Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

body weight Related Abstracts

14 Effect of Multi-Enzyme Supplementation on Growth Performance of Broiler

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Abdur Rahman, Saima, T. N. Pasha, Yassar Abbas, Shahid Jaleel

Abstract:

Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) are not completely digested by broiler endogenous enzymes and consequently the soluble NSPs in feed results in high digesta viscosity and poor retention of nutrients. Supplementation of NSPs digesting enzymes may release the nutrients from feed and reduce the anti-nutritional effects of NSP’s. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of NSPs digesting enzymes (Zympex) in broiler chicks. A total of 120 day old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were categorized into 3 treatments and each treatment was having four replicates with 10 birds in each. Dietary treatments comprised of Basal diet (2740 KCal/Kg) as control-1 (T1), low energy diet (2630 KCal/kg) control-2 (T2) and low energy diet with 0.5 gm/Kg enzyme as T3. Multi-enzymes supplementation showed significant (P < 0.05) positive effect on weight gain (last three weeks), feed intake (last two weeks), FCR (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th) and nutrient retention in T3 when compared with control-2. Weight gain was lower (P < 0.05) in low caloric feed group C when compared with control-1 in all weeks except last week (P > 0.05), feed consumption was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in 5th week and results showed significantly poor FCR (P < 0.05) in 2nd, 3rd and 4th week but non-significant effect in 1st and 5th week when compared with control-1 group, which revealed the positive effect of enzyme supplementation in low energy diet. These results revealed that enzyme supplementation releases more energy from low energy diets and results in equal performance to normal diet.

Keywords: enzyme, body weight, FCR, feed intake, non-starch polysaccharides

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
13 The Result of Suggestion for Low Energy Diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) in Obese Women to the Effect on Body Weight, Waist Circumference, and BMI

Authors: S. Kumchoo

Abstract:

The result of suggestion for low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) in obese women to the effect on body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in this experiment. Quisi experimental research was used for this study and it is a One-group pretest-posttest designs measurement method. The aim of this study was body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) reduction by using low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) in obese women, the result found that in 15 of obese women that contained their body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30, after they obtained low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) within 2 weeks. The data were collected before and after of testing the results showed that the average of body weight decrease 3.4 kilogram, waist circumference value decrease 6.1 centimeter and the body mass index (BMI) decrease 1.3 kg.m2 from their previous body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) before experiment started. After this study, the volunteers got healthy and they can choose or select some food for themselves. For this study, the research can be improved for data development for forward study in the future.

Keywords: BMI, body weight, waist circumference, low energy diet

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
12 Changes in Some Biochemical Parameters and Body Weight of Chicken Exposed to Cadmium

Authors: Khaled Saeed Ali

Abstract:

This study was conducted with 3 week old domestic chicken to determine the effect of supplementation of cadmium to dietary. 10 mg/kg Cadmium chloride added to maize- sesame cake meal diet for 4 weeks. The additional cadmium to the diet induced a decreasing body weight and changes in biochemical parameters of chicken. Chicken were divided into two groups. The first group was given a diet containing the concentration of 10 mg cadmium /kg daily for a period of 30 days and the second group was given diet without cadmium and used as a control group. The result revealed decrease in the body weight of treated chicken by 12.7 % compared to control group, whose body weight increased. The plasma glucose concentration, creatinine, aspartate aminotranseferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were increased significantly (P<0.05) in Cd treated chicken in comparison to the control group. Cadmium accumulation was observed in the intestine, kidney, liver and bone. The accumulation of cadmium was markedly higher (3-4 times) in cadmium-treated animals compared to the control.

Keywords: Chicken, cadmium, body weight, biochemical parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
11 The Result of Suggestion for Low Energy Diet (1,000 kcal-1,200 kcal) in Obese Women to the effect on Body Weight, Waist Circumference, and BMI

Authors: S. Kumchoo

Abstract:

The result of suggestion for low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) in obese women to the effect on body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in this experiment. Quisi experimental research was used for this study and it is a One-group pretest-posttest designs measurement method. The aim of this study was body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) reduction by using low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) in obese women, the result found that in 15 of obese women that contained their body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30, after they obtained low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) within 2 weeks. The data were collected before and after of testing the results showed that the average of body weight decrease 3.4 kilogram, waist circumference value decrease 6.1 centimeter and the body mass index (BMI) decrease 1.3 kg.m2 from their previous body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) before experiment started. After this study, the volunteers got healthy and they can choose or select some food for themselves. For this study, the research can be improved for data development for forward study in the future.

