Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Bottom-Up Approach Related Abstracts

2 Estimation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reductions from Solar Cell Technology Using Bottom-up Approach and Scenario Analysis in South Korea

Authors: Jaehyung Jung, Kiman Kim, Heesang Eum

Abstract:

Solar cell is one of the main technologies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG). Thereby, accurate estimation of greenhouse gas reduction by solar cell technology is crucial to consider strategic applications of the solar cell. The bottom-up approach using operating data such as operation time and efficiency is one of the methodologies to improve the accuracy of the estimation. In this study, alternative GHG reductions from solar cell technology were estimated by a bottom-up approach to indirect emission source (scope 2) in Korea, 2015. In addition, the scenario-based analysis was conducted to assess the effect of technological change with respect to efficiency improvement and rate of operation. In order to estimate GHG reductions from solar cell activities in operating condition levels, methodologies were derived from 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories and guidelines for local government greenhouse inventories published in Korea, 2016. Indirect emission factors for electricity were obtained from Korea Power Exchange (KPX) in 2011. As a result, the annual alternative GHG reductions were estimated as 21,504 tonCO2eq, and the annual average value was 1,536 tonCO2eq per each solar cell technology. Those results of estimation showed to be 91% levels versus design of capacity. Estimation of individual greenhouse gases (GHGs) showed that the largest gas was carbon dioxide (CO2), of which up to 99% of the total individual greenhouse gases. The annual average GHG reductions from solar cell per year and unit installed capacity (MW) were estimated as 556 tonCO2eq/yr•MW. Scenario analysis of efficiency improvement by 5%, 10%, 15% increased as much as approximately 30, 61, 91%, respectively, and rate of operation as 100% increased 4% of the annual GHG reductions.

Keywords: Reduction, Solar Cell, Bottom-Up Approach, scenario, greenhouse gas (GHG)

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1 Legacy of Smart Cities on Urban Future: Discussing the Future of Smart City by Sharing Its Experiences

Authors: Arsalan Makinian

Abstract:

Our future cities will constantly evolve the necessary technologies for tomorrow’s needs. Technologies which enable a better kind of prosperity and security. This paper reports on the precedent of a smart city from its beginning to prevalence among urbanism academic literature and reports of tech companies. The article aims to direct urban foresight studies and to build a pathway for the future of smart city concept by gathering theoretical and empirical experiences related to smart cities with both top-down and bottom-up approaches. It hopes to deliver results of different studies, pilot projects, and development strategies of some of the smart cities in order to allow a shareable knowledge to take shape and develop in terms of qualitative aspects of a smart city. Now the definition of the smart city goes beyond removing physical boundaries, changing the concept of mobility and providing electronic service for citizens, it now constitutes fields such as energy efficiency, economic competitiveness, protecting the environment and finally, it takes advantage of technology and data science to improve the quality of life. In the smart city, the role of citizens is considered as both final purpose and contributor. Emerging issues which are almost implications of advanced technologies -as the most important trends of the future- and their reflection on the society need to be foresighted. Educating and fostering knowledge of smartness is one of the targets of the smart city concept. In this regard, some of these smart cites have established research and development units to share their projects and smart city initiatives. Due to this fact, gaining experience and sharing the results of this subject is necessary for technology management and moving toward a smart urban future.

Keywords: Smart City, Bottom-Up Approach, age of urban tech, role of citizens

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