Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

bond strength Related Abstracts

13 A Fundamental Study on the Anchor Performance of Non-Surface Treated Multi CFRP Tendons

Authors: Woo-tai Jung, Jong-sup Park, Jae-yoon Kang, Moon-seoung Keum


CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) is mainly used as reinforcing material for degraded structures owing to its advantages including its non-corrodibility, high strength, and lightweight properties. Recently, dedicated studies focused not only on its simple bonding but also on its tensioning. The tension necessary for prestressing requires the anchoring of multi-CFRP tendons with high capacity and the surface treatment of the CFRP tendons may also constitute an important issue according to the type of anchor. The wedge type, swage type or bonded type anchor can be used to anchor the CFRP tendon. The bonded type anchor presents the disadvantage to lengthen the length of the anchor due to the low bond strength of the CFRP tendon without surface treatment. This study intends to overcome this drawback through the application of a method enlarging the bond area at the end of the CFRP tendon. This method enlarges the bond area by splitting the end of the CFRP tendon along its length and can be applied when CFRP is produced by pultrusion. The application of this method shows that the mono-CFRP tendon and 3-multi CFRP tendon secured the anchor performance corresponding to the tensile performance of the CFRP tendon and that the 7-multi tendon secured anchor performance corresponding to 90% of the tensile strength due to the occurrence of buckling in the steel tube anchorage.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), tendon, anchor, tensile property, bond strength

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12 Bond Strength between Concrete and AR-Glass Roving with Variables of Development Length

Authors: Sun-Kyu Park, Sungnam Hong, Jinwoong Choi, Jongho Park, Taekyun Kim


Recently, the climate change is the one of the main problems. This abnormal phenomenon is consisted of the scorching heat, heavy rain and snowfall, and cold wave that will be enlarged abnormal climate change repeatedly. Accordingly, the width of temperature change is increased more and more by abnormal climate, and it is the main factor of cracking in the reinforced concrete. The crack of the reinforced concrete will affect corrosion of steel re-bar which can decrease durability of the structure easily. Hence, the elimination of the durability weakening factor (steel re-bar) is needed. Textile which weaves the carbon, AR-glass and aramid fiber has been studied actively for exchanging the steel re-bar in the Europe for about 15 years because of its good durability. To apply textile as the concrete reinforcement, the bond strength between concrete and textile will be investigated closely. Therefore, in this paper, pull-out test was performed with change of development length of textile. Significant load and stress was increasing at D80. But, bond stress decreased by increasing development length.

Keywords: Climate Change, Textile, bond strength, pull-out test, substitution of reinforcement material

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11 Effect of Impact Load on the Bond between Steel and CFRP Laminate

Authors: Riadh Al-Mahaidi, Alaa Al-Mosawe


Carbon fiber reinforced polymers have been wildly used to strengthen steel structural elements. Those structural elements are normally subjected to static, dynamic, fatigue loadings during their life time. CFRP laminate is one of the common methods to strengthen these structures under the subjected loads. A number of researches have been focused on the bond characteristics of CFRP sheets to steel members under static, dynamic and fatigue loadings. There is a lack in understanding the behavior of the CFRP laminates under impact loading. This paper is showing the effect of high load rate on this bond. CFRP laminate CFK 150/2000 was used to strengthen steel joint by using Araldite 420 epoxy. The results showed that applying high load rate has a significant effect on the bond strength while a little influence on the effective bond length.

