Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Brain Related Abstracts

28 In vivo Inhibition and Restoration of Acetyl Cholinesterase Activities in Induced Clarias Gariepinus

Authors: T. O. Ikpesu, I. Tongo, A. Ariyo

Abstract:

This study was conducted to assess the effects of an organophosphate pesticide glyphosate formulation on neurological enzymes in the brain, liver and serum of juvenile Clarias gariepinus, and also to examine the antidotal prospect of Garcinia kola seeds extract. The fish divided into five groups were exposed to different treatments of glyphosate formulation and Garcinia kola seeds extract. Acetyl cholinesterase activities in the brain, liver and serum of the fish were estimated in the experimental and control fishes on day -7, 14, 21 and of 28 by spectrophotometrical methods. The enzyme was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited in glyphosate formulation test. The inhibition percentages of AChE ranged for the brain, liver and serum between 40.7–59.4%, 50-57% and 27.5–51.3%, respectively. The aberrated parameters were recovered in G. kola seeds extract treated aquaria, and was dose and time dependent. The present study demonstrated that in vivo glyphosate formulation exposure caused AChE inhibition in the brain, liver and the serum. The brain tissue, however, might be suggested as a good indicator tissue for aquatic pollutants exposure in the fish and G. kola seeds extract has shown to be a good remedy for neurology restoration in a noxious circumstance. The findings has shown that xenobiotics could be eliminated from aquatic organisms, especially fish, and could be put into practice in areas at risk of pollutants. This approach can reduce the risks of biomagnification of poison in sea food. Hence, formulation of this plant extracts into capsule should be encouraged and supported.

Keywords: Brain, Enzymes, Clarias gariepinus, glyphosate, Garcinia kola, acetyl cholinesterase

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27 Correlation between Potential Intelligence Explanatory Study in the Perspective of Multiple Intelligence Theory by Using Dermatoglyphics and Culture Approaches

Authors: Efnie Indrianie

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Potential Intelligence constitutes one essential factor in every individual. This intelligence can be a provision for the development of Performance Intelligence if it is supported by surrounding environment. Fingerprint analysis is a method in recognizing this Potential Intelligence. This method is grounded on pattern and number of finger print outlines that are assumed symmetrical with the number of nerves in our brain, in which these areas have their own function among another. These brain’s functions are later being transposed into intelligence components in accordance with the Multiple Intelligences theory. This research tested the correlation between Potential Intelligence and the components of its Performance Intelligence. Statistical test results that used Pearson correlation showed that five components of Potential Intelligence correlated with Performance Intelligence. Those five components are Logic-Math, Logic, Linguistic, Music, Kinesthetic, and Intrapersonal. Also, this research indicated that cultural factor had a big role in shaping intelligence.

Keywords: Brain, Environment, Fingerprint, potential intelligence, performance intelligence, multiple intelligences

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26 Epigallocatechin Gallate Protects against Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurotoxicity and Hippocampus Dysfunction Induced by Fluoride in Rats

Authors: S. Thangapandiyan, S. Miltonprabu

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Fl (Fl) exposure engenders neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress in the brain. The Neuroprotective role of EGCG on oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus has not yet been explored so far. Hence, the present study is focused on witnessing whether EGCG (40mg/kg) supplementation prevents Fl induced oxidative stress in the brain of rats with special emphasis on the hippocampus. Fl (25mg/kg) intoxication for four weeks in rats showed an increase in Fl concentration along with the decrease the AChE, NP, DA, and 5-HT activity in the brain. The oxidative stress markers (ROS, TBARS, NO, and PC) were significantly increased with decreased enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST, and G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, TSH, and Vit.C) in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus. Moreover, Fl intoxicated rats exhibited an intrinsic and extrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats. Fl intoxication significantly increased the DNA damage as evidenced by increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, the toxic impact of Fl on hippocampus was also proved by the immunohistochemical, histological, and ultrastructural studies. Pre-administration of EGCG has significantly protected the Fl induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes, cellular apoptotic, and histological alternations in the hippocampus of rats. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation significantly attenuated the Fl induced oxidative stress mediated neurotoxicity via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Brain, hippocampal, ROS, NaF, EGCG

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25 Nanoparticle Induced Neurotoxicity Mediated by Mitochondria

Authors: Nandini Nalika, Suhel Parvez

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Nanotechnology has emerged to play a vital role in developing all through the industrial world with an immense production of nanomaterials including nanoparticles (NPs). Many toxicological studies have confirmed that due to unique small size and physico-chemical properties of NPs (1-100nm), they can be potentially hazardous. Metallic NPs of small size have been shown to induce higher levels of cellular oxidative stress and can easily pass through the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) and significantly accumulate in brain. With the wide applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) in day-to-day life in form of cosmetics, paints, sterilisation and so on, there is growing concern regarding the deleterious effects of TNPs on central nervous system and mitochondria appear to be important cellular organelles targeted to the pro-oxidative effects of NPs and an important source that contribute significantly for the production of reactive oxygen species after some toxicity or an injury. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effect of TNPs in anatase form with different concentrations (5-50 µg/ml) following with various oxidative stress markers in isolated brain mitochondria as an in vitro model. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the different oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidation as well as the protein carbonyl content which was found to be significantly increased. Reduced glutathione content and major glutathione metabolizing enzymes were also modulated signifying the role of glutathione redox cycle in the pathophysiology of TNPs. The study also includes the mitochondrial enzymes (Complex 1, Complex II, complex IV, Complex V ) and the enzymes showed toxicity in a relatively short time due to the effect of TNPs. The study provide a range of concentration that were toxic to the neuronal cells and data pointing to a general toxicity in brain mitochondria by TNPs, therefore, it is in need to consider the proper utilization of NPs in the environment.

