Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Boron Related Abstracts

15 Influence of Sulphur and Boron on Growth, Quality Parameters and Productivity of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill)

Authors: Shital Bangar, G. B. Khandagale


The experimentation was carried out to study the influence of sulphur and boron on growth parameters and productivity of soybean in kharif season of 2009-2010 at Experimental Farm, Department of Agricultural Botany, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani (M.S.). The object was to evaluate the impact of sulphur and boron on growth, development, grain yield and physiological aspects of soybean variety MAUS-81. Nine treatments consisted of three levels of sulphur i.e. 20, 30 and 40 Kg/ha as well as three levels boron i.e.10, 15 and 20 kg boron/ha and the combinations of these two mineral elements i.e. Sulphur @30 kg/ha + Borax @15 kg/ha and Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha with one control treatment in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The effect of sulphur and boron on various growth parameters of soybean like relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) were remained statistically on par with each other. However, the application of higher dose of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha enhanced significantly all the growth parameters. Application of the nutrients increased the dry matter accumulation of the crop plant and hence, other growth indices like RGR and NAR also increased significantly. RGR and NAR values were recorded highest at the initial crop growth stages and decline thereafter. The application of sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha recorded significantly higher content of chlorophyll ‘a’ than rest of the treatments and chlorophyll ‘b’ observed higher in boron @15 kg/ha as well as [email protected] kg/ha, whereas total chlorophyll content was maximum in sulphur @40 kg/ha. Oil content was not influenced significantly due to above fertilization. The highest seed yield and total biological yield were obtained with combination of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha, single sulphur and boron application also showed a significant effect on seed and biological yield.

Keywords: Productivity, Growth, Quality, Boron, soybean and sulphur

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14 Effect of Boric Acid Content on the Structural and Optical Properties of In2O3 Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

Authors: Mustafa Öztas, Metin Bedir, Yahya Özdemir


Boron doped of In2O3 films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique at 350 °C substrate temperature, which is a low cost and large area technique to be well-suited for the manufacture of solar cells, using boric acid (H3BO3) as dopant source, and their properties were investigated as a function of doping concentration. X-ray analysis showed that the films were polycrystalline fitting well with a hexagonal structure and have preferred orientation in (220) direction. The changes observed in the energy band gap and structural properties of the films related to the boric acid concentration are discussed in detail.

Keywords: Boron, Optical Properties, boric acid, spray pyrolysis, In2O3

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13 Effects of Boron Compounds in Rabbits Fed High Protein and Energy Diet: A Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Approach

Authors: Abdullah Basoglu, Nuri Başpınar, Özgür Özdemir, Çağlayan Özel, FundaTerzi, Özgür Yaman


Current research is targeting new molecular mechanisms that underlie non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated metabolic disorders like nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Forty New Zealand White rabbits have been used and fed a high protein (HP) and energy diet based on grains and containing 11.76 MJ/kg. Boron added to 3 experimental groups’ drinking waters (30 mg boron/L) as boron compounds. Biochemical analysis including boron levels, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics evaluation, and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family were performed. LDL-cholesterol concentrations alone were decreased in all the experimental groups. Boron levels in serum and feces were increased. Content of acetate was in about 2x higher for anhydrous borax group, at least 3x higher for boric acid group. PPARα mRNA expression was significantly decreased in boric acid group. Anhydrous borax attenuated mRNA levels of PPARα, which was further suppressed by boric acid. Boron supplementation decreased the degenerative alterations in hepatocytes. Except borax group other boron groups did not have a pronounced change in tubular epithels of kidney. In conclusion, high protein and energy diet leads hepatocytes’ degenerative changes which can be prevented by boron supplementation. Boric acid seems to precede in this effectiveness.

