Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Bone Tissue Engineering Related Abstracts

9 Preparation and Application of Biocompatible Nanobioactive Glass as Therapeutic Agents for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: S. Vijayalakshmi, A. K. Singh, P. Shrivastava, S. Dalai, R. Teotia, P. Sharma, J. Bellare


This paper focuses on the synthesis and application of nanobioactive glass for bone regeneration studies. Nanobioactive glass has been synthesized by sol gel method having a combination of silicon, calcium and phosphorous in the molar ratio of 75:21:4. The prepared particles were analyzed for surface morphology by FEG SEM and FEG TEM. Physiochemical properties were investigated using ICP AES, FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. To ascertain their use for therapeutic use, biocompatibility evaluation of the particles was done by performing soaking studies in SBF and in vitro cell culture studies on MG63 cell lines. Cell morphology was observed by FE SEM and phase contrast microscopy. Nanobioactive glasses (NBG) thus prepared were of 30-200 nm in size, which makes them suitable for nano-biomedical applications. The spherical shape of the particles imparts high surface to volume ratio, promoting fast growth of hydroxyapatite (HA), which is the mineral component of bone. As evaluated by in vitro cell culture studies the NBG was found to enhance the surface activation which enhances osteoblast adhesion. This is an essential parameter to improve bone tissue integration, thereby making nanobioactive glass therapeutically suitable for correcting bone defects.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Bone Tissue Engineering, hydroxyapatite, nanobioactive glass

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8 Reconstruction of Alveolar Bone Defects Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mediated Rabbit Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Collagen/Poly(L-Lactide)

Authors: Ling-Ling E., Hong-Chen Liu, Dong-Sheng Wang, Fang Su, Xia Wu, Zhan-Ping Shi, Yan Lv, Jia-Zhu Wang


Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the capacity of a tissue-engineered bone complex of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) mediated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide)(nHAC/PLA) to reconstruct critical-size alveolar bone defects in New Zealand rabbit. Methods: Autologous DPSCs were isolated from rabbit dental pulp tissue and expanded ex vivo to enrich DPSCs numbers, and then their attachment and differentiation capability were evaluated when cultured on the culture plate or nHAC/PLA. The alveolar bone defects were treated with nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2, and autogenous bone (AB) obtained from iliac bone or were left untreated as a control. X-ray and a polychrome sequential fluorescent labeling were performed post-operatively and the animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after operation for histological observation and histomorphometric analysis. Results: Our results showed that DPSCs expressed STRO-1 and vementin, and favoured osteogenesis and adipogenesis in conditioned media. DPSCs attached and spread well, and retained their osteogenic phenotypes on nHAC/PLA. The rhBMP-2 could significantly increase protein content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/protein, osteocalcin (OCN) content, and mineral formation of DPSCs cultured on nHAC/PLA. The X-ray graph, the fluorescent, histological observation and histomorphometric analysis showed that the nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2 tissue-engineered bone complex had an earlier mineralization and more bone formation inside the scaffold than nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2 and nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, or even autologous bone. Implanted DPSCs contribution to new bone were detected through transfected eGFP genes. Conclutions: Our findings indicated that stem cells existed in adult rabbit dental pulp tissue. The rhBMP-2 promoted osteogenic capability of DPSCs as a potential cell source for periodontal bone regeneration. The nHAC/PLA could serve as a good scaffold for autologous DPSCs seeding, proliferation and differentiation. The tissue-engineered bone complex with nHAC/PLA, rhBMP-2, and autologous DPSCs might be a better alternative to autologous bone for the clinical reconstruction of periodontal bone defects.

Keywords: Bone Tissue Engineering, nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (L-lactide), dental pulp stem cell, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, alveolar bone

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7 Suitability Verification of Cellulose Nanowhisker as a Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Hoo Cheol Lee, Dae Seung Kim, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hwa Sung Shin, Sang-Myung Jung, Moon Hee Jung


Scaffolds are an important part to support growth and differentiation of osteoblast for regeneration of injured bone in bone tissue engineering. We utilized tunicate cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) as scaffold and developed complex system that can enhance differentiation of osteoblast by applying mechanical stimulation. CNW, a crystal form of cellulose, has high stiffness with a large surface area and is useful as a biomedical material due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. In this study, CNW was obtained from tunicate extraction and was confirmed for its adhesion, differentiation, growth of osteoblast without cytotoxicity. In addition, osteoblast was successfully differentiated under mechanical stimulation, followed by calcium dependent signaling. In conclusion, we verified suitability of CNW as scaffold and possibility of bone substitutes.