Keywords: Brain, Nanoparticles, Mitochondria, In vitro

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24 Gender Effects in EEG-Based Functional Brain Networks

Authors: Mahdi Jalili

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Functional connectivity in the human brain can be represented as a network using electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Network representation of EEG time series can be an efficient vehicle to understand the underlying mechanisms of brain function. Brain functional networks – whose nodes are brain regions and edges correspond to functional links between them – are characterized by neurobiologically meaningful graph theory metrics. This study investigates the degree to which graph theory metrics are sex dependent. To this end, EEGs from 24 healthy female subjects and 21 healthy male subjects were recorded in eyes-closed resting state conditions. The connectivity matrices were extracted using correlation analysis and were further binarized to obtain binary functional networks. Global and local efficiency measures – as graph theory metrics– were computed for the extracted networks. We found that male brains have a significantly greater global efficiency (i.e., global communicability of the network) across all frequency bands for a wide range of cost values in both hemispheres. Furthermore, for a range of cost values, female brains showed significantly greater right-hemispheric local efficiency (i.e., local connectivity) than male brains.

Keywords: Brain, Graph Theory, eeg, Network Science, functional networks

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23 An Experimental Investigation of the Cognitive Noise Influence on the Bistable Visual Perception

Authors: Alexey A. Koronovskii, Alexander E. Hramov, Vadim V. Grubov, Maria K. Kurovskaуa, Anastasija E. Runnova

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The perception of visual signals in the brain was among the first issues discussed in terms of multistability which has been introduced to provide mechanisms for information processing in biological neural systems. In this work the influence of the cognitive noise on the visual perception of multistable pictures has been investigated. The study includes an experiment with the bistable Necker cube illusion and the theoretical background explaining the obtained experimental results. In our experiments Necker cubes with different wireframe contrast were demonstrated repeatedly to different people and the probability of the choice of one of the cubes projection was calculated for each picture. The Necker cube was placed at the middle of a computer screen as black lines on a white background. The contrast of the three middle lines centered in the left middle corner was used as one of the control parameter. Between two successive demonstrations of Necker cubes another picture was shown to distract attention and to make a perception of next Necker cube more independent from the previous one. Eleven subjects, male and female, of the ages 20 through 45 were studied. The choice of the Necker cube projection was detected with the Electroencephalograph-recorder Encephalan-EEGR-19/26, Medicom MTD. To treat the experimental results we carried out theoretical consideration using the simplest double-well potential model with the presence of noise that led to the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of the stochastic process. At the first time an analytical solution for the probability of the selection of one of the Necker cube projection for different values of wireframe contrast have been obtained. Furthermore, having used the results of the experimental measurements with the help of the method of least squares we have calculated the value of the parameter corresponding to the cognitive noise of the person being studied. The range of cognitive noise parameter values for studied subjects turned to be [0.08; 0.55]. It should be noted, that experimental results have a good reproducibility, the same person being studied repeatedly another day produces very similar data with very close levels of cognitive noise. We found an excellent agreement between analytically deduced probability and the results obtained in the experiment. A good qualitative agreement between theoretical and experimental results indicates that even such a simple model allows simulating brain cognitive dynamics and estimating important cognitive characteristic of the brain, such as brain noise.

Keywords: Perception, Brain, Noise, Stochastic Processes, bistability

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22 Brain Computer Interface Implementation for Affective Computing Sensing: Classifiers Comparison

Authors: Ramón Aparicio-García, Gustavo Juárez Gracia, Jesús Álvarez Cedillo

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A research line of the computer science that involve the study of the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), which search to recognize and interpret the user intent by the storage and the subsequent analysis of the electrical signals of the brain, for using them in the control of electronic devices. On the other hand, the affective computing research applies the human emotions in the HCI process helping to reduce the user frustration. This paper shows the results obtained during the hardware and software development of a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) capable of recognizing the human emotions through the association of the brain electrical activity patterns. The hardware involves the sensing stage and analogical-digital conversion. The interface software involves algorithms for pre-processing of the signal in time and frequency analysis and the classification of patterns associated with the electrical brain activity. The methods used for the analysis and classification of the signal have been tested separately, by using a database that is accessible to the public, besides to a comparison among classifiers in order to know the best performing.

Keywords: Brain, Interface, Affective Computing, intelligent interaction

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21 Partial Differential Equation-Based Modeling of Brain Response to Stimuli

Authors: Razieh Khalafi

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The brain is the information processing centre of the human body. Stimuli in the form of information are transferred to the brain and then brain makes the decision on how to respond to them. In this research, we propose a new partial differential equation which analyses the EEG signals and make a relationship between the incoming stimuli and the brain response to them. In order to test the proposed model, a set of external stimuli applied to the model and the model’s outputs were checked versus the real EEG data. The results show that this model can model the EEG signal well. The proposed model is useful not only for modelling of EEG signal in case external stimuli but it can be used for modelling of brain response in case of internal stimuli.

Keywords: Brain, response, partial differential equation, EEG signal, stimuli

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20 A Mathematical-Based Formulation of EEG Fluctuations

Authors: Razi Khalafi

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Brain is the information processing center of the human body. Stimuli in form of information are transferred to the brain and then brain makes the decision on how to respond to them. In this research we propose a new partial differential equation which analyses the EEG signals and make a relationship between the incoming stimuli and the brain response to them. In order to test the proposed model, a set of external stimuli applied to the model and the model’s outputs were checked versus the real EEG data. The results show that this model can model the EEG signal well. The proposed model is useful not only for modeling of the EEG signal in case external stimuli but it can be used for the modeling of brain response in case of internal stimuli.

