reflect the technical characteristics of the project, the corporate governance of the entrepreneur, and the institutional and regulatory governance of the environmental agency, including the number of interventions by non-licensing agencies. The model conditions these variables to the licensing processing time of 34 infrastructure projects. Our results indicated that the conditions would be more sensitive to the type of enterprise, complexity as in gas pipelines and hydroelectric plants in the most vulnerable biome with a greater value of the enterprise or the entrepreneur's assets, together with the number of employees of the licensing agency. The number of external interventions by other non-licensing institutions does not affect the licensing time. Such results challenge the current criticism that environmental licensing has been often pointed out as a barrier to speed up investments in infrastructure projects in Brazil due to the participation of civil society and other non-licensing institutions.

Keywords: Brazil, environmental licensing, condionants, timing process

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2 What Happens When We Try to Bridge the Science-Practice Gap? An Example from the Brazilian Native Vegetation Protection Law

Authors: Alice Brites, Gerd Sparovek, Jean Paul Metzger, Ricardo Rodrigues

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The segregation between science and policy in decision making process hinders nature conservation efforts worldwide. Scientists have been criticized for not producing information that leads to effective solutions for environmental problems. In an attempt to bridge this gap between science and practice, we conducted a project aimed at supporting the implementation of the Brazilian Native Vegetation Protection Law (NVPL) implementation in São Paulo State (SP), Brazil. To do so, we conducted multiple open meetings with the stakeholders involved in this discussion. Throughout this process, we raised stakeholders' demands for scientific information and brought feedbacks about our findings. However, our main scientific advice was not taken into account during the NVPL implementation in SP. The NVPL has a mechanism that exempts landholders who converted native vegetation without offending the legislation in place at the time of the conversion from restoration requirements. We found out that there were no accurate spatialized data for native vegetation cover before the 1960s. Thus, the initial benchmark for the mechanism application should be the 1965 Brazilian Forest Act. Even so, SP kept the 1934 Brazilian Forest Act as the initial legal benchmark for the law application. This decision implies the use of a probabilistic native vegetation map that has uncertainty and subjectivity as its intrinsic characteristics, thus its use can lead to legal queries, corruption, and an unfair benefit application. But why this decision was made even after the scientific advice was vastly divulgated? We raised some possible reasons to explain it. First, the decision was made during a government transition, showing that circumstantial political events can overshadow scientific arguments. Second, the debate about the NVPL in SP was not pacified and powerful stakeholders could benefit from the confusion created by this decision. Finally, the native vegetation protection mechanism is a complex issue, with many technical aspects that can be hard to understand for a non-specialized courtroom, such as the one that made the final decision at SP. This example shows that science and decision-makers still have a long way ahead to improve their way to interact and that science needs to find its way to be heard above the political buzz.

Keywords: Brazil, Forest Act, science-based dialogue, science-policy interface

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1 Moral Rights: Judicial Evidence Insufficiency in the Determination of the Truth and Reasoning in Brazilian Morally Charged Cases

Authors: Rainner Roweder

Abstract:

Theme: The present paper aims to analyze the specificity of the judicial evidence linked to the subjects of dignity and personality rights, otherwise known as moral rights, in the determination of the truth and formation of the judicial reasoning in cases concerning these areas. This research is about the way courts in Brazilian domestic law search for truth and handles evidence in cases involving moral rights that are abundant and important in Brazil. The main object of the paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the evidence in the formation of judicial conviction in matters related to morally controverted rights, based on the Brazilian, and as a comparison, the Latin American legal systems. In short, the rights of dignity and personality are moral. However, the evidential legal system expects a rational demonstration of moral rights that generate judicial conviction or persuasion. Moral, in turn, tends to be difficult or impossible to demonstrate in court, generating the problem considered in this paper, that is, the study of the moral demonstration problem as proof in court. In this sense, the more linked to moral, the more difficult to be demonstrated in court that right is, expanding the field of judicial discretion, generating legal uncertainty. More specifically, the new personality rights, such as gender, and their possibility of alteration, further amplify the problem being essentially an intimate manner, which does not exist in the objective, rational evidential system, as normally occurs in other categories, such as contracts. Therefore, evidencing this legal category in court, with the level of security required by the law, is a herculean task. It becomes virtually impossible to use the same evidentiary system when judging the rights researched here; therefore, it generates the need for a new design of the evidential task regarding the rights of the personality, a central effort of the present paper. Methodology: Concerning the methodology, the Method used in the Investigation phase was Inductive, with the use of the comparative law method; in the data treatment phase, the Inductive Method was also used. Doctrine, Legislative, and jurisprudential comparison was the technique research used. Results: In addition to the peculiar characteristics of personality rights that are not found in other rights, part of them are essentially linked to morale and are not objectively verifiable by design, and it is necessary to use specific argumentative theories for their secure confirmation, such as interdisciplinary support. The traditional pragmatic theory of proof, for having an obvious objective character, when applied in the rights linked to the morale, aggravates decisionism and generates legal insecurity, being necessary its reconstruction for morally charged cases, with the possible use of the “predictive theory” ( and predictive facts) through algorithms in data collection and treatment.

Keywords: proof, Brazil, moral rights, pragmatic proof theory, insufficiency

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