Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Bone Related Abstracts

17 In Vivo Response of Scaffolds of Bioactive Glass-Ceramic

Authors: Ana Claudia Muniz Rennó, Karina Nogueira

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the in vivo tissue response of the introduction of the bioactive mesh (BM) scaffolds using a model of tibial bone defect implants in rats. Although a previous in vivo study demonstrated a highly positive response of particulate bioactive materials in the morphological and biomechanical properties of the bone callus, the effects of material with superior bioactivity, present in form of meshes have not been studied yet. Eighty male Wistar rats with 3 mm tibial defects were used. Animals were divided into four groups: intact group (IG) – tibia without any injury; bone defect day zero (0dD) – bone defects, sacrificed immediately after injury; bone defect control group (CG) – bone defects without any filler and bone defect filled with BM scaffold. The animals of BM and CG groups were sacrificed 15, 30 and 45 days post-injury to compare the temporal-special effects of the scaffolds on bone healing. The histological analysis revealed an organized newly formed bone at 30 and 45 days post-surgery in the BM. Also, this group presented an increased COX-2 expression on days 15 and 30 post-surgery. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that, BM presented a positive immunoexpression of RUNX-2 during all periods evaluated. The biomechanical analysis revealed that at 15 day after surgery, no significant statistically difference was observed between BM and CG and both groups had significantly higher values of maximal load compared to 0dG and significantly lower values than IG. On days 30 and 45 post-surgery, BM presented statistically lower values of maximal load compared to the CG. Nevertheless, at the same periods, BM did not show statistically significant difference compared to the IG maximal load values (p > 0, 05). Our results revealed that the implantation of the BM scaffolds was effective in stimulating newly bone formation.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Bone, Cartilage, Scaffolds

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16 Stress Study in Implants Dental

Authors: B. Serier, M. Benlebna, B. Bachir Bouiadjra, S. Khalkhal

Abstract:

This study focuses on the mechanical behavior of a dental prosthesis subjected to dynamic loads chewing. It covers a three-dimensional analysis by the finite element method, the level of distribution of equivalent stresses induced in the bone between the implants (depending on the number of implants). The studied structure, consisting of a braced, implant and mandibular bone is subjected to dynamic loading of variable amplitude in three directions corrono-apical, mesial-distal and bucco-lingual. These efforts simulate those of mastication. We show that compared to the implantation of a single implant, implantology using two implants promotes the weakening of the bones. This weakness is all the more likely that the implants are located in close proximity to one another.

Keywords: Bone, Distribution, Dynamic, Interaction, stress, prosthesis, Dental Implant, stress levels, effort

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15 Polymeric Microspheres for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Yamina Boukari, Nashiru Billa, Andrew Morris, Stephen Doughty, Kevin Shakesheff

Abstract:

Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) is a synthetic polymer that can be used in bone tissue engineering with the aim of creating a scaffold in order to support the growth of cells. The formation of microspheres from this polymer is an attractive strategy that would allow for the development of an injectable system, hence avoiding invasive surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to develop a microsphere delivery system for use as an injectable scaffold in bone tissue engineering and evaluate various formulation parameters on its properties. Porous and lysozyme-containing PLGA microspheres were prepared using the double emulsion solvent evaporation method from various molecular weights (MW). Scaffolds were formed by sintering to contain 1 -3mg of lysozyme per gram of scaffold. The mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds were assessed along with the release of lysozyme, which was used as a model protein. The MW of PLGA was found to have an influence on microsphere size during fabrication, with increased MW leading to an increased microsphere diameter. An inversely proportional relationship was displayed between PLGA MW and mechanical strength of formed scaffolds across loadings for low, intermediate and high MW respectively. Lysozyme release from both microspheres and formed scaffolds showed an initial burst release phase, with both microspheres and scaffolds fabricated using high MW PLGA showing the lowest protein release. Following the initial burst phase, the profiles for each MW followed a similar slow release over 30 days. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that lysozyme can be successfully incorporated into porous PLGA scaffolds and released over 30 days in vitro, and that varying the MW of the PLGA can be used as a method of altering the physical properties of the resulting scaffolds.