Keywords: Bone Tissue Engineering, osteoblast, cellulose nanowhisker, mechanical stimulation, CNW, bone substitute

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6 Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Aleksandra BužArovska, Gordana Bogoeva Gaceva


Biodegradable polymers have received significant scientific attention in tissue engineering (TE) application, in particular their composites consisting of inorganic nanoparticles. In the last 15 years, they are subject of intensive research by many groups, aiming to develop polymer scaffolds with defined biodegradability, porosity and adequate mechanical stability. The most important characteristic making these materials attractive for TE is their biodegradability, a process that could be time controlled and long enough to enable generation of a new tissue as a replacement for the degraded polymer scaffold. In this work poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds, filled with TiO2 nanoparticles functionalized with oleic acid, have been prepared by thermally induced phase separation method (TIPS). The functionalization of TiO2 nanoparticles with oleic acid was performed in order to improve the nanoparticles dispersibility within the polymer matrix and at the same time to inhibit the cytotoxicity of the nanofiller. The oleic acid was chosen as amphiphilic molecule belonging to the fatty acid family because of its non-toxicity and possibility for mediation between the hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles and hydrophobic PLA matrix. The produced scaffolds were characterized with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical compression measurements. The bioactivity for bone tissue engineering application was tested in supersaturated simulated body fluid. The degradation process was followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed anisotropic morphology with elongated open pores (100 µm), high porosity (around 92%) and perfectly dispersed nanofiller. The compression moduli up to 10 MPa were identified independent on the nanofiller content. Functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles induced formation of hydroxyapatite clusters as much as unfunctionalized TiO2. The prepared scaffolds showed properties ideal for scaffold vascularization, cell attachment, growth and proliferation.

Keywords: biodegradation, Bone Tissue Engineering, Mineralization, PLA scaffolds

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5 Improved Mechanical Properties and Osteogenesis in Electrospun Poly L-Lactic Ultrafine Nanofiber Scaffolds Incorporated with Graphene Oxide

Authors: Qian Wang, Jianxin He, Weili Shao


Recently, the applications of graphene oxide in fabricating scaffolds for bone tissue engineering have been received extensive concern. In this work, poly l-lactic/graphene oxide composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology structure, porosity and mechanical properties of the composite nanofibers were characterized using different techniques. And mouse mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the composite nanofiber scaffolds to assess their suitability for bone tissue engineering. The results indicated that the composite nanofiber scaffolds had finer fiber diameter and higher porosity as compared with pure poly l-lactic nanofibers. Furthermore, incorporation of graphene oxide into the poly l-lactic nanofibers increased protein adsorptivity, boosted the Young’s modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4.2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenesis in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: Bone Tissue Engineering, Graphene Oxide, osteogenesis, poly l-lactic

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4 Collagen/Hydroxyapatite Compositions Doped with Transitional Metals for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: D. Ficai, A. Ficai, D. Gudovan, I. A. Gudovan, I. Ardelean, R. Trusca, E. Andronescu, V. Mitran, A. Cimpean


In the last years, scientists struggled hardly to mimic bone structures to develop implants and biostructures which present higher biocompatibility and reduced rejection rate. One way to obtain this goal is to use similar materials as that of bone, namely collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials. However, it is very important to tailor both compositions but also the microstructure of the bone that would ensure both the optimal osteointegartion and the mechanical properties required by the application. In this study, new collagen/hydroxyapatites composite materials doped with Cu, Li, Mn, Zn were successfully prepared. The synthesis method is described below: weight the Ca(OH)₂ mass, i.e., 7,3067g, and ZnCl₂ (0.134g), CuSO₄ (0.159g), LiCO₃ (0.133g), MnCl₂.4H₂O (0.1971g), and suspend in 100ml distilled water under magnetic stirring. The solution thus obtained is added a solution of NaH₂PO₄*H2O (8.247g dissolved in 50ml distilled water) under slow dropping of 1 ml/min followed by adjusting the pH to 9.5 with HCl and finally filter and wash until neutral pH. The as-obtained slurry was dried in the oven at 80°C and then calcined at 600°C in order to ensure a proper purification of the final product of organic phases, also inducing a proper sterilization of the mixture before insertion into the collagen matrix. The collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials are tailored from morphological point of view to optimize their biocompatibility and bio-integration against mechanical properties whereas the addition of the dopants is aimed to improve the biological activity of the samples. The addition of transitional metals can improve the biocompatibility and especially the osteoblasts adhesion (Mn²⁺) or to induce slightly better osteoblast differentiation of the osteoblast, Zn²⁺ being a cofactor for many enzymes including those responsible for cell differentiation. If the amount is too high, the final material can become toxic and lose all of its biocompatibility. In order to achieve a good biocompatibility and not reach the cytotoxic effect, the amount of transitional metals added has to be maintained at low levels (0.5% molar). The amount of transitional metals entering into the elemental cell of HA will be verified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometric system. This highly sensitive technique is necessary, because, at such low levels of transitional metals, the difference between biocompatible and cytotoxic is a very thin line, thus requiring proper and thorough investigation using a precise technique. In order to determine the structure and morphology of the obtained composite materials, IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) were used. Acknowledgment: The present work was possible due to the EU-funding grant POSCCE-A2O2.2.1-2013-1, Project No. 638/12.03.2014, code SMIS-CSNR 48652. The financial contribution received from the national project “Biomimetic porous structures obtained by 3D printing developed for bone tissue engineering (BIOGRAFTPRINT), No. 127PED/2017 is also highly acknowledged.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Bone Tissue Engineering, hydroxyapatite, collagen