Keywords: Brain, response, partial differential equation, EEG signal, stimuli

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19 Improvement of Brain Tumors Detection Using Markers and Boundaries Transform

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Mommen A. Alkhir, Amel S. Algaddal

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This was experimental study conducted to study segmentation of brain in MRI images using edge detection and morphology filters. For brain MRI images each film scanned using digitizer scanner then treated by using image processing program (MatLab), where the segmentation was studied. The scanned image was saved in a TIFF file format to preserve the quality of the image. Brain tissue can be easily detected in MRI image if the object has sufficient contrast from the background. We use edge detection and basic morphology tools to detect a brain. The segmentation of MRI images steps using detection and morphology filters were image reading, detection entire brain, dilation of the image, filling interior gaps inside the image, removal connected objects on borders and smoothen the object (brain). The results of this study were that it showed an alternate method for displaying the segmented object would be to place an outline around the segmented brain. Those filters approaches can help in removal of unwanted background information and increase diagnostic information of Brain MRI.

Keywords: Brain, Boundaries, MATLAB, Improvement, markers

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18 EEG and DC-Potential Level Сhanges in the Elderly

Authors: Irina Deputat, Anatoly Gribanov, Yuliya Dzhos, Alexandra Nekhoroshkova, Tatyana Yemelianova, Irina Bolshevidtseva, Irina Deryabina, Yana Kereush, Larisa Startseva, Tatyana Bagretsova, Irina Ikonnikova

Abstract:

In the modern world the number of elderly people increases. Preservation of functionality of an organism in the elderly becomes very important now. During aging the higher cortical functions such as feelings, perception, attention, memory, and ideation are gradual decrease. It is expressed in the rate of information processing reduction, volume of random access memory loss, ability to training and storing of new information decrease. Perspective directions in studying of aging neurophysiological parameters are brain imaging: computer electroencephalography, neuroenergy mapping of a brain, and also methods of studying of a neurodynamic brain processes. Research aim – to study features of a brain aging in elderly people by electroencephalogram (EEG) and the DC-potential level. We examined 130 people aged 55 - 74 years that did not have psychiatric disorders and chronic states in a decompensation stage. EEG was recorded with a 128-channel GES-300 system (USA). EEG recordings are collected while the participant sits at rest with their eyes closed for 3 minutes. For a quantitative assessment of EEG we used the spectral analysis. The range was analyzed on delta (0,5–3,5 Hz), a theta - (3,5–7,0 Hz), an alpha 1-(7,0–11,0 Hz) an alpha 2-(11–13,0 Hz), beta1-(13–16,5 Hz) and beta2-(16,5–20 Hz) ranges. In each frequency range spectral power was estimated. The 12-channel hardware-software diagnostic ‘Neuroenergometr-KM’ complex was applied for registration, processing and the analysis of a brain constant potentials level. The DC-potential level registered in monopolar leads. It is revealed that the EEG of elderly people differ in higher rates of spectral power in the range delta (р < 0,01) and a theta - (р < 0,05) rhythms, especially in frontal areas in aging. By results of the comparative analysis it is noted that elderly people 60-64 aged differ in higher values of spectral power alfa-2 range in the left frontal and central areas (р < 0,05) and also higher values beta-1 range in frontal and parieto-occipital areas (р < 0,05). Study of a brain constant potential level distribution revealed increase of total energy consumption on the main areas of a brain. In frontal leads we registered the lowest values of constant potential level. Perhaps it indicates decrease in an energy metabolism in this area and difficulties of executive functions. The comparative analysis of a potential difference on the main assignments testifies to unevenness of a lateralization of a brain functions at elderly people. The results of a potential difference between right and left hemispheres testify to prevalence of the left hemisphere activity. Thus, higher rates of functional activity of a cerebral cortex are peculiar to people of early advanced age (60-64 years) that points to higher reserve opportunities of central nervous system. By 70 years there are age changes of a cerebral power exchange and level of electrogenesis of a brain which reflect deterioration of a condition of homeostatic mechanisms of self-control and the program of processing of the perceptual data current flow.

Keywords: Brain, eeg, elderly people, DC-potential level

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17 Depressive-Like Behavior in a Murine Model of Colorectal Cancer Associated with Altered Cytokine Levels in Stress-Related Brain Regions

Authors: D. O. Miranda, L. R. Azevedo, J. F. C. Cordeiro, A. H. Dos Santos, S. F. Lisboa, F. S. Guimarães, G. S. Bisson

Abstract:

Background: The Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the world. The prevalence of psychiatric-disorders among CRC patients, mainly depression, is high, resulting in impaired quality of life and side effects of primary treatment. High levels of proinflammatory cytokines at tumor microenvironment is a feature of CRC and the literature suggests that those mediators could contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the ability of tumor-associated biological processes to affect the central nervous system (CNS) has only recently been explored in the context of symptoms of depression and is still not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that depressive-like behavior in an experimental model of CCR induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was correlated to proinflammatory profile in the periphery and in the brain. Methods: Colorectal carcinogenesis was induced in adult C57BL/6 mice (n=12) by administration of MNNG (5mg/kg, 0.1ml/intrarectal instillation) 2 times a week, for 2 week. Control group (n=12) received saline (0.1ml/intrarectal instillation). Eight weeks after beginning of MNNG administration animals were submitted to the forced swim test (FST) and the sucrose preference test for evaluation, respectively, of depressive- and anhedonia-like behaviors. After behavioral evaluation, the colon was collected and brain regions dissected (cortex-C, striatum-ST and hippocampus-HIP) for posterior evaluation of cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17, and CX3CL1) by ELISA. Results: MNNG induced depressive-like behavior, represented by increased immobility time in the FST (Student t test, p < 0.05) and lower sucrose preference (Student t test, p < 0.05). Moreover, there were increased levels of IL-1β, IL-17 and CX3CL1 in the colonic tissue (Student t test, p < 0.05) and in the brain (IL-1 β in the ST and HIP, Student t test, p < 0.05; IL-17 and CX3CL1 in the C and HIP, p < 0.05). IL-10 levels, in contrast, were decreased in both the colon (p < 0.05) and the brain (C and HIP, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results obtained in the present work support the notion that tumor growth induces neuroinflammation in stress-related brain regions and depressive-like behavior, which could be related to the high incidence of depression in colorectal carcinogenesis. This work have important clinical and research implications, taken into account that cytokine levels may be a marker promissory for the developing depression in CRC patients. New therapeutic strategies to assist in alleviating mental suffering in cancer patients might result from a better understanding of the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of depression in these subjects.