Keywords: BMI, body weight, waist circumference, low energy diet

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
10 Comparative Effects of Dietary Ocimum Gratissimum and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Body Weight and Gut Morphometry of Broiler Starters

Authors: Victor U. Odoemelam, Ihemdirim C. Unamba-Opara, Martins C. Anyanwuocha

Abstract:

Antibiotics used as growth promoters in animal feeds have been criticized and banned in many nations due to possible development of both drug resistance, cross resistance and multiple resistances by consumers. Numerous additives are now being used or proposed as alternatives. A study to compare the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent leaf) and antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) on growth performance and intestinal morphology of starter broiler birds was conducted using ninety six (96) days old broiler birds. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatments with each treatment comprising 24 birds replicated three times with 8 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design experiment. Four diets (T1 control diet without Oxytetracycline HCl and Ocimum gratissimum; T2 had Oxytetracycline HCl; T3 had 1% Ocimum gratissimum; T4 had 1.5% Ocimum gratissimum) were formulated and offered ad libitum to the respective birds. Data was collected on feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) also Jejenal sections of the intestine were collected for examination of Villi length and Crypt depth at the end of starter phase. Results show that there were no significant difference (P>0.05) observed in feed intake and final body weight. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and daily weight gain significantly differed (P<0.05). T1, T2, and T4 were similar, however T2 differed (P<0.05) from T3. FCR followed the same pattern. Dietary treatment significantly (P<0.05) affected Villi length, Crypt depth and Villi length/crypt depth ratio. Birds fed OG containing diets, had significantly higher (P<0.05) villi length/crypt depth ratio. However, this did not translate to a significantly higher body weight gain or feed conversion ratio. It can be concluded that O. gratissimum can replace antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) since their effect on performance were similar.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Feed Additives, body weight, intestinal morphology, phytogenics

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
9 Effects of Supplementation with Annatto (Bixa Orellana)-Derived δ-Tocotrienol on the Nicotine-Induced Reduction in Body Weight and 8-Cell Preimplantation Embryonic Development in Mice

Authors: S. M. M. Syairah, M. H. Rajikin, A. R. Sharaniza

Abstract:

Effects of nicotine on pre-partum body weight and preimplantation embryonic development has been reported previously. Present study was conducted to determine the effects of annatto (Bixa orellana)-derived delta-tocotrienol (TCT) (with presence of 10% gamma-TCT isomer) on the nicotine-induced reduction in body weight and 8-cell embryonic growth in mice. Twenty four 6-8 weeks old (23-25g) female balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (G1-G4; n=6). Those groups were subjected to the following treatments for 7 consecutive days: G1 (control) were gavaged with 0.1 ml tocopherol stripped corn oil, G2 was subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with 3 mg/kg/day of nicotine, G3 received concurrent treatment of nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) and 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture (contains 90% delta & 10% gamma isomers) and G4 was given 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture alone. Body weights were recorded daily during the treatment. On Day 8, females were superovulated with 5 IU Pregnant Mare’s Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) for 48 hours followed with 5 IU human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) before mated with males at the ratio of 1:1. Females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation for embryo collection 48 hours post-coitum. Collected embryos were cultured in vitro. Results showed that throughout Day 1 to Day 7, the body weight of nicotine treated group (G2) was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of G1, G3 and G4. Intervention with δ-TCT mixture (G3) managed to increase the body weight close to the control group. This is also observed in the group treated with δ-TCT mixture alone (G4). The development of 8-cell embryos following in vitro culture (IVC) was totally inhibited in G2. Intervention with δ-TCT mixture (G3) resulted in the production of 8-cell embryos, although it was not up to that of the control group. Treatment with δ-TCT mixture alone (G4) caused significant increase in the average number of produced 8-cell embryo compared to G1. Present data indicated that δ-TCT mixture was able to reverse the body weight loss in nicotine treated mice and the development of 8-cell embryos was also improved.