Keywords: Bone, Tissue Engineering, Microspheres, PLGA

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14 To What Extent Does Physical Activity and Standard of Competition Affect Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) Measurements of Bone in Accordance with Muscular Strength and Anthropometrics in British Young Males?

Authors: Joseph Shanks, Matthew Taylor, Foong Kiew Ooi, Chee Keong Chen

Abstract:

Introduction: Evidences of relationship between bone, muscle and standard of competition among young British population is limited in literature. The current literature recognises the independent and synergistic effects of fat free and fat mass as the stimulus for osteogenesis. This study assessed the extent to which physical activity (PA) and standard of competition (CS) influences quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone on a cross-sectional basis accounting for muscular strength and anthropometrics in British young males. Methods: Pre-screening grouped 66 males aged 18-25 years into controls (n=33) and district level athletes (DLAs) (n=33) as well as low (n=21), moderate (n=23) and high (n=22) physical activity categories (PACs). All participants underwent QUS measurements of bone (4 sites, i.e. dominant distal radius (DR), dominant mid-shaft tibia (DT), non-dominant distal radius (NR) and non-dominant mid-shaft tibia (NT)), isokinetic strength tests (dominant and non-dominant knee flexion and extension) and anthropometric measurements. Results: There were no significant differences between any of the groups with respect to QUS measurements of bone at all sites with regards to PACs or CS. Significant higher isokinetic strength values were observed in DLAs than controls (p < 0.05), and higher than low PACs (p < 0.05) at 60o.s-1 of concentric and eccentric measurements. No differences in subcutaneous fat thickness were found between all the groups (CS or PACs). Percentages of body fat were significantly higher (p < .05) in low than high PACs and CS groups. There were significant positive relationships between non dominant radial speed of sound and fat free mass at both DR (r=0.383, p=0.001) and NR (r=0.319, p=0.009) sites in all participants. Conclusion: The present study findings indicated that muscular strength and body fat are closely related to physical activity level and standard of competition. However, bone health status reflected by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone is not related to physical activity level and standard of competition in British young males.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Bone, Muscular Strength, standard of competition

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13 Piled Critical Size Bone-Biomimetic and Biominerizable Nanocomposites: Formation of Bioreactor-Induced Stem Cell Gradients under Perfusion and Compression

Authors: W. Baumgartner, M. Welti, N. Hild, S. C. Hess, W. J. Stark, G. Meier Bürgisser, P. Giovanoli, J. Buschmann

Abstract:

Perfusion bioreactors are used to solve problems in tissue engineering in terms of sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply. Such problems especially occur in critical size grafts because vascularization is often too slow after implantation ending up in necrotic cores. Biominerizable and biocompatible nanocomposite materials are attractive and suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering because they offer mineral components in organic carriers – mimicking natural bone tissue. In addition, human adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) can potentially be used to increase bone healing as they are capable of differentiating towards osteoblasts or endothelial cells among others. In the present study, electrospun nanocomposite disks of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (PLGA/a-CaP) were seeded with human ASCs and eight disks were stacked in a bioreactor running with normal culture medium (no differentiation supplements). Under continuous perfusion and uniaxial cyclic compression, load-displacement curves as a function of time were assessed. Stiffness and energy dissipation were recorded. Moreover, stem cell densities in the layers of the piled scaffold were determined as well as their morphologies and differentiation status (endothelial cell differentiation, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis). While the stiffness of the cell free constructs increased over time caused by the transformation of the a-CaP nanoparticles into flake-like apatite, ASC-seeded constructs showed a constant stiffness. Stem cell density gradients were histologically determined with a linear increase in the flow direction from the bottom to the top of the 3.5 mm high pile (r2 > 0.95). Cell morphology was influenced by the flow rate, with stem cells getting more roundish at higher flow rates. Less than 1 % osteogenesis was found upon osteopontin immunostaining at the end of the experiment (9 days), while no endothelial cell differentiation and no chondrogenesis was triggered under these conditions. All ASCs had mainly remained in their original pluripotent status within this time frame. In summary, we have fabricated a critical size bone graft based on a biominerizable bone-biomimetic nanocomposite with preserved stiffness when seeded with human ASCs. The special feature of this bone graft was that ASC densities inside the piled construct varied with a linear gradient, which is a good starting point for tissue engineering interfaces such as bone-cartilage where the bone tissue is cell rich while the cartilage exhibits low cell densities. As such, this tissue-engineered graft may act as a bone-cartilage interface after the corresponding differentiation of the ASCs.