Keywords: Brain, Cytokines, Depression, colorectal cancer

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16 Quantitative Analysis of Presence, Consciousness, Subconsciousness, and Unconsciousness

Authors: Hooshmand Kalayeh

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The human brain consists of reptilian, mammalian, and thinking brain. And mind consists of conscious, subconscious, and unconscious parallel neural-net programs. The primary objective of this paper is to propose a methodology for quantitative analysis of neural-nets associated with these mental activities in the neocortex. The secondary objective of this paper is to suggest a methodology for quantitative analysis of presence; the proposed methodologies can be used as a first-step to measure, monitor, and understand consciousness and presence. This methodology is based on Neural-Networks (NN), number of neuron in each NN associated with consciousness, subconsciouness, and unconsciousness, and number of neurons in neocortex. It is assumed that the number of neurons in each NN is correlated with the associated area and volume. Therefore, online and offline visualization techniques can be used to identify these neural-networks, and online and offline measurement methods can be used to measure areas and volumes associated with these NNs. So, instead of the number of neurons in each NN, the associated area or volume also can be used in the proposed methodology. This quantitative analysis and associated online and offline measurements and visualizations of different Neural-Networks enable us to rewire the connections in our brain for a more balanced living.

Keywords: Attention, Brain, Consciousness, Mind, Skills, presence, unconsciousness, concentrations, sub-consciousness

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15 Protective Effect of Cow Urine against Chlorpyrifos Induced-Genotoxicity and Neurotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Shelly Sharma, Pooja Chadha

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Humans are exposed to pesticides and insecticides either directly or indirectly. Exposure to these pesticides may lead to acute toxicity to mammals and non-target organisms. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum organophosphate pesticide widely used in various countries of the world. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity associated with chlorpyrifos exposure and possible mitigating effect of cow urine against genotoxic and toxic effects in rat brain induced by chlorpyrifos. For this purpose LD50 was determined and rats were orally administered with 1/8th of LD50 (19mg/kg b.wt). Brain samples were taken after 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs of treatment. A significant increase in the % tail DNA was observed along with the increase in MDA levels of brain tissues in chlorpyrifos treated groups as compared to control. Cow urine treated groups show decrease in DNA damage and MDA levels as compared to CPF treated group. The study indicates that cow urine has ameliorative potential against neurotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by CPF. Cow urine is considered rich in vitamin A, E and volatile fatty acids which provide antioxidant potential to it. Thus, it can be used as a genoprotective agent.

Keywords: Toxicity, Brain, Genotoxicity, comet assay, cow urine

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14 Low Intake of Aspartame Induced Weight Gain and Damage of Brain and Liver Cells in Weanling Syrian Hamsters

Authors: Magda I. Hassan

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This paper aims to investigate the health effects of aspartame on weanling male hamsters. 20 Golden Syrian hamsters drank only water (control) or water with 6, 11, and 18 mg aspartame/kg of body weight per day for 42 days. Food intake, weight gain, glucose blood level, and lipid profile were determined at the end of the experiment. The animals were sacrificed and histopathological examination of organs (liver, brain and heart) was done. Results revealed that animals in Asp.groups consumed significantly larger amount of food than the control (13.4±5.9, 8.6±2.5 and 8.8±3.0 vs 4.2±2.5 g/day, in succession). Hamsters in the control group showed higher total cholesterol and HDL levels than hamsters in aspartame 6, 11, 18 groups (160±19 vs 101±13, 130±22, 141±15 mg/dl & 144±9 vs 120±12, 118±13, 99±17 respectively (P<0•05)). The control group showed a glucose concentration below those of aspartame groups, indicating no effect of aspartame on glucose blood level. While, there were no significant differences in the triglycerides and LDL levels between control group and Asp.groups. Histopathological changes were observed, especially in brain and liver cells. Aspartame increases appetite and weight gain of young hamsters. Therefore, FDA should reconsider the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of aspartame for children.

Keywords: Brain, food intake, aspartame, hamsters

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13 Decellularized Brain-Chitosan Scaffold for Neural Tissue Engineering

Authors: Yun-An Chen, Hung-Jun Lin, Tai-Horng Young, Der-Zen Liu

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Decellularized brain extracellular matrix had been shown that it has the ability to influence on cell proliferation, differentiation and associated cell phenotype. However, this scaffold is thought to have poor mechanical properties and rapid degradation, it is hard for cell recellularization. In this study, we used decellularized brain extracellular matrix combined with chitosan, which is naturally occurring polysaccharide and non-cytotoxic polymer, forming a 3-D scaffold for neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) regeneration. HE staining and DAPI fluorescence staining confirmed decellularized process could effectively vanish the cellular components from the brain. GAGs and collagen I, collagen IV were be showed a great preservation by Alcain staining and immunofluorescence staining respectively. Decellularized brain extracellular matrix was well mixed in chitosan to form a 3-D scaffold (DB-C scaffold). The pore size was approximately 50±10 μm examined by SEM images. Alamar blue results demonstrated NSPCs had great proliferation ability in DB-C scaffold. NSPCs that were cultured in this complex scaffold differentiated into neurons and astrocytes, as reveled by NSPCs expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In conclusion, DB-C scaffold may provide bioinformatics cues for NSPCs generation and aid for CNS injury functional recovery applications.