Keywords: body weight, nicotine, δ-tocotrienol, preimplantation embryonic development

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
8 Changes in the Body Weight and Wound Contraction Rate Following Treatment with Piper betel Extract in Diabetic Wounds

Authors: Nurul Z. Sani, Amalina N. Ghazali, Azree Elmy, Lee C. Yuen, Zar C. Thent

Abstract:

Piper betel (P. betel) leaves is widely used in Asian countries for treating diabetes mellitus and its complication. In our previous study, we observed the positive effect of P.betel extract on diabetic wounds following 3 and 7 days of treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of P.betel leaves extract in the diabetic rats was observed in terms of body weight and wound contraction rates following 5 days of the treatment. Total 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and the experimental rats received a single dose of 60mg/kg of Streptozotocin (STZ) injection, intraperitoneally. Four full thickness (6mm) cutaneous wounds were created on dorsum of each rat. The rats were divideid into (n=8): Non-treated Control (NC), Non-treated Diabetic (ND), diabetic treated with commercial cream (SN) and diabetic treated with 50mg/kg of P.betel extract (PB). The rats were sacrificed on day 0 and 5 post wounding. Significant increased in wound closure rate, body weight was observed in PB group compared to ND. Histological deterioration was restored in the P. betel extract treated wounds. It is concluded that topical application with P.betel extract for 5 days of post wounding offers positive scientific value in diabetic rats.

Keywords: Diabetes, Morphology, Wound Healing, body weight, piper betel

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
7 Growth and Development Parameters of Saanen Kids Raised under Intensive Conditions in Konya/Turkey

Authors: Vahdettin Sariyel, Birol Dag

Abstract:

In this research, growth and development parameters in Konya, a private company in Saanen kids reared in intensive conditions in the province were examined. Average birth weights were 3.42, 2.96, 3.57, 3.23 and 2.77 kg for male, female, single, twins and triplets kids. Average weaning weights (three months of age) were 12.65, 12.09, 12.80, 12.65 and 11.68 kg for male, female, single, twins and triplets kids. Average body weights at seven months of age were 20.55, 18.98, 20.12, 20.12 and 19.05 kg for male, female, single, twins and triplets kids respectively. Considering the gender of the live weight factors birth control and rule in favor of the first en ( P <0.01), the second control finally it disappeared statistically significant ( P> 0.05). Main age and the effect of birth weight in the first month, while significant (P < 0.01); The effect of the second month following the live weight of the kid was not significant.

Keywords: Development, Growth, body weight, Saanen kids

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
6 Polymorphisms of Calpastatin Gene and Its Association with Growth Traits in Indonesian Thin Tail Sheep

Authors: Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong, Cece Sumantri, Ronny Rachman Noor, Rachmat Herman, Mohamad Yamin

Abstract:

Calpastatin involved in various physiological processes in the body such as the protein turnover, growth, fusion and mioblast migration. Thus, allegedly Calpastatin gene diversity (CAST) have an association with growth and potential use as candidate genes for growth trait. This study aims to identify the association between the genetic diversity of CAST gene with some growth properties such as body dimention (morphometric), body weight and daily weight gain in sheep. A total of 157 heads of Thin Tail Sheep (TTS) reared intensively for fattening purposes in the uniform environmental conditions. Overall sheep used were male, and maintained for 3 months. The parameters of growth properties were measured among others: body weight gain (ADG) (g/head / day), body weight (kg), body length (cm), chest circumference (cm), height (cm). All the sheep were genotyped by using PCR-SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) methods. CAST gene in locus fragment intron 5 - exon 6 were amplified with a predicted length of about 254 bp PCR products. Then the sheep were stratified based on their CAST genotypes. The result of this research showed that no association were found between the CAST gene variations with morphometric body weight, but there was a significant association with daily body weight gain (ADG) in sheep observed. CAST-23 and CAST-33 genotypes has higher average daily gain than other genotypes. CAST-23 and CAST-33 genotypes that carrying the CAST-2 and CAST-3 alleles potential to be used in the selection of the nature of the growth trait of the TTS sheep.

Keywords: genotype, body weight, calpastatin, growth trait, thin tail sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
5 Muscle Activation Comparisons in a Lat Pull down Exercise with Machine Weights, Resistance Bands and Body Weight Exercises