Keywords: bond strength, adhesively bonded joints, CFRP laminate, impact tensile loading

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10 An Experimental Investigation of Bond Properties of Reinforcements Embedded in Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Jee-Sang Kim, Jong Ho Park


Geopolymer concretes are a new class of construction materials that have emerged as an alternative to Ordinary Portland cement concrete. Considerable researches have been carried out on material development of geopolymer concrete, however, a few studies have been reported on the structural use of them. This paper presents the bond behaviors of reinforcement embedded in fly ash based geopolymer concrete. The development lengths of reinforcement for various compressive strengths of concrete, 20, 30 and 40 MPa, and reinforcement diameters, 10, 16, and 25 mm are investigated. Total 27 specimens were manufactured and pull-out test according to EN 10080 was applied to measure bond strength and slips between concrete and reinforcements. The average bond strengths decreased from 23.06MPa to 17.26 MPa, as the diameters of reinforcements increased from 10mm to 25mm. The compressive strength levels of geopolymer concrete showed no significant influence on bond strengths in this study. Also, the bond-slip relations between geopolymer concrete and reinforcement are derived using non-linear regression analysis for various experimental conditions.

Keywords: Geopolymer Concrete, bond strength, pull-out test, bond-slip relation

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9 Push-Out Bond Strength of Two Root-End Filling Materials in Root-End Cavities Prepared by Er,Cr: YSGG Laser or Ultrasonic Technique

Authors: Ammar Neshati, Noushin Shokouhinejad, Hasan Razmi, Reza Fekrazad, Saeed Asgary, Hadi Assadian, Sanam Kheirieh


This study compared the push-out bond strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and a new endodontic cement (NEC) as root-end filling materials in root-end cavities prepared by ultrasonic technique (US) or Er,Cr:YSGG laser (L). Eighty single-rooted extracted human teeth were endodontically treated, apicectomised and randomly divided into four following groups (n = 20): US/MTA, US/NEC, L/MTA and L/NEC. In US/MTA and US/NEC groups, rooted cavities were prepared with ultrasonic retrotip and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. In L/MTA and L/NEC groups, root-end cavities were prepared using Er, Cr:YSGG laser and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. Each root was cut apically to create a 2 mm-thick root slice for measurement of bond strength using a universal testing machine. Then, all slices were examined to determine the mode of bond failure. Data were analysed using two-way ANOVA. Root-end filling materials showed significantly higher bond strength in root-end cavities prepared using the ultrasonic technique (US/MTA and US/NEC) (P < 0.001). The bond strengths of MTA and NEC did not differ significantly. The failure modes were mainly adhesive for MTA, but cohesive for NEC. In conclusion, bond strengths of MTA and NEC to root-end cavities were comparable and higher in ultrasonically prepared cavities.

Keywords: bond strength, Cr:YSGG laser, MTA, NEC, root-end cavity

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8 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti


This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: Concrete, Behaviour, Geo-polymer, bond strength

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7 Numerical Simulation of the Bond Behavior Between Concrete and Steel Reinforcing Bars in Specialty Concrete

Authors: Camille A. Issa, Omar Masri


In the study, the commercial finite element software Abaqus was used to develop a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model capable of simulating the pull-out test of reinforcing bars from underwater concrete. The results of thirty-two pull-out tests that have different parameters were implemented in the software to study the effect of the concrete cover, the bar size, the use of stirrups, and the compressive strength of concrete. The interaction properties used in the model provided accurate results in comparison with the experimental bond-slip results, thus the model has successfully simulated the pull-out test. The results of the finite element model are used to better understand and visualize the distribution of stresses in each component of the model, and to study the effect of the various parameters used in this study including the role of the stirrups in preventing the stress from reaching to the sides of the specimens.

Keywords: Underwater Concrete, bond strength, pull-out test, ABAQUS, nonlinear finite element analysis

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6 Effect of the Concrete Cover on the Bond Strength of the FRP Wrapped and Non-Wrapped Reinforced Concrete Beam with Lap Splice under Uni-Direction Cyclic Loading