Keywords: bioreactor, Bone, Cartilage, nanocomposite, stem cell gradient

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12 Fluoride-Induced Stress and Its Association with Bone Developmental Pathway in Osteosarcoma Cells

Authors: Deepa Gandhi, Pravin K. Naoghare, Amit Bafana, Krishnamurthi Kannan, Saravanadevi Sivanesana

Abstract:

Oxidative stress is known to depreciate normal functioning of osteoblast cells. Present study reports oxidative/inflammatory signatures in fluoride exposed human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and its possible association with the genes involved in bone developmental pathway. Microarray analysis was performed to understand the possible molecular mechanisms of stress-mediated bone lose in HOS cells. Cells were chronically exposed with sub-lethal concentration of fluoride. Global gene expression is profiling revealed 34 up regulated and 2598 down-regulated genes, which were associated with several biological processes including bone development, osteoblast differentiation, stress response, inflammatory response, apoptosis, regulation of cell proliferation. Microarray data were further validated through qRT-PCR and western blot analyses using key representative genes. Based on these findings, it can be proposed that chronic exposure of fluoride may impair bone development via oxidative and inflammatory stress. The present finding also provides important biological clues, which will be helpful for the development of therapeutic targets against diseases related bone.

Keywords: Bone, stress, Microarray, HOS cells

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11 Juvenile Paget’s Disease(JPD) of Bone

Authors: Aftab Ahmed, Ghulam Mehboob

Abstract:

The object of presentation is to highlight the importance of condition which is a very rare genetic disorder although Paget’s disease is common but its juvenile type is very rare and a late presentation due to very slow onset and lack of earlier standard management. We present a case of 25 years old male with a chronic history of bone pain and a slow onset of mild swelling, later on diagnosed as juvenile Paget disease of bone. Rarity of this condition with inaccessibility for standard health treatment can lead to a significant delay in presentation and its management. There have been 50 reported cases worldwide according to Genetic Home Reference. There is increased osteoclastic activity along with osteoblastic activity related to gene alteration and osteoprotegrin deficiency. Morbidity of disease is very significant which lead children to become immobilize.

Keywords: Bone, juvenile, Paget’s disease, Northern Area of Pakistan

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10 Hydroxyapatite from Biowaste for the Reinforcement of Polymer

Authors: M. D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Binti Ghazali, Nitthiyah Jeyaratnam

Abstract:

Regeneration of bone due to the many health challenges arising from traumatic effects of bone loss, bone tumours and other bone infections is fast becoming indispensable. Over the period of time, some approaches have been undertaken to mitigate this challenge. This includes but not limited to xenografts, allografts, autografts as well as artificial substitutions like bioceramics, synthetic cements and metals. However, most of these techniques often come along with peculiar limitation and problems such as morbidity, availability, disease transmission, collateral site damage or absolute rejection by the body as the case may be. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is very compatible and suitable for this application. However, most of the common methods for HA synthesis are expensive and environmentally unfriendly. Extraction of HA from bio-wastes have been perceived not only to be cost effective, but also environment-friendly. In this research, HA was produced from bio-waste: namely bovine bones through a combination of hydrothermal chemical processes and ordinary calcination techniques. Structure and property of the HA was carried out through different characterization techniques (such as TGA, FTIR, DSC, XRD and BET). The synthesized HA was found to possess similar properties to stoichiometric HA with highly desirable thermal, degradation, structural and porous properties. This material is unique for its potential minimal cost, environmental friendliness and property controllability. It is also perceived to be suitable for tissue and bone engineering applications.

