Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

body mass index Related Abstracts

44 Interrelationship of BMI with Strength, Speed and Flexibility in Different Age Groups

Authors: Nimesh D. Chaudhari

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The purpose of this study was to find out the interrelationship of BMI with strength, i.e. endurance strength of abdominal muscles and explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility which are respectively assessed by sit up, standing broad jump, 50 yard dash and sit and reach tests. 48 boys, aged 7 to 13 years as group A and 40 boys, aged 17 to 28 years asgroup B were selected as the subjects for the study. Product moment correlation coefficient test (r at 0.05 level of significance) was applied to test hypothesis. The findings of the study shows that there is significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, and flexibility whereas a negative significant relationship was found between BMI and speed in group A, i.e. aged from 7 to 13 years. However, there was no significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility in higher age group.

Keywords: body mass index, strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, flexibility of lower back and hamstring muscles

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43 The Relationships between Physical Activity Levels, Enjoyment of Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index among Bruneian Secondary School Adolescents

Authors: David Xiaoqian Sun, Jr., Khairunnisa Binti Haji Sibah, Lejak Anak Ambol

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The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between objectively measured physical activity levels (PALs), enjoyment of physical activity (EPA), and body mass index (BMI) among adolescents. A total of 188 12-14-year-old Bruneian secondary school adolescents (88 boys and 100 girls) voluntarily took part in this study. Subjects wore the RT3 accelerometer for seven consecutive days in order to measure their PALs. Times of students’ engagement in total (TPA), light (LPA), moderate (MPV), and vigorous PA (VPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Their BMIs were calculated from their body height and weight. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was administrated to obtain their EPA levels. Four key enjoyment factors including fun factors, positive perceptions, unexciting in doing activities, and negative perceptions were identified. Subjects’ social economic status (SES) was provided by school administration. Results show that all the adolescents did not meet the recommended PA guidelines even though boys were engaged in more MVPA than girls. No relationships were found between BMI and all PALs in both boys and girls. BMI was significantly related to the PACES scores (r = -.22, p = 0.01), fun factors (r = -.20, p = 0.05) and positive perceptions (r =-.21, p < 0.05). The PACES scores were significantly related to LPA (r = .18, p = 0.01) but not related to MVPA (r = .04, p > 0.05). After controlling for age and SES, BMI was only significantly related to the PACES scores in girls (r = -.27, p < .01) but boys (r = -.06, p > 0.05). Fun factors were significantly related to LPA and MVPA (p < .01) in girls while negative perceptions were significantly related to LPA and MVPA (p < .01) in boys. This study provides evidence that enjoyment may be a trigger of LPA but MVPA and may be influenced by their BMI status particularly in girls. Based on these findings, physical and health educators are suggested to not only make PA more enjoyable, but also consider gender differences in promoting adolescents' participation in MVPA.

Keywords: body mass index, accelerometer, enjoyment of physical activity, moderate to vigorous physical activity

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42 Using Fuzzy Logic Decision Support System to Predict the Lifted Weight for Students at Weightlifting Class

Authors: Ahmed Abdulghani Taha, Mohammad Abdulghani Taha

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This study aims at being acquainted with the using the body fat percentage (%BF) with body Mass Index (BMI) as input parameters in fuzzy logic decision support system to predict properly the lifted weight for students at weightlifting class lift according to his abilities instead of traditional manner. The sample included 53 male students (age = 21.38 ± 0.71 yrs, height (Hgt) = 173.17 ± 5.28 cm, body weight (BW) = 70.34 ± 7.87.6 kg, Body mass index (BMI) 23.42 ± 2.06 kg.m-2, fat mass (FM) = 9.96 ± 3.15 kg and fat percentage (% BF) = 13.98 ± 3.51 %.) experienced the weightlifting class as a credit and has variance at BW, Hgt and BMI and FM. BMI and % BF were taken as input parameters in FUZZY logic whereas the output parameter was the lifted weight (LW). There were statistical differences between LW values before and after using fuzzy logic (Diff 3.55± 2.21, P > 0.001). The percentages of the LW categories proposed by fuzzy logic were 3.77% of students to lift 1.0 fold of their bodies; 50.94% of students to lift 0.95 fold of their bodies; 33.96% of students to lift 0.9 fold of their bodies; 3.77% of students to lift 0.85 fold of their bodies and 7.55% of students to lift 0.8 fold of their bodies. The study concluded that the characteristic changes in body composition experienced by students when undergoing weightlifting could be utilized side by side with the Fuzzy logic decision support system to determine the proper workloads consistent with the abilities of students.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Weightlifting, body mass index, body fat percentage