Authors: Trevor R. Higgins

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare muscle activation of the latissimus dorsi between pin-loaded machine (Lat Pull Down), resistance band (Lat Pull Down) and body-weight (Chin Up) exercises. A convenient sample of male college students with >2 years resistance training experience volunteered for the study. A paired t-test with repeated measures designs was carried out on results from EMG analysis. EMG analysis was conducted with Trigno wireless sensors (Delsys) placed laterally on the latissimus dorsi (left and right) of each participant. By conventional criteria the two-tailed P value suggested that differences between pin-loaded and body-weight was not significantly different (p = 0.93) and differences between pin-loaded and resistance band was not significantly different (p = 0.17) in muscle activity. In relation to conventional criteria the two-tailed P value suggested differences between body-weight and resistance band was not quite significantly different (p = 0.06) in muscle activity. However, effect size trends indicated that both body-weight and pin-loaded exercises where more effective in stimulating muscle electrical activity than a resistance band with male college athletes with >2 years resistance training experience. Although, resistance bands have increased in popularity in health and fitness centres, that for well-trained participants, they may not be effective in stimulating muscles of the latissimus dorsi. Therefore, when considering equipment and exercise selection for experienced resistance training participants pin-loaded machines and body-weight should be prescribed.

Keywords: body weight, pin-loaded, resistance bands, EMG analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
4 Development of a Computer Based, Nutrition and Fitness Programme and Its Effect on Nutritional Status and Fitness of Obese Adults

Authors: Richa Soni, Vibha Bhatnagar, N. K. Jain

Abstract:

This study was conducted to develop a computer mediated programme for weight management and physical fitness and examining its efficacy in reducing weight and improving physical fitness in obese adults. A user friendly, computer based programme was developed to provide a simple, quick, easy and user-friendly method of assessing energy balance at individual level. The programme had four main sections viz. personal Profile, know about your weight, fitness and food exchange list. The computer programme was developed to provide facilities of creating individual profile, tracking meal and physical activities, suggesting nutritional and exercise requirements, planning calorie specific menus, keeping food diaries and revising the diet and exercise plans if needed. The programme was also providing information on obesity, underweight, physical fitness. An exhaustive food exchange list was also given in the programme to assist user to make right food choice decisions. The developed programme was evaluated by a panel of 15 experts comprising endocrinologists, nutritionists and diet counselors. Suggestions given by the experts were paned down and the entire programme was modified in light of suggestions given by the panel members and was reevaluated by the same panel of experts. For assessing the impact of the programme 22 obese subjects were selected purposively and randomly assigned to intervention group (n=12) and no information control group. (n=10). The programme group was asked to strictly follow the programme for one month. Significant reduction in the intake of energy, fat and carbohydrates was observed while intake of fruits, green leafy vegetables was increased. The programme was also found to be effective in reducing body weight, body fat percent and body fat mass whereas total body water and physical fitness scores improved significantly. There was no significant alteration observed in any parameters in the control group.

Keywords: Body Composition, Physical Fitness, body weight, computer programme

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
3 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effect on Body Weight and Body Composition in Women: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Hanady Hamdallah, H. Elyse Ireland, John H. H. Williams

Abstract:

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a food supplement that is reported to have multiple beneficial health effects, including being anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity. Animal studies have shown a significant anti-obesity effect of CLA, but results in humans were inconsistent, where some of the studies found an anti-obesity effect while other studies failed to find any decline in obesity markers after CLA supplementation. This meta-analysis aimed to determine if oral CLA supplementation has been shown to reduce obesity related markers in women. Pub Med, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were used to identify the eligible trials using two main searching strategies: the first one was to search eligible trials using keywords 'Conjugated linoleic acid', 'CLA', 'Women', and the second strategy was to extract the eligible trials from previously published systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The eligible trials were placebo control trials where women supplemented with CLA mixture in the form of oral capsules for 6 months or less. Also, these trials provided information about body composition expressed as body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), total body fat (TBF), percentage body fat (BF %), and/ or lean body mass (LBM). The quality of each included study was assessed using both JADAD scale and an adapted CONSERT checklist. Meta-analysis of 8 eligible trials showed that CLA supplementation was significantly associated with reduced BW (Mean ± SD, 1.2 ± 0.26 kg, p < 0.001), BMI (0.6 ± 0.13kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (0.76 ± 0.26 kg, p= 0.003) in women, when supplemented over 6-16 weeks. Subgroup meta-analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in BW (1.29 ± 0.31 kg, p < 0.001), BMI (0.60 ± 0.14 kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (0.82 ± 0.28 kg, p= 0.003) in the trials that had recruited overweight-obese women. The second subgroup meta-analysis, that considered the menopausal status of the participants, found that CLA was significantly associated with reduced BW (1.35 ± 0.37 kg, p < 0.001; 1.05 ± 0.36 kg, p= 0.003) and BMI (0.50 ± 0.17 kg/m², p= 0.003; 0.75 ± 0.2 kg/m², p < 0.001) in both pre and post-menopausal age women, respectively. A reduction in TBF (1.09 ± 0.37 kg, p= 0.003) was only significant in post-menopausal women. Interestingly, CLA supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in BW (1.05 ± 0.35 kg, p< 0.003), BMI (0.73 ± 0.2 kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (1.07 ± 0.36 kg, p= 0.003) in the trials without lifestyle monitoring or interventions. No significant effect of CLA on LBM was detected in this meta-analysis. This meta-analysis suggests a moderate anti-obesity effect of CLA on BW, BMI and TBF reduction in women, when supplemented over 6-16 weeks, particularly in overweight-obese women and post-menopausal women. However, this finding requires careful interpretation due to several issues in the designs of available CLA supplementation trials. More well-designed trials are required to confirm this meta-analysis results.