Keywords: Bone, Biomaterial, hydroxyapatite, biopolymer

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9 Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite from Biowaste for Potential Medical Application

Authors: M. D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Ghazali, Nitthiyah Jeyaratnam

Abstract:

Over the period of time, several approaches have been undertaken to mitigate the challenges associated with bone regeneration. This includes but not limited to xenografts, allografts, autografts as well as artificial substitutions like bioceramics, synthetic cements and metals. The former three techniques often come along with peculiar limitation and problems such as morbidity, availability, disease transmission, collateral site damage or absolute rejection by the body as the case may be. Synthetic routes remain the only feasible alternative option for treatment of bone defects. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is very compatible and suitable for this application. However, most of the common methods for HA synthesis are either expensive, complicated or environmentally unfriendly. Interestingly, extraction of HA from bio-wastes have been perceived not only to be cost effective, but also environment friendly. In this research, HA was synthesized from bio-waste: namely bovine bones through three different methods which are hydrothermal chemical processes, ultrasound assisted synthesis and ordinary calcination techniques. Structure and property analysis of the HA was carried out through different characterization techniques such as TGA, FTIR, and XRD. All the methods applied were able to produce HA with similar compositional properties to biomaterials found in human calcified tissues. Calcination process was however observed to be more efficient as it eliminated all the organic components from the produced HA. The HA synthesized is unique for its minimal cost and environmental friendliness. It is also perceived to be suitable for tissue and bone engineering applications.

Keywords: Bone, hydroxyapatite, calcination, biowaste

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8 Growth and Bone Health in Children following Liver Transplantation

Authors: Faris Alkhalil, Rana Bitar, Amer Azaz, Hisham Natour, Noora Almeraikhi, Mohamad Miqdady

Abstract:

Background: Children with liver transplantation are achieving very good survival and so there is now a need to concentrate on achieving good health in these patients and preventing disease. Immunosuppressive medications have side effects that need to be monitored and if possible avoided. Glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors are detrimental to bone and mineral homeostasis in addition steroids can also affect linear growth. Steroid sparing regimes in renal transplant children has shown to improve children’s height. Aim: We aim to review the growth and bone health of children post liver transplant by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan and assessing if there is a clear link between poor growth and impaired bone health and use of long term steroids. Subjects and Methods: This is a single centre retrospective Cohort study, we reviewed the medical notes of children (0-16 years) who underwent a liver transplantation between November 2000 to November 2016 and currently being followed at our centre. Results: 39 patients were identified (25 males and 14 females), the median transplant age was 2 years (range 9 months - 16 years), and the median follow up was 6 years. Four patients received a combined transplant, 2 kidney and liver transplant and 2 received a liver and small bowel transplant. The indications for transplant included, Biliary Atresia (31%), Acute Liver failure (18%), Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (15%), transplantable metabolic disease (10%), TPN related liver disease (8%), Primary Hyperoxaluria (5%), Hepatocellular carcinoma (3%) and other causes (10%). 36 patients (95%) were on a calcineurin inhibitor (34 patients were on Tacrolimus and 2 on Cyclosporin). The other three patients were on Sirolimus. Low dose long-term steroids was used in 21% of the patients. A considerable proportion of the patients had poor growth. 15% were below the 3rd centile for weight for age and 21% were below the 3rd centile for height for age. Most of our patients with poor growth were not on long term steroids. 49% of patients had a DEXA scan post transplantation. 21% of these children had low bone mineral density, one patient had met osteoporosis criteria with a vertebral fracture. Most of our patients with impaired bone health were not on long term steroids. 20% of the patients who did not undergo a DEXA scan developed long bone fractures and 50% of them were on long term steroid use which may suggest impaired bone health in these patients. Summary and Conclusion: The incidence of impaired bone health, although studied in limited number of patients; was high. Early recognition and treatment should be instituted to avoid fractures and improve bone health. Many of the patients were below the 3rd centile for weight and height however there was no clear relationship between steroid use and impaired bone health, reduced weight and reduced linear height.

Keywords: Bone, Pediatric, Growth, Transplantation, Liver

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7 Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Limb Lengths in Neonatal Rats Exposed to Maternal Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Elif Erdem, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan, Ramazan F. Akkoc, D. Özlem Dabak

Abstract:

Maternal tobacco smoke exposure is known to cause growth retardation in the neonatal skeletal system. Alpha lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant found in some foods, limits the activities of osteoclasts and supports the osteoblast's bone formation mechanism. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tobacco smoke group, 3) tobacco smoke + ALA group, and 4) ALA group. Rats in the group 2 (tobacco smoke), group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA). Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group 4. On day 21 postpartum, the height and tail lengths of the pups in all groups were measured, and the length of the extremity long bones was measured after decapitation. All morphometric measurements performed in group 2 (tobacco smoke) showed a significant decrease compared to group 1 (control), while all measurements in group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) showed a significant increase compared to group 2 (tobacco smoke). It has been shown that ALA has a protective effect against the regression of height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke.