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41 The "Street Less Traveled": Body Image and Its Relationship with Eating Attitudes, Influence of Media and Self-Esteem among College Students

Authors: Aditya Soni, Nimesh Parikh, R. A. Thakrar

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Background: A cross-sectional study looked to focus body image satisfaction, heretofore under investigated arena in our setting. This study additionally examined the relationship of body mass index, influence of media and self-esteem. Our second objective was to assess whether there was any relationship between body image dissatisfaction and gender. Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI), influence of media, self-esteem and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Convenience sampling was used to select participants of both genders aged from 17 to 32 on a sample size of 303 participants. Results : The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with Body mass index (P<0.001), eating attitude (P<0.001), influence of media (P<0.001) and self-esteem (P<0.001). Students with low weight had a significantly higher prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students had a significantly higher prevalence of dissatisfaction (P<0.001). Females showed more concern about body image as compared to males. Conclusions: Generally, this study reveals that the eating attitude, influence of the media and self-esteem is significantly related to the body image. On an empowering note, this level needs to be saved for overall mental and sound advancement of people. Proactive preventive measures could be started in foundations on identity improvement, acknowledgement of self and individual contrasts while keeping up ideal weight and dynamic life style.

Keywords: Media, Body image, body mass index, self-esteem

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40 Application of Artificial Neural Network and Background Subtraction for Determining Body Mass Index (BMI) in Android Devices Using Bluetooth

Authors: Noel B. Linsangan, Neil Erick Q. Madariaga

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Body Mass Index (BMI) is one of the different ways to monitor the health of a person. It is based on the height and weight of the person. This study aims to compute for the BMI using an Android tablet by obtaining the height of the person by using a camera and measuring the weight of the person by using a weighing scale or load cell. The height of the person was estimated by applying background subtraction to the image captured and applying different processes such as getting the vanishing point and applying Artificial Neural Network. The weight was measured by using Wheatstone bridge load cell configuration and sending the value to the computer by using Gizduino microcontroller and Bluetooth technology after the amplification using AD620 instrumentation amplifier. The application will process the images and read the measured values and show the BMI of the person. The study met all the objectives needed and further studies will be needed to improve the design project.

Keywords: bluetooth, Artificial Neural Network, body mass index, vanishing point, wheatstone bridge load cell

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39 Histamine Skin Reactivity Increased with Body Mass Index in Korean Children

Authors: Jeong Hong Kim, Ju Wan Kang

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Objective: Histamine skin prick testing is most commonly used to diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and histamine reactivity is used as a standardized positive control in the interpretation of a skin prick test. However, reactivity to histamine differs among individuals for reasons that are poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and histamine skin reactivity in children. Methods: A total of 451 children (246 boys, 205 girls) aged 7–8 years were enrolled in this study. The skin prick test was performed with 26 aeroallergens commonly found in Korea. Other information was collected, including sex, age, BMI, parental allergy history, and parental smoking status. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm the association between histamine skin reactivity and BMI. Results: The histamine wheal size was revealed to be associated with BMI (Spearman's Rho 0.161, p < 0.001). This association was confirmed by multivariate analysis, after adjusting for sex, age, parental allergy history, parental smoking status, and allergic sensitization (coefficient B 0.071, 95% confidence interval 0.030–0.112). Conclusions: Skin responses to histamine were primarily correlated with increased BMI. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implication of BMI when interpreting the results of skin prick test.