Keywords: Metabolomics, Boron, high protein and energy diet, transcriptomic

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12 Effect of Long-Term Boron Exposure on Liver Structure of Adult Male Albino Rats and a Possible Role of Vitamin C

Authors: Ola Abdel-Tawab Hussein


Background: Boron is a naturally occurring agent and an essential trace element of human, animals and higher plants. It is released in the form of boric acid (BA) that is water soluble and biolologically available. Its largest uses are in glass, detergents, agriculture, leather tanning industries, cosmetics, photographic materials, soaps and cleaners. Human consume daily few milligrams in the water, fruits and vegetables. High doses of boron had been recorded to be developmental and reproductive toxin in animals(Only few studies on human had investigated the health effects associated with exposure to boron. Vitamin C is a major water soluble non-enzymatic antioxidant, acts to overcome the oxidative stress. Aim of the work: However , the liver is exposed to toxic substances that are absorbed, degraded or conjugated there were little information exists about the effects of boron that it would specifically have in the liver tissue of experimental rats. So the present work aimed to study the effects of long-term boron ingestion on histological structural of the liver of adult male albino rats and to evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against induced changes. Material and Methods: 30 adult male albino rats were divided into 3 equal groups; Group I: control, Group II: recieved drinking water containing 55x10-6 gm boron/liter for 90 days and Group III: recieved vitamin C (200mg/Kg.B.W) orally concomitant with boron for the same period. liver specimens were processed for light and electron microscopic(TEM) study. Results: Examination of the liver sections of group II revealed foci of severe dilatation and congestion of central and portal veins with mononuclear cellular infiltration and hepatocellular vacuolation. Increased collagen deposition specially around the portal areas. Marked electrolucent areas in the cytoplasm, heterochromatic nuclei and destroyed organelles of the hepatocytes. Apoptotic cells were observed and decreased lipid content of ito cells. In Group III the co administration of vitamin C improved most of the structural changes of the hepatocytes, Ito cells, increased binucleated cells and decreased collagen fibers deposition. Conclusion: Thus, the long term exposure to boron, induced histological changes on the structure of liver. The co administration of vitamin C improved most of these structural changes.

Keywords: rats, Liver, Boron, vitamin C

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11 Investigation of Additives' Corrosion Inhibition Effects on Dye

Authors: Abdullah Bilal Ozturk, Nil Acarali, Hediye Irem Ozgunduz, Hava Gizem Kandilci, Hanifi Sarac


In this study, zeolite, shellac and different boron chemicals were used as additive to dye and effects were comprehensively investigated. Considering previous studies additive materials that had not used before were determined for produce dye with physical properties. Literature research about the materials provides determining easily sufficient amount of additive materials. Accessible of additives or yearly production amounts are become important issue at selection of materials. Zeolite and boron chemicals are suitable selection in that easy access and has large amount of production in our country. Previous research about boron chemicals shows they have flame retardant effect on textile materials besides numerous usage areas. Also, from previous research, shellac was used widely for protection and insulation of metallic materials. Zeolite added to dye to increase adhesive effect of dye. In this study, corrosion tests were applied to find out if there are positive effects of zeolite, shellac, and boron chemicals to dye’s physical properties.

Keywords: Corrosion, Zeolite, Boron, shellac, dye

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10 Influence of Dietary Boron on Gut Absorption of Nutrients, Blood Metabolites and Tissue Pathology

Authors: A. K. Verma, P. Krishnamoorthy, T. Vijay Bhasker, N. K. S Gowda, D. T. Pal, A. K. Pattanaik