Keywords: Brain, Scaffold, chitosan, decellularization, neural stem/precursor cells

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12 Antioxidant Effects of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) on Brain

Authors: Manju Lata Sharma

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Damage to cells caused by free radicals is believed to play a central role in the ageing process and in disease progression. Withania somnifera is widely used in ayurvedic medicine, and it is one of the ingredients in many formulations to increase energy, improve overall health and longevity and prevent disease. Withania somnifera possesses antioxidative properties. The antioxdant activity of Withania somnifera consisting of an equimolar concentration of active principles of sitoindoside VII-X and withaferin A. The antioxidant effect of Withania somnifera extract was investigated on lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in mice. Aim: To study the antioxidant activity of an extract of Withania somnifera leaf against a mice model of chronic stress. Healthy swiss albino mice (3-4 months old) selected from an inbred colony were divided in to 6 groups. Biochemical estimation revealed that stress induced a significant change in SOD, LPO, CAT AND GPX. These stress induced perturbations were attenuated Withania somnifera (50 and 100 mg/kg BW). Result: Withania somnifera tended to normalize the augmented SOD and LPO activities and enhanced the activities of CAT and GPX. The result indicates that treatment with an alcoholic extract of Withania somnifera produced a significant decrease in LPO ,and an increase in both SOD and CAT in brain mice. This indicates that Withania somnifera extract possesses free radical scavenging activity .

Keywords: Brain, Lipid Peroxidation, antioxidant, Withania somnifera

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11 Fast Tumor Extraction Method Based on Nl-Means Filter and Expectation Maximization

Authors: Sandabad Sara, Sayd Tahri Yassine, Hammouch Ahmed

Abstract:

The development of science has allowed computer scientists to touch the medicine and bring aid to radiologists as we are presenting it in our article. Our work focuses on the detection and localization of tumors areas in the human brain; this will be a completely automatic without any human intervention. In front of the huge volume of MRI to be treated per day, the radiologist can spend hours and hours providing a tremendous effort. This burden has become less heavy with the automation of this step. In this article we present an automatic and effective tumor detection, this work consists of two steps: the first is the image filtering using the filter Nl-means, then applying the expectation maximization algorithm (EM) for retrieving the tumor mask from the brain MRI and extracting the tumor area using the mask obtained from the second step. To prove the effectiveness of this method multiple evaluation criteria will be used, so that we can compare our method to frequently extraction methods used in the literature.

Keywords: Tumor, Brain, MRI, EM algorithm, Nl-means

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10 Bilateral Hemodynamic Responses on Prefrontal Cortex during Voluntary Regulated Breathing (Pranayama) Practices: A Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, Suhas Vinchurkar

Abstract:

Similar to neuroimaging findings through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessing regional cerebral blood oxygenation, the functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has also been used to assess hemodynamic responses in the imaged region of the brain. The present study assessed hemodynamic responses in terms of changes in oxygenation (HbO), deoxygenation (HbR) and total hemoglobin (THb) on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), bilaterally, using fNIRS in 10 participants who performed three voluntary regulated breathing (pranayama) practices viz. (i) Left nostril breathing (LNB), (ii) Right nostril breathing (RNB); and (iii) Alternating nostril breathing (ANB) and compared with normal breathing as baseline (BS). For this, we used 64 channel NIRS system covering left and the right prefrontal cortex. The normal breathing kept as baseline (BS) measures as regressors in the investigation of hemodynamic responses when compared with LNB, RNB and ANB. In the results, we found greater oxygenation in contralateral side i.e., higher activation on the left prefrontal cortex (lPFC) during RNB, and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) during LNB, whereas ANB showed greater deoxygenation responses on both sides of PFC. Interestingly, LNB showed increased oxygenation on ipsilateral side i.e., lPFC but not during RNB. This suggests that voluntary regulated breathing produced an immediate effect not only on contralateral but ipsilateral sides of the brain as well. In conclusion, breathing practices are tightly coupled to cerebral rhythms of alternating cerebral hemispheric activity during particular nostril breathing. These results of the specific nostril breathing do not support previous findings of contralateral hemispheric improvement while left or right nostril breathing only.

Keywords: Brain, pranayama, prefrontal cortex, hemodynamic responses, voluntary regulated breathing practices

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9 Effect of Tai-Chi and Cyclic Meditation on Hemodynamic Responses of the Prefrontal Cortex: A Functional near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: M. Avinash, Singh Deepeshwar, N. K. Manjunath

Abstract:

Meditation is a self-regulated conscious process associated with improved awareness, perception, attention and overall performance. Different traditional origin of meditation technique may have different effects on autonomic activity and brain functions. Based on this quest, the present study evaluated the effect of Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC, a Chines movement based meditation technique) and Cyclic Meditation (CM, an Indian traditional based stimulation and relaxation meditation technique) on the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and autonomic functions (such as R-R interval of heart rate variability and respiration). These two meditation practices were compared with simple walking. Employing 64 channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured hemoglobin concentration change (i.e., Oxyhemoglobin [ΔHbO], Deoxyhemoglobin [ΔHbR] and Total hemoglobin change [ΔTHC]) in the bilateral PFC before and after TCC, CM and Walking in young college students (n=25; average mean age ± SD; 23.4 ± 3.1 years). We observed the left PFC activity predominantly modulates sympathetic activity effects during the Tai-Chi whereas CM showed changes on right PFC with vagal dominance. However, the changes in oxyhemoglobin and total blood volume change after Tai-Chi was significant higher (p < 0.05, spam t-maps) on the left hemisphere, whereas after CM, there was a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (p < 0.01) with a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05) on right PFC. The normal walking showed decrease in Oxyhemoglobin with an increase in deoxyhemoglobin on left PFC. The autonomic functions result showed a significant increase in RR- interval (p < 0.05) along with significant reductions in HR (p < 0.05) in CM, whereas Tai-chi session showed significant increase in HR (p < 0.05) when compared to walking session. Within a group analysis showed a significant reduction in RR-I and significant increase in HR both in Tai-chi and walking sessions. The CM showed there were a significant improvement in the RR - interval of HRV (p < 0.01) with the reduction of heart rate and breath rate (p < 0.05). The result suggested that Tai-Chi and CM both have a positive effect on left and right prefrontal cortex and increase sympathovagal balance (alertful rest) in autonomic nervous system activity.