Keywords: Bone, rat, morphometry, tobacco smoke, alpha lipoic acid

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6 Viscoelastic Behavior of Human Bone Tissue under Nanoindentation Tests

Authors: Konstanty Skalski, Anna Makuch, Grzegorz Kokot, Jakub Banczorowski

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Cancellous bone is a porous composite of a hierarchical structure and anisotropic properties. The biological tissue is considered to be a viscoelastic material, but many studies based on a nanoindentation method have focused on their elasticity and microhardness. However, the response of many organic materials depends not only on the load magnitude, but also on its duration and time course. Depth Sensing Indentation (DSI) technique has been used for examination of creep in polymers, metals and composites. In the indentation tests on biological samples, the mechanical properties are most frequently determined for animal tissues (of an ox, a monkey, a pig, a rat, a mouse, a bovine). However, there are rare reports of studies of the bone viscoelastic properties on microstructural level. Various rheological models were used to describe the viscoelastic behaviours of bone, identified in the indentation process (e. g Burgers model, linear model, two-dashpot Kelvin model, Maxwell-Voigt model). The goal of the study was to determine the influence of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone in indentation tests. The aim of this research was also the assessment of the material properties of bone structures, having in mind the energy aspects of the curve (penetrator loading-depth) obtained in the loading/unloading cycle. There was considered how the different holding times affected the results within trabecular bone.As a result, indentation creep (CIT), hardness (HM, HIT, HV) and elasticity are obtained. Human trabecular bone samples (n=21; mean age 63±15yrs) from the femoral heads replaced during hip alloplasty were removed and drained from alcohol of 1h before the experiment. The indentation process was conducted using CSM Microhardness Tester equipped with Vickers indenter. Each sample was indented 35 times (7 times for 5 different hold times: t1=0.1s, t2=1s, t3=10s, t4=100s and t5=1000s). The indenter was advanced at a rate of 10mN/s to 500mN. There was used Oliver-Pharr method in calculation process. The increase of hold time is associated with the decrease of hardness parameters (HIT(t1)=418±34 MPa, HIT(t2)=390±50 MPa, HIT(t3)= 313±54 MPa, HIT(t4)=305±54 MPa, HIT(t5)=276±90 MPa) and elasticity (EIT(t1)=7.7±1.2 GPa, EIT(t2)=8.0±1.5 GPa, EIT(t3)=7.0±0.9 GPa, EIT(t4)=7.2±0.9 GPa, EIT(t5)=6.2±1.8 GPa) as well as with the increase of the elastic (Welastic(t1)=4.11∙10-7±4.2∙10-8Nm, Welastic(t2)= 4.12∙10-7±6.4∙10-8 Nm, Welastic(t3)=4.71∙10-7±6.0∙10-9 Nm, Welastic(t4)= 4.33∙10-7±5.5∙10-9Nm, Welastic(t5)=5.11∙10-7±7.4∙10-8Nm) and inelastic (Winelastic(t1)=1.05∙10-6±1.2∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t2) =1.07∙10-6±7.6∙10-8 Nm, Winelastic(t3)=1.26∙10-6±1.9∙10-7Nm, Winelastic(t4)=1.56∙10-6± 1.9∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t5)=1.67∙10-6±2.6∙10-7)) reaction of materials. The indentation creep increased logarithmically (R2=0.901) with increasing hold time: CIT(t1) = 0.08±0.01%, CIT(t2) = 0.7±0.1%, CIT(t3) = 3.7±0.3%, CIT(t4) = 12.2±1.5%, CIT(t5) = 13.5±3.8%. The pronounced impact of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone was observed in experimental studies. While the description elastic-inelastic, and thus the Oliver-Pharr method for data analysis, may apply in few limited cases, most biological tissues do not exhibit elastic-inelastic indentation responses. Viscoelastic properties of tissues may play a significant role in remodelling. The aspect is still under an analysis and numerical simulations. Acknowledgements: The presented results are part of the research project founded by National Science Centre (NCN), Poland, no.2014/15/B/ST7/03244.