Boron (B) is a newer trace element and its biological importance and dietary essentiality is unclear in animals. The available literature suggests its putative role in bone mineralization, antioxidant status and steroid hormone synthesis. A feeding trial was conducted in Wister strain (Rattus norvegicus) albino rats for duration of 90 days. A total of 84 healthy weaned (3-4 weeks) experimental rats were randomly divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of three each) viz., A (Basal diet/ Control), B (Basal diet + 5 ppm B), C (Basal diet + 10 ppm B), D (Basal diet + 20 ppm B), E (Basal diet + 40 ppm B), F (Basal diet-Ca 50%), G (Basal diet-Ca 50% + 40 ppm B). Dietary level of calcium (Ca) was maintained at two levels, 100% and 50% of requirement. Sodium borate was used as source of boron along with other ingredients of basal diet while preparing the pelletized diets. All the rats were kept in proper ventilated laboratory animal house maintained at temperature (23±2º C) and humidity (50 to 70%). At the end of experiment digestibility trial was conducted for 5 days to estimate nutrient digestibility and gut absorption of minerals. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect the vital organs (liver, kidney and spleen) to study histopathology. Blood sample was drawn by heart puncture to determine biochemical profile. The average daily feed intake (g/rat/day), water intake (ml/rat/day) and body weight gain (g/rat/day) were similar among the dietary groups. The digestibility (%) of organic matter and crude fat were significantly improved (P < 0.05) was by B supplementation. The gut absorption (%) Ca was significantly increased (P < 0.01) in B supplemented groups compared to control. However, digestibility of dry matter and crude protein, gut absorption of magnesium and phosphorus showed a non-significant increasing trend with B supplementation. The gut absorption (%) of B (P < 0.01) was significantly lowered (P<0.05) in supplemented groups compared to un-supplemented ones. The serum level of triglycerides (mg/dL), HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) and alanine transaminase (IU/L) were significantly lowered (P < 0.05) in B supplemented groups. While serum level of glucose (mg/dL) and alkaline phosphatase (KA units) showed a non-significant decreasing trend with B supplementation. However the serum levels of total cholesterol (mg/dL) and aspartate transaminase (IU/L) were similar among dietary groups. The histology sections of kidney and spleen revealed no significant changes among the dietary groups and were observed to be normal in anatomical architecture. However, the liver histology revealed cell degenerative changes with vacuolar degeneration and nuclear condensation in Ca deficient groups. But the comparative degenerative changes were mild in 40 ppm B supplemented Ca deficient group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of graded levels of boron in rats had a positive effect on metabolism and health by improving nutrient digestibility and gut absorption of Ca. This indicates the beneficial role of dietary boron supplementation.

Keywords: Histopathology, Calcium, Boron, nutrient utilization

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9 A Fluorescent Polymeric Boron Sensor

Authors: Soner Cubuk, Mirgul Kosif, M. Vezir Kahraman, Ece Kok Yetimoglu


Boron is an essential trace element for the completion of the life circle for organisms. Suitable methods for the determination of boron have been proposed, including acid - base titrimetric, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy flame atomic absorption and spectrophotometric. However, the above methods have some disadvantages such as long analysis times, requirement of corrosive media such as concentrated sulphuric acid and multi-step sample preparation requirements and time-consuming procedures. In this study, a selective and reusable fluorescent sensor for boron based on glycosyloxyethyl methacrylate was prepared by photopolymerization. The response characteristics such as response time, pH, linear range, limit of detection were systematically investigated. The excitation/emission maxima of the membrane were at 378/423 nm, respectively. The approximate response time was measured as 50 sec. In addition, sensor had a very low limit of detection which was 0.3 ppb. The sensor was successfully used for the determination of boron in water samples with satisfactory results.

Keywords: Fluorescence, Boron, Photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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8 Influence of Boron Doping and Thermal Treatment on Internal Friction of Monocrystalline Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) Alloys

Authors: I. Kurashvili, A. Sichinava, G. Bokuchava, G. Darsavelidze, I. Tabatadze


The impact of boron doping on the internal friction (IF) and shear modulus temperature spectra of Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) monocrsytals has been investigated by reverse torsional pendulum oscillations characteristics testing. At room temperatures, microhardness and indentation modulus of the same specimens have been measured by dynamic ultra microhardness tester. It is shown that boron doping causes two kinds effect: At low boron concentration (~1015 cm-3) significant strengthening is revealed, while at the high boron concentration (~1019 cm-3) strengthening effect and activation characteristics of relaxation origin IF processes are reduced.