Keywords: Allergy, body mass index, histamine, skin prick test

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38 A Study of Common Carotid Artery Behavior from B-Mode Ultrasound Image for Different Gender and BMI Categories

Authors: Nabilah Ibrahim, Khaliza Musa

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The increment thickness of intima-media thickness (IMT) which involves the changes of diameter of the carotid artery is one of the early symptoms of the atherosclerosis lesion. The manual measurement of arterial diameter is time consuming and lack of reproducibility. Thus, this study reports the automatic approach to find the arterial diameter behavior for different gender, and body mass index (BMI) categories, focus on tracked region. BMI category is divided into underweight, normal, and overweight categories. Canny edge detection is employed to the B-mode image to extract the important information to be deal as the carotid wall boundary. The result shows the significant difference of arterial diameter between male and female groups which is 2.5% difference. In addition, the significant result of differences of arterial diameter for BMI category is the decreasing of arterial diameter proportional to the BMI.

Keywords: body mass index, canny edge detection, B-mode Ultrasound Image, carotid artery diameter

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37 A U-shaped Relationship between Body Mass Index and Dysmenorrhea: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: H. Ju, M. Jones, G. D. Mishra

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Introduction: Limited longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between BMI and dysmenorrhea, resulting in mixed results. This study aims to investigate the long-term association between BMI and dysmenorrhea. Methods: 9,688 women from Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH), a prospective population-based cohort study, were followed for 13 years. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires repeatedly on all variables, including dysmenorrhea, weight and height. The longitudinal association between dysmenorrhea and BMI or BMI transition (change of BMI categories between two successive surveys) was investigated by generalized estimating equations. Results: When the women were aged 22 to 27 years, approximately 11% were obese, 7% underweight, and 25% reported dysmenorrhea. Over the study period, the prevalence of obesity doubled whereas that of underweight declined substantially. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea remained relatively stable. Compared to women with a normal weight, significantly higher odds of reporting dysmenorrhea were detected for both women who were underweight (odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.43) and obese (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.10, 1.31). Being overweight was not associated with increased risk of dysmenorrhea. Compared to women who remained at normal weight or overweight over time, significant risk was detected for women who: remained underweight or obese (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.23, 1.49), were underweight but became normal or overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11, 1.50), became underweight (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01, 1.52). However, the higher risk among obese women disappeared when they lost weight and became normal weight or overweight (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.87, 1.30). Conclusions: A U-shaped association was revealed between dysmenorrhea and BMI, revealing higher risk of dysmenorrhea for both underweight and obese women. Further, the risk disappeared when obese women lost weight and acquired a healthier BMI. However obesity certainly poses a greater burden of disease from the public health perspective, thus requires greater effort to tackle the increasing problem at the population level. It is important to maintain a healthy weight over time for women to enjoy a better reproductive health.

Keywords: Obesity, body mass index, dysmenorrhea, painful period, underweight

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36 Vertebral Pain Features in Women of Different Age Depending on Body Mass Index

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Nataliia Dzerovych, Tetiana Orlуk

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Introduction: Back pain is an extremely common health care problem worldwide. Many studies show a link between an obesity and risk of lower back pain. The aim is to study correlation and peculiarities of vertebral pain in women of different age depending on their anthropometric indicators. Materials: 1886 women aged 25-89 years were examined. The patients were divided into groups according to age (25-44, 45-59, 60-74, 75-89 years old) and body mass index (BMI: to 18.4 kg/m2 (underweight), 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (normal), 25-30 kg/m2 (overweight) and more than 30.1 kg/m2 (obese). Methods: The presence and intensity of pain was evaluated in the thoracic and lumbar spine using a visual analogue scale (VAS). BMI is calculated by the standard formula based on body weight and height measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric and nonparametric methods. Significant changes were considered as p <0.05. Results: The intensity of pain in the thoracic spine was significantly higher in the underweight women in the age groups of 25-44 years (p = 0.04) and 60-74 years (p=0.005). The intensity of pain in the lumbar spine was significantly higher in the women of 45-59 years (p = 0.001) and 60-74 years (p = 0.0003) with obesity. In the women of 45-74 years BMI was significantly positively correlated with the level of pain in the lumbar spine. Obesity significantly increases the relative risk of pain in the lumbar region (RR=0.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.12; p=0.002)), while underweight significantly increases the risk of pain in the thoracic region (RR=1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46; p=0.05)). Conclusion: In women, vertebral pain syndrome may be related to the anthropometric characteristics (e.g., BMI). Underweight may indirectly influence the development of pain in the thoracic spine and increase the risk of pain in this part by 1.21 times. Obesity influences the development of pain in the lumbar spine increasing the risk by 1.07 times.