Keywords: Brain, Walking, Meditation, Yoga, hemodynamic responses, Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC), heart rate variability (HRV)

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8 Probing Mechanical Mechanism of Three-Hinge Formation on a Growing Brain: A Numerical and Experimental Study

Authors: Mir Jalil Razavi, Tianming Liu, Xianqiao Wang

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Cortical folding, characterized by convex gyri and concave sulci, has an intrinsic relationship to the brain’s functional organization. Understanding the mechanism of the brain’s convoluted patterns can provide useful clues into normal and pathological brain function. During the development, the cerebral cortex experiences a noticeable expansion in volume and surface area accompanied by tremendous tissue folding which may be attributed to many possible factors. Despite decades of endeavors, the fundamental mechanism and key regulators of this crucial process remain incompletely understood. Therefore, to taking even a small role in unraveling of brain folding mystery, we present a mechanical model to find mechanism of 3-hinges formation in a growing brain that it has not been addressed before. A 3-hinge is defined as a gyral region where three gyral crests (hinge-lines) join. The reasons that how and why brain prefers to develop 3-hinges have not been answered very well. Therefore, we offer a theoretical and computational explanation to mechanism of 3-hinges formation in a growing brain and validate it by experimental observations. In theoretical approach, the dynamic behavior of brain tissue is examined and described with the aid of a large strain and nonlinear constitutive model. Derived constitute model is used in the computational model to define material behavior. Since the theoretical approach cannot predict the evolution of cortical complex convolution after instability, non-linear finite element models are employed to study the 3-hinges formation and secondary morphological folds of the developing brain. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses on a multi-layer soft tissue model which mimics a small piece of the brain are performed to investigate the fundamental mechanism of consistent hinge formation in the cortical folding. Results show that after certain amount growth of cortex, mechanical model starts to be unstable and then by formation of creases enters to a new configuration with lower strain energy. By further growth of the model, formed shallow creases start to form convoluted patterns and then develop 3-hinge patterns. Simulation results related to 3-hinges in models show good agreement with experimental observations from macaque, chimpanzee and human brain images. These results have great potential to reveal fundamental principles of brain architecture and to produce a unified theoretical framework that convincingly explains the intrinsic relationship between cortical folding and 3-hinges formation. This achieved fundamental understanding of the intrinsic relationship between cortical folding and 3-hinges formation would potentially shed new insights into the diagnosis of many brain disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, lissencephaly and polymicrogyria.

Keywords: Brain, finite element, cortical folding, three hinge

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7 Pathomorphological Markers of the Explosive Wave Action on Human Brain

Authors: Sergey Kozlov, Juliya Kozlova

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Introduction: The increased attention of researchers to an explosive trauma around the world is associated with a constant renewal of military weapons and a significant increase in terrorist activities using explosive devices. Explosive wave is a well known damaging factor of explosion. The most sensitive to the action of explosive wave in the human body are the head brain, lungs, intestines, urine bladder. The severity of damage to these organs depends on the distance from the explosion epicenter to the object, the power of the explosion, presence of barriers, parameters of the body position, and the presence of protective clothing. One of the places where a shock wave acts, in human tissues and organs, is the vascular endothelial barrier, which suffers the greatest damage in the head brain and lungs. The objective of the study was to determine the pathomorphological changes of the head brain followed the action of explosive wave. Materials and methods of research: To achieve the purpose of the study, there have been studied 6 male corpses delivered to the morgue of Municipal Institution "Dnipropetrovsk regional forensic bureau" during 2014-2016 years. The cause of death of those killed was a military explosive injury. After a visual external assessment of the head brain, for histological study there was conducted the 1 x 1 x 1 cm/piece sampling from different parts of the head brain, i.e. the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital sites, and also from the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, thalamus, walls of the lateral ventricles, the bottom of the 4th ventricle. Pieces of the head brain were immersed in 10% formalin solution for 24 hours. After fixing, the paraffin blocks were made from the material using the standard method. Then, using a microtome, there were made sections of 4-6 micron thickness from paraffin blocks which then were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic analysis was performed using a light microscope with x4, x10, x40 lenses. Results of the study: According to the results of our study, injuries of the head brain were divided into macroscopic and microscopic. Macroscopic injuries were marked according to the results of visual assessment of haemorrhages under the membranes and into the substance, their nature, and localisation, areas of softening. In the microscopic study, our attention was drawn to both vascular changes and those of neurons and glial cells. Microscopic qualitative analysis of histological sections of different parts of the head brain revealed a number of structural changes both at the cellular and tissue levels. Typical changes in most of the studied areas of the head brain included damages of the vascular system. The most characteristic microscopic sign was the separation of vascular walls from neuroglia with the formation of perivascular space. Along with this sign, wall fragmentation of these vessels, haemolysis of erythrocytes, formation of haemorrhages in the newly formed perivascular spaces were found. In addition to damages of the cerebrovascular system, destruction of the neurons, presence of oedema of the brain tissue were observed in the histological sections of the brain. On some sections, the head brain had a heterogeneous step-like or wave-like nature. Conclusions: The pathomorphological microscopic changes in the brain, identified in the study on the died of explosive traumas, can be used for diagnostic purposes in conjunction with other characteristic signs of explosive trauma in forensic and pathological studies. The complex of microscopic signs in the head brain, i.e. separation of blood vessel walls from neuroglia with the perivascular space formation, fragmentation of walls of these blood vessels, erythrocyte haemolysis, formation of haemorrhages in the newly formed perivascular spaces is the direct indication of explosive wave action.