Keywords: Bone, Mechanical Properties, Creep, indentation

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5 In vitro Characterization of Mice Bone Microstructural Changes by Low-Field and High-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Authors: X. Wang, Q. Ni, J. A. Serna, D. Holland

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to develop Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques to enhance bone related research applied on normal and disuse (Biglycan knockout) mice bone in vitro by using both low-field and high-field NMR simultaneously. It is known that the total amplitude of T₂ relaxation envelopes, measured by the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill NMR spin echo train (CPMG), is a representation of the liquid phase inside the pores. Therefore, the NMR CPMG magnetization amplitude can be transferred to the volume of water after calibration with the NMR signal amplitude of the known volume of the selected water. In this study, the distribution of mobile water, porosity that can be determined by using low-field (20 MHz) CPMG relaxation technique, and the pore size distributions can be determined by a computational inversion relaxation method. It is also known that the total proton intensity of magnetization from the NMR free induction decay (FID) signal is due to the water present inside the pores (mobile water), the water that has undergone hydration with the bone (bound water), and the protons in the collagen and mineral matter (solid-like protons). Therefore, the components of total mobile and bound water within bone that can be determined by low-field NMR free induction decay technique. Furthermore, the bound water in solid phase (mineral and organic constituents), especially, the dominated component of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca₁₀(OH)₂(PO₄)₆) can be determined by using high-field (400 MHz) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. With MAS technique reducing NMR spectral linewidth inhomogeneous broadening and susceptibility broadening of liquid-solid mix, in particular, we can conduct further research into the ¹H and ³¹P elements and environments of bone materials to identify the locations of bound water such as OH- group within minerals and bone architecture. We hypothesize that with low-field and high-field magic angle spinning NMR can provide a more complete interpretation of water distribution, particularly, in bound water, and these data are important to access bone quality and predict the mechanical behavior of bone.

Keywords: Bone, NMR, mice bone, water in bone

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4 Biodegradable and Bioactive Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. M. Malagon Escandon, J. A. Arenas Alatorre, C. P. Chaires Rosas, N. A. Vazquez Torres, B. Hernandez Tellez, G. Pinon Zarate, M. Herrera Enriquez, A. E. Castell Rodriguez

Abstract:

The current approach to the treatment of bone defects involves the use of scaffolds that provide a biological and mechanically stable niche to favor tissue repair. Despite the significant progress in the field of bone tissue engineering, several main problems associated are attributed to giving a low biodegradation degree, does not promote osseointegration and regeneration, if the bone is not healing as well as expected or fails to heal, will not be given a proper ossification or new bone formation. The actual approaches of bone tissue regeneration are directed to the use of decellularized native extracellular matrices, which are able of retain their own architecture, mechanic properties, biodegradability and promote new bone formation because they are capable of conserving proteins and other factors that are founded in physiological concentrations. Therefore, we propose an extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds derived from bovine cancellous bone, which is processed by decellularization, demineralization, and hydrolysis of the collagen protein, these protocols have been successfully carried out in other organs and tissues; the effectiveness of its biosafety has also been previously evaluated in vivo and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. In the specific case of bone, a more complex treatment is needed in comparison with other organs and tissues because is necessary demineralization and collagen denaturalization. The present work was made in order to obtain a temporal scaffold that succeed in degradation in an inversely proportional way to the synthesis of extracellular matrix and the maturation of the bone by the cells of the host.

Keywords: Bone, Stem Cells, Tissue Engineering, Bioactive, biodegradable, extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds

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3 Evaluation of Bone and Body Mineral Profile in Association with Protein Content, Fat, Fat-Free, Skeletal Muscle Tissues According to Obesity Classification among Adult Men

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

Abstract:

