Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Bombyx mori Related Abstracts

4 Optimization of Culture Conditions of Paecilomyces Tenuipes, Entomopathogenic Fungi Inoculated into the Silkworm Larva, Bombyx Mori

Authors: Sung-Hee Nam, Kwang-Gill Lee, You-Young Jo, HaeYong Kweon

Abstract:

Entomopathogenic fungi is a Cordyceps species that is isolated from dead silkworm and cicada. Fungi on cicadas were described in old Chinese medicinal books and From ancient times, vegetable wasps and plant worms were widely known to have active substance and have been studied for pharmacological use. Among many fungi belonging to the genus Cordyceps, Cordyceps sinensis have been demonstrated to yield natural products possessing various biological activities and many bioactive components. Generally, It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung, and for the treatment of fatigue. Due to their commercial and economic importance, the demand for Cordyceps has been rapidly increased. However, a supply of Cordyceps specimen could not meet the increasing demand because of their sole dependence on field collection and habitat destruction. Because it is difficult to obtain many insect hosts in nature and the edibility of host insect needs to be verified in a pharmacological aspect. Recently, this setback was overcome that P. tenuipes was able to be cultivated in a large scale using silkworm as host. Pharmacological effects of P. tenuipes cultured on silkworm such as strengthening immune function, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor activity and controlling liver etc have been proved. They are widely commercialized. In this study, we attempted to establish a method for stable growth inhibition of P. tenuipes on silkworm hosts and an optimal condition for synnemata formation. To determine optimum culturing conditions, temperature and light conditions were varied. The length and number of synnemata was highest at 25℃ temperature and 100~300 lux illumination. On an average, the synnemata of wild P. tenuipes measures 70 ㎜ in length and 20 in number; those of the cultured strain were relatively shorter and more in number. The number of synnemata may have increased as a result of inoculating the host with highly concentrated conidia, while the length may have decreased due to limited nutrition per individual. It is not able that changes in light illumination cause morphological variations in the synnemata. However, regulation of only light and temperature could not produce stromata like perithecia, asci, and ascospores. Yamanaka reported that although a complete fruiting body can be produced under optimal culture conditions, it should be regarded as synnemata because it does not develop into an ascoma bearing ascospores.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, entomopathogenic fungi, paecilomyces tenuipes, silkworm larva

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3 Optimization of Culture Conditions of Paecilomyces tenuipes, Entomopathogenic Fungi Inoculated into the Silkworm Larva, Bombyx mori

Authors: Sunghee Nam

Abstract:

Entomopathogenic fungi is a Cordyceps species that is isolated from dead silkworm and cicada. Fungi on cicadas were described in old Chinese medicinal books and from ancient times, vegetable wasps and plant worms were widely known to have active substance and have been studied for pharmacological use. Among many fungi belonging to the genus Cordyceps, Cordyceps sinensis have been demonstrated to yield natural products possessing various biological activities and many bioactive components. Generally, It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung, and for the treatment of fatigue. Due to their commercial and economic importance, the demand for Cordyceps has been rapidly increased. However, a supply of Cordyceps specimen could not meet the increasing demand because of their sole dependence on field collection and habitat destruction. Because it is difficult to obtain many insect hosts in nature and the edibility of host insect needs to be verified in a pharmacological aspect. Recently, this setback was overcome that P. tenuipes was able to be cultivated in a large scale using silkworm as host. Pharmacological effects of P. tenuipes cultured on silkworm such as strengthening immune function, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor activity and controlling liver etc. have been proved. They are widely commercialized. In this study, we attempted to establish a method for stable growth inhibition of P. tenuipes on silkworm hosts and an optimal condition for synnemata formation. To determine optimum culturing conditions, temperature and light conditions were varied. The length and number of synnemata was highest at 25℃ temperature and 100~300 lux illumination. On an average, the synnemata of wild P. tenuipes measures 70 ㎜ in length and 20 in number; those of the cultured strain were relatively shorter and more in number. The number of synnemata may have increased as a result of inoculating the host with highly concentrated conidia, while the length may have decreased due to limited nutrition per individual. It is not able that changes in light illumination cause morphological variations in the synnemata. However, regulation of only light and temperature could not produce stromata like perithecia, asci, and ascospores.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, optimization of culture conditions of paecilomyces tenuipes, entomopathogenic fungi optimization of culture conditions of paecilomyces tenuipes, entomopathogenic fungi silkworm larva