Keywords: Doping, Thermal treatment, Boron, internal friction, si-ge alloys

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7 Recovery of Boron from Industrial Wastewater by Chemical Oxo-Precipitation

Authors: Yao-Hui Huang, Yu-Jen Shih, Jui-Yen Lin, Ming-Chun Yen


This work investigated the reclamation of boron in industrial wastewaters by a chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) technique at room temperature. In COP, the boric acid was pretreated with H₂O₂, yielding various perborate anions. Afterwards, calcium chloride was used to efficiently remove boron through precipitation of calcium perborate. The important factors included reacted pH and the molar ratio of [Ca]/[B]. Under conditions of pH 11 and [Ca]/[B] of 1, the boron concentration could be reduced immediately from 600 ppm to 50 ppm in 10 minutes. The boron removal was enhanced with a higher [Ca]/[B], which further reduced boron to 20 ppm in 10 minutes. Nevertheless, the dissolution of carbon dioxide potentially affected the efficacy of COP and increased the boron concentration after 10 minutes.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Boron, Hydrogen Peroxide, chemical oxo-precipitation

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6 Dissolution Leaching Kinetics of Ulexite in Sodium Dihydrogen Phosphate Solutions

Authors: Turan Çalban, Soner Kuşlu, Sabri Çolak, Emine Teke


The aim of the present study was to investigate the dissolution kinetics of ulexite in sodium dihydrogen phosphate in a mechanical agitation system and also to declare an alternative reactant to produce the boric acid. Reaction temperature, concentration of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, stirring speed, solid-liquid ratio, and ulexite particle size were selected as parameters. The experimental results were successfully correlated by using linear regression and a statistical program. Dissolution curves were evaluated in order to test the shrinking core models for solid-fluid systems. It was observed that increase in the reaction temperature and decrease in the solid/liquid ratio causes an increase in the dissolution rate of ulexite. The activation energy was found to be 36.4 kJ/mol. The leaching of ulexite was controlled by diffusion through the ash (or product) layer.

Keywords: Boron, ulexite, leaching kinetics, sodium dihydrogen phosphate

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5 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Boron-Containing AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Seok Hong Min, Ji Chan Kim


Effect of boron addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D Mg alloy was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as 420 °C where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment was conducted at 420 °C for 24 hrs followed by hot rolling at 420 °C and the total reduction was about 60%. Recrystallization heat treatment was followed at 420 °C for 6 hrs to obtain equiaxed microstructure. After recrystallization treatment, aging heat treatment was conducted at temperature of 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 200 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak hardness was observed after 20 hrs. Tensile tests were also conducted on the specimens aged for various time intervals and the results were compared with hardness.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructure, Hardness, Mechanical Properties, Boron, AZ91D Mg alloy

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4 Liquid Phase Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Powder Metallurgy Stainless Steel

Authors: Ming-Wei Wu, Zih-Jie Lin


Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a feasible means for decreasing the porosity of powder metallurgy (PM) Fe-based material without substantially increase the production cost. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 0.6 wt% boron on the densification of PM 304L stainless steel by LPS. The results indicated that the increase in the sintered density of 304L+0.6B steel is obvious after 1250 ºC sintering, and eutectic structures with borides are observed at the interfaces of the raw steel powders. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show that liquid is generated at 1244ºC during sintering. The boride in the eutectic structure is rich in boron and chromium atoms and is deficient in nickel atoms, as identified by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Furthermore, the sintered densities of 304L and 304L+0.6B steels sintered at 1300 ºC are 6.99 g/cm3 and 7.69 g/cm3, respectively, indicating that boron is a suitable alloying element for facilitating LPS of PM 304L stainless steel.

Keywords: Microstructure, powder metallurgy, Boron, stainless steel, liquid phase sintering

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3 Microstructure and Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Martensitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Ming-Wei Wu, Yu-Jin Tsai, Ching-Huai Chang


Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a versatile technique for achieving effective densification of powder metallurgy (PM) steels and other materials. The aim of this study was to examine the influences of 0.6 wt% boron on the microstructure and LPS behavior of boron-alloyed 410 martensitic stainless steel. The results showed that adding 0.6 wt% boron can obviously promote the LPS due to a eutectic reaction and increase the sintered density of 410 stainless steel. The density was much increased by 1.06 g/cm³ after 1225ºC sintering. Increasing the sintering temperature from 1225ºC to 1275ºC did not obviously improve the sintered density. After sintering at 1225ºC~1275ºC, the matrix was fully martensitic, and intragranular borides were extensively found due to the solidification of eutectic liquid. The microstructure after LPS consisted of the martensitic matrix and (Fe, Cr)2B boride, as identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA).