Keywords: Women, age, body mass index, pain in thoracic and lumbar spine

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35 Physical Fitness Factors of School Badminton Players in Kandy District

Authors: P. Cinthuja, J. A. O. A Jayakody, M. P. M. Perera, W. V. D. N. Weerarathna, S.E. Nirosha, D. K. D. C. Indeewari, T. Kaethieswaran, S. B. Adikari

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The aims of the study was to measure physical fitness parameters of school badminton players in the Kandy district and determine the factors contributing to improve the physical fitness. Height, weight, handgrip was measured and sit and reach test, shoulder flexibility test, standing long jump test, 20m sprint speed test, agility T-test and 20 m multistage shuttle run test were performed on 183 school badminton players. Linear regression and correlation tests were performed using body mass index, practiced duration, age category, level of performance, additional sports involvement as independent variables and physical fitness parameter as dependent variables. Results: The present study showed that the upper body power, upper body strength and endurance and speed depended on body mass index both in male and female school badminton players. Speed, agility, flexibility of shoulders, explosive power of shoulder and aerobic endurance depended on the duration of practiced. Furthermore, involvement in additional sports other than badminton did not enhance the performance of badminton players. But it decreased player’s performance by decreasing agility and speed. Age had an effect on the upper body power, explosive power of lower limb, agility and speed both in both males and females. Conclusions: The performance of badminton players could be enhanced by maintaining a proper body mass index. Badminton specific parameter could be improved by increasing the duration of practiced. Involvement in other sports does not give an added advantage to badminton players to improve their performance.

Keywords: Endurance, Badminton, body mass index, agility

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34 The Impact of Coffee Consumption to Body Mass Index and Body Composition

Authors: A.L. Tamm, N. Šott, J. Jürimäe, E. Lätt, A. Orav, Ü. Parm

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Coffee is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the world but still its effects on human organism are not completely understood. Coffee has also been used as a method for weight loss, but its effectiveness has not been proved. There is also not similar comprehension in classifying overweight in choosing between body mass index (BMI) and fat percentage (fat%). The aim of the study was to determine associations between coffee consumption and body composition. Secondly, to detect which measure (BMI or fat%) is more accurate to use describing overweight. Altogether 103 persons enrolled the study and divided into three groups: coffee non-consumers (n=39), average coffee drinkers, who consumed 1 to 4 cups (1 cup = ca 200ml) of coffee per day (n=40) and excessive coffee consumers, who drank at least five cups of coffee per day (n=24). Body mass (medical electronic scale, A&D Instruments, Abingdon, UK) and height (Martin metal anthropometer to the nearest 0.1 cm) were measured and BMI calculated (kg/m2). Participants´ body composition was detected with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic) and general data (history of chronic diseases included) and information about coffee consumption, and physical activity level was collected with questionnaires. Results of the study showed that excessive coffee consumption was associated with increased fat-free mass. It could be foremost due to greater physical activity level in school time or greater (not significant) male proportion in excessive coffee consumers group. For estimating the overweight the fat% in comparison to BMI recommended, as it gives more accurate results evaluating chronical disease risks. In conclusion coffee consumption probably does not affect body composition and for estimating the body composition fat% seems to be more accurate compared with BMI.