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2 Identification and Characterization of Genes Expressed in Diseased Condition Silkworms (Bombyx mori): A Systematic Investigation

Authors: Siddharth Soni, Gourav Kumar Pandey, Sneha Kumari, Dev Mani Pandey, Koel Mukherjee

Abstract:

The silkworm Bombyx mori is a commercially important insect, but a major roadblock in silk production are silkworm diseases. Flacherie is one of the diseases of the silkworm, that affects the midgut of the 4th and 5th instar larvae and eventually makes them lethargic, stop feeding and finally result in their death. The concerned disease is a result of bacterial and viral infection and in some instances a combination of both. The present study aims to identify and study the expression level of genes in the flacherie condition. For the said work, total RNA was isolated from the infected larvae at their most probable infectious instar and cDNA was synthesized using Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). This cDNA was then used to amplify disease relalted genes whose expression levels were checked using quantitaive PCR (qPCR) using the double delta Ct method. Cry toxin receptors like APN and BtR-175, ROS mediator Dual Oxidase are few proteins whose genes were overexpressed. Interestingly, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) C-type lectins' genes were found to be downregulated. The results explain about the strong expression of genes that can distinguish the concerned protein in the midgut of diseased silkworm and thereby aiding knowledge in the field of inhibitor designing research.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, flacherie disease, inhibitor designing, up and down regulation

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1 Utilization of Silk Waste as Fishmeal Replacement: Growth Performance of Cyprinus carpio Juveniles Fed with Bombyx mori Pupae

Authors: Levent Doğankaya, Goksen Capar

Abstract:

According to the circular economy model, resource productivity should be maximized and wastes should be reduced. Since earth’s natural resources are continuously depleted, resource recovery has gained great interest in recent years. As part of our research study on the recovery and reuse of silk wastes, this paper focuses on the utilization of silkworm pupae as fishmeal replacement, which would replace the original fishmeal raw material, namely the fish itself. This, in turn, would contribute to sustainable management of wild fish resources. Silk fibre is secreted by the silkworm Bombyx mori in order to construct a 'room' for itself during its transformation process from pupae to an adult moth. When the cocoons are boiled in hot water, silk fibre becomes loose and the silk yarn is produced by combining thin silk fibres. The remaining wastes are 1) sericin protein, which is dissolved in water, 2) remaining part of cocoon, including the dead body of B. mori pupae. In this study, an eight weeks trial was carried out to determine the growth performance of common carp juveniles fed with waste silkworm pupae meal (SWPM) as a replacement for fishmeal (FM). Four isonitrogenous diets (40% CP) were prepared replacing 0%, 33%, 50%, and 100% of the dietary FM with non-defatted silkworm pupae meal as a dietary protein source for experiments in C. carpio. Triplicate groups comprising of 20 fish (0.92±0.29 g) were fed twice/day with one of the four diets. Over a period of 8 weeks, results showed that the diet containing 50% of its protein from SWPM had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) growth rates in all groups. The increasing levels of SWPM were resulted in a decrease in growth performance and significantly lower growth (p ≤ 0.05) was observed with diets having 100% SWPM. The study demonstrates that it is practical to replace 50% of the FM protein with SWPM with a significantly better utilization of the diet but higher SWPM levels are not recommended for juvenile carp. Further experiments are under study to have more detailed results on the possible effects of this alternative diet on the growth performance of juvenile carp.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, Cyprinus carpio, Silk, fish meal, waste pupae

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