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3 A Review on Bone Grafting, Artificial Bone Substitutes and Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Kasun Gayashan Samarawickrama


Bone diseases, defects, and fractions are commonly seen in modern life. Since bone is regenerating dynamic living tissue, it will undergo healing process naturally, it cannot recover from major bone injuries, diseases and defects. In order to overcome them, bone grafting technique was introduced. Gold standard was the best method for bone grafting for the past decades. Due to limitations of gold standard, alternative methods have been implemented. Apart from them artificial bone substitutes and bone tissue engineering have become the emerging methods with technology for bone grafting. Many bone diseases and defects will be healed permanently with these promising techniques in future.

Keywords: Bone Tissue Engineering, Bone Grafting, gold standard, bone substitutes

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2 Design of Nanoreinforced Polyacrylamide-Based Hybrid Hydrogels for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Anuj KUMAR, Kummara M. Rao, Sung S. Han


Bone tissue engineering has emerged as a potentially alternative method for localized bone defects or diseases, congenital deformation, and surgical reconstruction. The designing and the fabrication of the ideal scaffold is a great challenge, in restoring of the damaged bone tissues via cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation under three-dimensional (3D) biological micro-/nano-environment. In this case, hydrogel system composed of high hydrophilic 3D polymeric-network that is able to mimic some of the functional physical and chemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and possibly may provide a suitable 3D micro-/nano-environment (i.e., resemblance of native bone tissues). Thus, this proposed hydrogel system is highly permeable and facilitates the transport of the nutrients and metabolites. However, the use of hydrogels in bone tissue engineering is limited because of their low mechanical properties (toughness and stiffness) that continue to posing challenges in designing and fabrication of tough and stiff hydrogels along with improved bioactive properties. For this purpose, in our lab, polyacrylamide-based hybrid hydrogels were synthesized by involving sodium alginate, cellulose nanocrystals and silica-based glass using one-step free-radical polymerization. The results showed good in vitro apatite-forming ability (biomineralization) and improved mechanical properties (under compression in the form of strength and stiffness in both wet and dry conditions), and in vitro osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1 cells) cytocompatibility. For in vitro cytocompatibility assessment, both qualitative (attachment and spreading of cells using FESEM) and quantitative (cell viability and proliferation using MTT assay) analyses were performed. The obtained hybrid hydrogels may potentially be used in bone tissue engineering applications after establishment of in vivo characterization.

Keywords: Hydrogels, Bone Tissue Engineering, polyacrylamide, sodium alginate, cellulose nanocrystals

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1 Analysis of Patent Protection of Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffold Technology

Authors: Na Li, Yuhong Niu, Yunwei Zhang


Bone tissue engineering scaffold was regarded as an important clinical technology of curing bony defect. The patent protection of bone tissue engineering scaffold had been paid more attention and strengthened all over the world. This study analyzed the future development trends of international technologies in the field of bone tissue engineering scaffold and its patent protection. This study used the methods of data classification and classification indexing to analyze 2718 patents retrieved in the patent database. Results showed that the patents coming from United States had a competitive advantage over other countiries in the field of bone tissue engineering scaffold. The number of patent applications by a single company in U.S. was a quarter of that of the world. However, the capability of R&D in China was obviously weaker than global level, patents mainly coming from universities and scientific research institutions. Moreover, it would be predicted that synthetic organic materials as new materials would be gradually replaced by composite materials. The patent technology protections of composite materials would be more strengthened in the future.

Keywords: Patent analysis, Bone Tissue Engineering, patent protection, Scaffold material

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