Authors: Rayed Alyousef, Tim Topper, Adil Al-Mayah


Many of the reinforced concrete structures subject to cyclic load constructed before the modern bond and fatigue design code. One of the main issue face on exists structure is the bond strength of the longitudinal steel bar and the surrounding concrete. A lap splice is a common connection method to transfer the force between the steel rebar in a reinforced concrete member. Usually, the lap splice is the weak connection on the bond strength. Fatigue flexural loading imposes severe demands on the strength and ductility of the lap splice region in reinforced concrete structures and can lead to a brittle and sudden failure of the member. This paper investigates the effect of different concrete covers on the fatigue bond strength of reinforcing concrete beams containing a lap splice under a fatigue loads. It includes tests of thirty-seven beams divided into three groups. Each group has beams with 30 mm and 50 mm clear side and bottom concrete covers. The variables that were addressed where the concrete cover, the presence or absence of CFRP or GFRP sheet wrapping, the type of loading (monotonic or fatigue) and the fatigue load ranges. The test results showed that an increase in the concrete cover led to an increase in the bond strength under both monotonic and fatigue loading for both the unwrapped and wrapped beams. Also, the FRP sheets increased both the fatigue strength and the ductility for both the 30 mm and the 50 mm concrete covers.

Keywords: Fatigue, bond strength, Lap splice, FRp wrapping

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5 Effect of Different FRP Wrapping and Thickness of Concrete Cover on Fatigue Bond Strength of Spliced Concrete Beam

Authors: Rayed Alyousef, Tim Topper, Adil Al-Mayah


This paper presents results of an ongoing research program at University of Waterloo to study the effect of external FRP sheet wrap confinement along a lap splice of reinforced concrete (RC) beams on their fatigue bond strength. Fatigue loading of RC beams containing a lap splice resulted in an increase in the number and width of cracks, an increase in deflection and a decrease of the bond strength between the steel rebar and the surrounding concrete. The phase of the research described here consists of monotonic and fatigue tests of thirty two reinforced concrete beam with dimensions 2200⨉350⨉250 mm. Each beam was reinforced with two 20M bars lap spliced in the constant moment region of the tension zone and two 10M bars in the compression zone outside the constant moment region. The test variables were the presence or absence of a FRP wrapping, the type of the FRP wrapping (GFRP or CFRP), the type of loading and the fatigue load range. The test results for monotonic loading showed that the stiffness of all beams was almost same, but that the FRP sheet wrapping increased the bond strength and the deflection at ultimate load. All beams tested under fatigue loading failed by a bond failure except one CFRP wrapped beam that failed by fatigue of the main reinforcement. The FRP sheet increased the bond strength for all specimens under fatigue loading.

Keywords: bond strength, FRP, fatigue loading, Lap splice

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4 Bond Strength of Nano Silica Concrete Subjected to Corrosive Environments

Authors: Muhammad S. El-Feky, Mohamed I. Serag, Ahmed M. Yasien, Hala Elkady


Reinforced concrete requires steel bars in order to provide the tensile strength that is needed in structural concrete. However, when steel bars corrode, a loss in bond between the concrete and the steel bars occurs due to the formation of rust on the bars surface. Permeability of concrete is a fundamental property in perspective of the durability of concrete as it represents the ease with which water or other fluids can move through concrete, subsequently transporting corrosive agents. Nanotechnology is a standout amongst active research zones that envelops varies disciplines including construction materials. The application of nanotechnology in the corrosion protection of metal has lately gained momentum as nano scale particles have ultimate physical, chemical and physicochemical properties, which may enhance the corrosion protection in comparison to large size materials. The presented research aims to study the bond performance of concrete containing relatively high volume nano silica (up to 4.5%) exposed to corrosive conditions. This was extensively studied through tensile, bond strengths as well as the permeability of nano silica concrete. In addition micro-structural analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effect of nano silica on the properties of concrete at both; the micro and nano levels. The results revealed that by the addition of nano silica, the permeability of concrete mixes decreased significantly to reach about 50% of the control mix by the addition of 4.5% nano silica. As for the corrosion resistance, the nano silica concrete is comparatively higher resistance than ordinary concrete. Increasing Nano Silica percentage increased significantly the critical time corresponding to a metal loss (equal to 50 ϻm) which usually corresponding to the first concrete cracking due to the corrosion of reinforcement to reach about 49 years instead of 40 years as for the normal concrete. Finally, increasing nano Silica percentage increased significantly the residual bond strength of concrete after being subjected to corrosive environment. After being subjected to corrosive environment, the pullout behavior was observed for the bars embedded in all of the mixes instead of the splitting behavior that was observed before being corroded. Adding 4.5% nano silica in concrete increased the residual bond strength to reach 79% instead of 27% only as compared to control mix (0%W) before the subjection of the corrosive environment. From the conducted study we can conclude that the Nano silica proved to be a significant pore blocker material.