Keywords: Human, Brain, Neurotrauma, blast wave

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6 Neuropedagogy as a Scientific Discipline: Interdisciplinary Description of the Theoretical Basis for the Development of a Research Field

Authors: M. Chojak

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Recently, more and more scientific disciplines refer to research in the field of neurobiology. Interdisciplinary research procedures are created using modern methods of brain imaging. Neither did the pedagogues start looking for neuronal conditions for various processes. The publications began to show concepts such as ‘neuropedagogy’, ‘neuroeducation’, ‘neurodidactics’, ‘brain-friendly education’. They were and are still used interchangeably. In the offer of training for teachers, the topics of multiple intelligences or educational kinesiology began to be more and more popular. These and other ideas have been actively introduced into the curricula. To our best knowledge, the literature on the subject lacks articles organizing the new nomenclature and indicating the methodological framework for research that would confirm the effectiveness of the above-mentioned innovations. The author of this article tries to find the place for neuropedagogy in the system of sciences, define its subject of research, methodological framework and basic concepts. This is necessary to plan studies that will verify the so-called neuromyths.

Keywords: Education, Brain, Research, neuropedagogy

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5 The Brain’s Attenuation Coefficient as a Potential Estimator of Temperature Elevation during Intracranial High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Procedures

Authors: Daniel Dahis, Haim Azhari

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Noninvasive image-guided intracranial treatments using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are on the course of translation into clinical applications. They include, among others, tumor ablation, hyperthermia, and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) penetration. Since many of these procedures are associated with local temperature elevation, thermal monitoring is essential. MRI constitutes an imaging method with high spatial resolution and thermal mapping capacity. It is the currently leading modality for temperature guidance, commonly under the name MRgHIFU (magnetic-resonance guided HIFU). Nevertheless, MRI is a very expensive non-portable modality which jeopardizes its accessibility. Ultrasonic thermal monitoring, on the other hand, could provide a modular, cost-effective alternative with higher temporal resolution and accessibility. In order to assess the feasibility of ultrasonic brain thermal monitoring, this study investigated the usage of brain tissue attenuation coefficient (AC) temporal changes as potential estimators of thermal changes. Newton's law of cooling describes a temporal exponential decay behavior for the temperature of a heated object immersed in a relatively cold surrounding. Similarly, in the case of cerebral HIFU treatments, the temperature in the region of interest, i.e., focal zone, is suggested to follow the same law. Thus, it was hypothesized that the AC of the irradiated tissue may follow a temporal exponential behavior during cool down regime. Three ex-vivo bovine brain tissue specimens were inserted into plastic containers along with four thermocouple probes in each sample. The containers were placed inside a specially built ultrasonic tomograph and scanned at room temperature. The corresponding pixel-averaged AC was acquired for each specimen and used as a reference. Subsequently, the containers were placed in a beaker containing hot water and gradually heated to about 45ᵒC. They were then repeatedly rescanned during cool down using ultrasonic through-transmission raster trajectory until reaching about 30ᵒC. From the obtained images, the normalized AC and its temporal derivative as a function of temperature and time were registered. The results have demonstrated high correlation (R² > 0.92) between both the brain AC and its temporal derivative to temperature. This indicates the validity of the hypothesis and the possibility of obtaining brain tissue temperature estimation from the temporal AC thermal changes. It is important to note that each brain yielded different AC values and slopes. This implies that a calibration step is required for each specimen. Thus, for a practical acoustic monitoring of the brain, two steps are suggested. The first step consists of simply measuring the AC at normal body temperature. The second step entails measuring the AC after small temperature elevation. In face of the urging need for a more accessible thermal monitoring technique for brain treatments, the proposed methodology enables a cost-effective high temporal resolution acoustical temperature estimation during HIFU treatments.

Keywords: Brain, temperature, attenuation coefficient, HIFU, image-guidance

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4 Toxicological Effects of Heavy Metals; Copper, Lead and Chromium on Brain and Liver Tissue of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

Authors: Ahsan Khan, Muhammad Salman, Nazish Shah

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The present study deals with the toxicological effects of copper, lead and chromium on brain and liver tissues of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The average length of experimental fish was 8.5 ± 5.5 cm and weighed 9.5 ± 6.5 g. Grass carp was exposed to lethal concentration (LC₁₅) of copper, lead and chromium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively. (LC₁₅) for copper was 1.5, 1.4, 1.2 and 1mgL⁻¹. Similarly, LC₁₅ of lead was 250, 235, 225 and 216mgL⁻¹ while (LC₁₅) for chromium was 25.5, 22.5, 20 and 18mgL⁻¹ respectively. During the time of exposure against various doses of heavy metals the grass carp showed some behavioral changes. In the initial stages of experiment, the rapid movements and gulping of air were observed. Several times the fish tried to jump to scat from the toxic median. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals in different tissues of grass carp particularly in liver and brain tissues were observed. Lead was highly accumulated in brain tissue after the exposure of fish for 24 and 48 hours, while highly accumulated in liver tissues after the exposure of fish for 72 and 96 hours. Chromium was highly accumulated in the liver tissues after the exposure of fish for 24 hours while its accumulation was found highly in the brain tissues after the exposure of fish for 48, 72 and 96 hours. Similarly, accumulation of copper concentration was found highly in brain tissues after the exposure of 48 and 96 hours while its accumulation was high in liver tissues after the exposure of 24 and 72 hours. Comparatively maximum accumulation of lead was found in brain and liver tissues of grass carp followed by chromium and copper. Furthermore, accumulation of these metals caused many abnormalities like gliosis, destruction of cell, change in cell shape and shrinkage of cells in brain tissue while in liver tissues aggregation in hepatocytes, widen space between cells and also destruction of cell was observed. These experiments and observations can be useful to monitor the aquatic pollution and quality of aquatic environment system.