Keywords: Microstructure, powder metallurgy, Boron, martensite, stainless steel, liquid phase sintering

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2 Improvement of Microstructure, Wear and Mechanical Properties of Modified G38NiCrMo8-4-4 Steel Used in Mining Industry

Authors: Mustafa Col, Funda Gul Koc, Merve Yangaz, Eylem Subasi, Can Akbasoglu


G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel is widely used in mining industries, machine parts, gears due to its high strength and toughness properties. In this study, microstructure, wear and mechanical properties of G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel modified with boron used in the mining industry were investigated. For this purpose, cast materials were alloyed by melting in an induction furnace to include boron with the rates of 0 ppm, 15 ppm, and 50 ppm (wt.) and were formed in the dimensions of 150x200x150 mm by casting into the sand mould. Homogenization heat treatment was applied to the specimens at 1150˚C for 7 hours. Then all specimens were austenitized at 930˚C for 1 hour, quenched in the polymer solution and tempered at 650˚C for 1 hour. Microstructures of the specimens were investigated by using light microscope and SEM to determine the effect of boron and heat treatment conditions. Changes in microstructure properties and material hardness were obtained due to increasing boron content and heat treatment conditions after microstructure investigations and hardness tests. Wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc tribometer under dry sliding conditions. Charpy V notch impact test was performed to determine the toughness properties of the specimens. Fracture and worn surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that boron element has a positive effect on the hardness and wear properties of G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Boron, Wear, G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel

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1 Unusual Weld Failures of Rotary Compressor during Hydraulic Tests: Analysis revealed Boron Induced Cracking in Fusion Zone

Authors: Vaibhav Jain, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Kaushal Kishore, Manashi Adhikary, Sandip Bhattacharyya, Hrishikesh Jugade, Saurabh Hadas


Rotary air compressors in air conditioners are used to suck excessive volume of air from the atmosphere in a small space to provide drive to the components attached to them. Hydraulic test is one of the most important methods to decide the suitability of these components for usage. In the present application, projection welding is used to join the hot rolled steel sheets after forming for manufacturing of air compressors. These sheets belong to two different high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel grades. It was observed that one batch of compressors made of a particular grade was cracking from the weld, whereas those made of another grade were passing the hydraulic tests. Cracking was repeatedly observed from the weld location. A detailed comparative study of the compressors which failed and successfully passed pressure tests has been presented. Location of crack initiation was identified to be the interface of fusion zone/heat affected zone. Shear dimples were observed on the fracture surface confirming the ductile mode of failure. Hardness profile across the weld revealed a sharp rise in hardness in the fusion zone. This was attributed to the presence of untempered martensitic lath in the fusion zone. A sharp metallurgical notch existed at the heat affected zone/fusion zone interface due to transition in microstructure from acicular ferrite and bainite in HAZ to untempered martensite in the fusion zone. In contrast, welds which did not fail during the pressure tests showed a smooth hardness profile with no abnormal rise in hardness in the fusion zone. The bainitic microstructure was observed in the fusion zone of successful welds. This difference in microstructural constituents in the fusion zone was attributed to the presence of a small amount of boron (0.002 wt. %) in the sheets which were cracking. Trace amount of boron is known to substantially increase the hardenability of HSLA steel, and cooling rate during resolidification in the fusion zone is sufficient to form martensite. Post-weld heat treatment was recommended to transform untempered martensite to tempered martensite with lower hardness.

Keywords: cracking, Boron, Compressor, martensite, weld, hardenability, high strength low alloy steel

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