Keywords: Concrete, Permeability, Corrosion Resistance, bond strength, nano silica

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3 Testing of the Decreasing Bond Strength of Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesive by Low Temperatures

Authors: Pavel Boška, Jan Bomba, Tomáš Beránek, Jiří Procházka


When using wood products bonded by polyvinyl acetate, glues such as windows are the most limiting element of degradation of the glued joint due to weather changes. In addition to moisture and high temperatures, the joint may damage the low temperature below freezing point, where dimensional changes in the material and distortion of the adhesive film occur. During the experiments, the joints were exposed to several degrees of sub-zero temperatures from 0 °C to -40 °C and then to compare how the decreasing temperature affects the strength of the joint. The experiment was performed on wood beech samples (Fagus sylvatica), bonded with PVAc with D3 resistance and the shear strength of bond was measured. The glued and treated samples were tested on a laboratory testing machine, recording the strength of the joint. The statistical results have given us information that the strength of the joint gradually decreases with decreasing temperature, but a noticeable and statistically significant change is achieved only at very low temperatures.

Keywords: Adhesives, Low Temperatures, bond strength, polyvinyl acetate

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2 Effect of Clinical Parameters on Strength of Reattached Tooth Fragment in Anterior Teeth: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Neeraj Malhotra, Ramya Shenoy


Objective: To assess the effect of clinical parameters (bonding agent, preparation design & storage media) on the strength of reattached anterior tooth fragment. Methodology: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis for articles referred from MEDLINE, PUBMED, and GOOGLE SCHOLAR. The articles on tooth reattachment and clinical factors affecting fracture strength/bond strength/fracture resistance of the reattached tooth fragment in anterior teeth and published in English from 1999 to 2016 were included for final review. Results: Out of 120 shortlisted articles, 28 articles were included for the systematic review and meta-analysis based on 3 clinical parameters i.e. bonding agent, tooth preparation design & storage media. Forest plot & funnel plots were generated based on individual clinical parameter and their effect on strength of reattached anterior tooth fragment. Results based on analysis suggest combination of both conclusive evidence favoring the experimental group as well as in-conclusive evidence for individual parameter. Conclusion: There is limited evidence as there are fewer articles supporting each parameter in human teeth. Bonding agent had showed better outcome in selected studies.

Keywords: Storage Media, bond strength, fracture strength, reattachment, bonding agent, preparation design

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1 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Bond Thickness on the Interface Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Sheet Bonded to Timber

Authors: Abbas Vahedian, Rijun Shrestha, Keith Crews


The bond mechanism between timber and fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) is relatively complex and is influenced by a number of variables including bond thickness, bond width, bond length, material properties, and geometries. This study investigates the influence of bond thickness on the behaviour of interface, failure mode, and bond strength of externally bonded FRP-to-timber interface. In the present study, 106 single shear joint specimens have been investigated. Experiment results showed that higher layers of FRP increase the ultimate load carrying capacity of interface; conversely, such increase led to decrease the slip of interface. Moreover, samples with more layers of FRPs may fail in a brittle manner without noticeable warning that collapse is imminent.

Keywords: bond strength, FRP, fibre reinforced polymer, single shear test, bond thickness

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