Keywords: Toxicity, Brain, Liver, grass carp, lethal concentration

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3 Estimation of Endogenous Brain Noise from Brain Response to Flickering Visual Stimulation Magnetoencephalography Visual Perception Speed

Authors: Alexander N. Pisarchik, Parth Chholak

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Intrinsic brain noise was estimated via magneto-encephalograms (MEG) recorded during perception of flickering visual stimuli with frequencies of 6.67 and 8.57 Hz. First, we measured the mean phase difference between the flicker signal and steady-state event-related field (SSERF) in the occipital area where the brain response at the flicker frequencies and their harmonics appeared in the power spectrum. Then, we calculated the probability distribution of the phase fluctuations in the regions of frequency locking and computed its kurtosis. Since kurtosis is a measure of the distribution’s sharpness, we suppose that inverse kurtosis is related to intrinsic brain noise. In our experiments, the kurtosis value varied among subjects from K = 3 to K = 5 for 6.67 Hz and from 2.6 to 4 for 8.57 Hz. The majority of subjects demonstrated leptokurtic kurtosis (K < 3), i.e., the distribution tails approached zero more slowly than Gaussian. In addition, we found a strong correlation between kurtosis and brain complexity measured as the correlation dimension, so that the MEGs of subjects with higher kurtosis exhibited lower complexity. The obtained results are discussed in the framework of nonlinear dynamics and complex network theories. Specifically, in a network of coupled oscillators, phase synchronization is mainly determined by two antagonistic factors, noise, and the coupling strength. While noise worsens phase synchronization, the coupling improves it. If we assume that each neuron and each synapse contribute to brain noise, the larger neuronal network should have stronger noise, and therefore phase synchronization should be worse, that results in smaller kurtosis. The described method for brain noise estimation can be useful for diagnostics of some brain pathologies associated with abnormal brain noise.

Keywords: Brain, meg, Magnetoencephalography, Visual Perception, flickering, perception time

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2 Study of the Protective Effects of Summer Savory against Multiple Organ Damage Induced by Lead Acetate in Rats

Authors: Bassant M. M. Ibrahim, Doha H. Abou Baker, Ahmed Abd Elghafour

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Excessive exposure to heavy metals contributes to the occurrence of deleterious health problems that affect vital organs like the brain, liver, kidneys, and heart. The use of natural products that have antioxidant capabilities may contribute to the protection of these organs. In the present study, the essential oil of summer savory (Satureja hortensis) was used to evaluate its protective effects against lead acetate induced damaging effect on rats’ vital organs, due to its high contents of carvacrol, y-terpinene, and p-cymene. Forty female Wister Albino rats were classified into five equal groups, the 1st served as normal group, the 2nd served as positive control group was given lead acetate (60 mg/kg) intra-peritoneal (IP), the third to fifth groups were treated with calcium disodium (EDTA) as chelating agent and summer savory essential oil in doses of (50 and 100mg/kg) respectively. All treatments were given IP concomitant with lead acetate for ten successive days. At the end of the experiment duration electrocardiogram (ECG), an open field test for the evaluation of psychological state, rotarod test as for the evaluation of locomotor coordination ability as well as anti-inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in serum and histopathology of vital organs were performed. The investigations in this study show that the protective effect of high dose of summer savory essential oil is more than the low dose and that the essential oil of summer savory is a promising agent that can contribute to the protection of vital organs against the hazardous damaging effects of lead acetate.

Keywords: Brain, kidneys, Liver, heart, lead acetate, protective, summer savory

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1 Transcranial Colour Duplex Reveals Haemodynamically Significant Venous Flow Alterations Following Resection of Arteriovenous Malformation of the Brain

Authors: K. Busch, A. Davidson, M. Butlin, A. Avolio, H. Kiat

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Following removal of a brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM), the redistribution of blood can impose several post-operative clinical challenges, including intracranial haemorrhage and/or venous infarction. The mechanism of such complications remains controversial, although blood pressure control has been recognised as an integral component in haemorrhage prevention. Serial daily non-invasive monitoring of haemodynamic indices for patients would be ideal. Transcranial color duplex (TCCD) and central aortic pressures (CAP) can both be derived non-invasively, providing pressure measurements and real-time, dynamic, hemodynamic spectra. These techniques may provide valuable insight into the process of vessel remodeling following bAVM resection. This prospective study evaluated fifteen patients with bAVMs. CAP and TCCD were studied pre- and then daily for up to 14 days post-operatively. Intracranial hemodynamic indices were obtained. The haemodynamic parameters were compared with a group of normal volunteers and a control group of participants having craniotomies for tumour or aneurysm resection. In the bAVM series, there was a post-operative reduction in velocity and increase in pulsatility of the feeding arteries as per previous publications. The venous changes post-operatively were dramatic and have not been previously studied. In the early post-operative period there was a marked prominence of venous flow signals adjacent to the middle cerebral artery. The venous signals demonstrated significantly increased velocities and pulsatility. Furthermore, two of the patients with sustained increased venous prominence, velocity and pulsatility suffered a haemorrhage. These veins were either difficult to detect pre-operatively or not readily apparent and gradually diminished over the post-operative period returning to normal values. The findings, though preliminary, provide insight into vessel remodeling and elucidate a time frame when vessels, particularly the veins may have impaired autoregulation. If confirmed in future validation studies, the period of increased venous velocity, pulsatility and prominence may correlate to the time at which patients are at risk of post-operative haemorrhage.

Keywords: Brain, venous, arteriovenous malformation, transcranial colour duplex

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