Obesity is associated with increased fat mass as well as fat percentage. Minerals are the elements, which are of vital importance. In this study, the relationships between body as well as bone mineral profile and the percentage as well as mass values of fat, fat-free portion, protein, skeletal muscle were evaluated in adult men with normal body mass index (N-BMI), and those classified according to different stages of obesity. A total of 103 adult men classified into five groups participated in this study. Ages were within 19-79 years range. Groups were N-BMI (Group 1), overweight (OW) (Group 2), first level of obesity (FLO) (Group 3), second level of obesity (SLO) (Group 4) and third level of obesity (TLO) (Group 5). Anthropometric measurements were performed. BMI values were calculated. Obesity degree, total body fat mass, fat percentage, basal metabolic rate (BMR), visceral adiposity, body mineral mass, body mineral percentage, bone mineral mass, bone mineral percentage, fat-free mass, fat-free percentage, protein mass, protein percentage, skeletal muscle mass and skeletal muscle percentage were determined by TANITA body composition monitor using bioelectrical impedance analysis technology. Statistical package (SPSS) for Windows Version 16.0 was used for statistical evaluations. The values below 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. All the groups were matched based upon age (p > 0.05). BMI values were calculated as 22.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2, 27.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2, 32.0 ± 1.2 kg/m2, 37.2 ± 1.8 kg/m2, and 47.1 ± 6.1 kg/m2 for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Visceral adiposity and BMR values were also within an increasing trend. Percentage values of mineral, protein, fat-free portion and skeletal muscle masses were decreasing going from normal to TLO. Upon evaluation of the percentages of protein, fat-free portion and skeletal muscle, statistically significant differences were noted between NW and OW as well as OW and FLO (p < 0.05). However, such differences were not observed for body and bone mineral percentages. Correlation existed between visceral adiposity and BMI was stronger than that detected between visceral adiposity and obesity degree. Correlation between visceral adiposity and BMR was significant at the 0.05 level. Visceral adiposity was not correlated with body mineral mass but correlated with bone mineral mass whereas significant negative correlations were observed with percentages of these parameters (p < 0.001). BMR was not correlated with body mineral percentage whereas a negative correlation was found between BMR and bone mineral percentage (p < 0.01). It is interesting to note that mineral percentages of both body as well as bone are highly affected by the visceral adiposity. Bone mineral percentage was also associated with BMR. From these findings, it is plausible to state that minerals are highly associated with the critical stages of obesity as prominent parameters.

Keywords: Minerals, Obesity, Bone, men

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2 Experimental Research on the Elastic Modulus of Bones at the Lamellar Level under Fatigue Loading

Authors: Xianjia Meng, Chuanyong Qu

Abstract:

Compact bone produces fatigue damage under the inevitable physiological load. The accumulation of fatigue damage can change the bone’s micro-structure at different scales and cause the catastrophic failure eventually. However, most tests were limited to the macroscopic modulus of bone and there is a need to assess the microscopic modulus during fatigue progress. In this paper, nano-identation was used to investigate the bone specimen subjected to four point bending. The microscopic modulus of the same area were measured at different degrees of damage including fracture. So microscopic damage can be divided into three stages: first, the modulus decreased rapidly and then They fell slowly, before fracture the decline became fast again. After fracture, the average modulus decreased by 20%. The results of inner and outer planes explained the influence of compressive and tensile loads on modulus. Both the compressive and tensile moduli decreased with the accumulation of damage. They reached the minimum at ending and increased after fracture. The modulus evolution under different strains were revealed by the side. They all fell slowly and then fast with the accumulation of damage. The fractured results indicated that the elastic modulus decreased obviously at the high strain while decreased less at the low strain. During the fatigue progress, there was a significant difference in modulus at low degree of damage. However, the dispersed modulus tended to be similar at high degree of damage, but they became different again after the failure.

Keywords: Bone, fracture, Fatigue Damage, microscopic modulus, nano-identation

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1 Micro-CT Imaging Of Hard Tissues

Authors: Amir Davood Elmi

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From the earliest light microscope to the most innovative X-ray imaging techniques, all of them have refined and improved our knowledge about the organization and composition of living tissues. The old techniques are time consuming and ultimately destructive to the tissues under the examination. In recent few decades, thanks to the boost of technology, non-destructive visualization techniques, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), and optical projection tomography (OPT), have come to the forefront. Among these techniques, CT is excellent for mineralized tissues such as bone or dentine. In addition, CT it is faster than other aforementioned techniques and the sample remains intact. In this article, applications, advantages, and limitations of micro-CT is discussed, in addition to some information about micro-CT of soft tissue.

Keywords: Bone, Rapid prototyping, attenuation coefficient, micro-CT, hard tissue

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