Keywords: Body Composition, body mass index, body weight, Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
2 Effects of Plumage Colour on Measurable Attributes of Indigenous Chickens in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Joseph J. Okoh, Samuel T. Mbap, Tahir Ibrahim, Yusuf P. Mancha

Abstract:

The influence of plumage colour on measurable attributes of 6176 adult indigenous chickens of mixed-sex from four states of the North Central Zone of Nigeria namely; Nasarawa, Niger, Benue, Kogi and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja were assessed. The overall average body weight of the chickens was 1.95 ± 0.03kg. The body weights of black, white, black/white, brown, black/brown, grey and mottled chicken however were 1.87 ± 0.04, 1.94 ± 0.04, 1.95 ± 0.03, 1.93 ± 0.03, 2.01 ± 0.04, 1.96 ± 0.04 and 1.94±0.14kg respectively. Only body length did not vary by plumage colour. The others; body weight and width, shank, comb and breast length, breast height (p < 0.001), beak and wing lengths (p < 0.001) varied significantly. Generally, no colour was outrightly superior to others in all body measurements. However, body weight and breast height were both highest in black/brown chickens which also had the second highest breast length. Body width, shank, beak, comb and wing lengths were highest in grey chickens but lowest in those with white colour and combinations. Egg quality was on the other hand mostly lowest in grey chickens. In selection for genetic improvement in body measurements, black/brown and grey chickens should be favoured. However, in view of the known negative relationship between body weight and egg attributes, selection in favour of grey plumage may result in chickens of poor egg attributes. Therefore, grey chickens should be selected against egg quality.

Keywords: measurements, body weight, indigenous chicken, plumage colour

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
1 Full Fat Soybean Meal as a Substitute for Soybean Meal in Broiler Rations

Authors: R. M. K. S. Chandana, A. P. D. G. Pathirana, N. Priyankarage, W. A. D. Nayananjalie, S. S. P. Silva

Abstract:

Full fat soybean meal (FFSBM) has been used in many parts of the world together with solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in livestock feeds. Although some local FFSBM is available, their use has not been assessed experimentally. This study was carried out to evaluate the use of local extruded FFSBM in broiler rations. Four treatment diets were formulated by incorporating locally produced FFSBM (0, 10, 20, and 30%) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) in a two-phase (starter and finisher) feeding program. Two hundred Hubbard F 15 day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into four treatments with five replicates per each. Bodyweight gain (BWG), feed intakes (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated for a period of 42 days. Nutrient utilization in the form of dry matter (DM), energy, nitrogen, and fat retention were estimated by the total collection method in three weeks old broilers. At the end of the experiment, carcass weight was measured, and the dressing percentage was calculated. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SAS. There was no significant effect of FFSBM on feed intakes of chicks fed different diets (p > 0.05). Birds fed the control diet, and FF10 (10% FFSBM diet) gained significantly more than that of birds fed FF20 or FF30 diets (p > 0.05). In the finisher period, control birds gained more than all the other treatment birds. FCR was poorer in bird fed higher levels of FFSBM compared to the control or FF10 birds during their early life, but that was not evident in the latter part of the experiment. Treatments did not alter (p > 0.05) the retention of DM and nitrogen, but energy utilization was lowest (p < 0.05) in birds fed with 0% FFSBM, and the highest fat digestibility was observed in birds fed with 30% FFSBM diets. Thus, it can be concluded that FFSBM can be used as a substitute for SBM in broiler rations and could be incorporated up to 10% of the diet safely with no adverse effects on broiler performances.

Keywords: digestibility, broiler, body weight, soybean meal, full fat soybean meal

Procedia PDF Downloads 1