Keywords: Body Composition, body mass index, body fat percentage, coffee consumption

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33 The Reasons for Vegetarianism in Estonia and its Effects to Body Composition

Authors: Ülle Parm, Kata Pedamäe, Jaak Jürimäe, Evelin Lätt, Aivar Orav, Anna-Liisa Tamm

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Vegetarianism has gained popularity across the world. It`s being chosen for multiple reasons, but among Estonians, these have remained unknown. Previously, attention to bone health and probable nutrient deficiency of vegetarians has been paid and in vegetarians lower body mass index (BMI) and blood cholesterol level has been found but the results are inconclusive. The goal was to explain reasons for choosing vegetarian diet in Estonia and impact of vegetarianism to body composition – BMI, fat percentage (fat%), fat mass (FM), and fat free mass (FFM). The study group comprised of 68 vegetarians and 103 omnivorous. The determining body composition with DXA (Hologic) was concluded in 2013. Body mass (medical electronic scale, A&D Instruments, Abingdon, UK) and height (Martin metal anthropometer to the nearest 0.1 cm) were measured and BMI calculated (kg/m2). General data (physical activity level included) was collected with questionnaires. The main reasons why vegetarianism was chosen were the healthiness of the vegetarian diet (59%) and the wish to fight for animal rights (72%) Food additives were consumed by less than half of vegetarians, more often by men. Vegetarians had lower BMI than omnivores, especially amongst men. Based on BMI classification, vegetarians were less obese than omnivores. However, there were no differences in the FM, FFM and fat percentage figures of the two groups. Higher BMI might be the cause of higher physical activity level among omnivores compared with vegetarians. For classifying people as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese both BMI and fat% criteria were used. By BMI classification in comparison with fat%, more people in the normal weight group were considered; by using fat% in comparison with BMI classification, however, more people categorized as overweight. It can be concluded that the main reasons for vegetarianism chosen in Estonia are healthiness of the vegetarian diet and the wish to fight for animal rights and vegetarian diet has no effect on body fat percentage, FM and FFM.

Keywords: Body Composition, body mass index, body fat percentage, vegetarianism

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32 Pilot Study of Overweight and Obesity among 8-9 Year Old Schoolchildren in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Z. E. Battakova, G. Z. Tokmurziyeva, S. Z. Abdrakhmanova, A. A. Akimbaeva, A. A. Adaeva

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Introduction: In the Republic of Kazakhstan few studies have quantified overweight rates among children. Assessment of overweight and obesity in school children based on measured inter country comparable data has not been implemented. In this regard, in a pilot region, Aktobe oblast, prevalence of obesity among school children was studied based on the protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. Methods: The study was conducted on sample of 800 children of 2-3 grades in September 2014. The anthropometric variables were measured by standardized equipment to calculate body mass index. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined for 8 and 9 year old children by gender using WHO growth reference 2007. Results: 21,4% of children aged 8 years old were overweight, and 8,7% were obese. Among 8 year old boys the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23,7% and 10,6% respectively, among girls 18,9% and 6,7% respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 25,7% and obesity was 10,8% for 9 year old children. 29,6% boys of 9 years of age were overweight and 8,6% were obese respectively.20,9% of 9 year old girls were overweight and 13,4% were obese. Conclusion: Thus, 22,6% of children 8-9 years of age at the study population were overweight and 9,3% obese. The results of the survey demonstrate the need for further study of indicators at the national level for internationally comparable data and actions to tackle childhood obesity epidemic as well as the need for monitoring trends of overweight and obesity among children.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, body mass index

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31 Assessment of Body Mass Index among Children of Primary School in Behbahan City

Authors: Sana Mohammad Jafar, Hosseini Siahi Zohreh

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With increase in fat and over weight in children and its undesirable effects on different organisms of the body and since many of the sicknesses are due to over weight and with losing weight these sicknesses disappear, and on the other hand with mal nutrition and under weight in children other kind of sicknesses such as derogation of body's security system, frequent infection, insufficient growth, shortness, and delay in maturity etc. are some of the signs of being under weight. Therefore recognition of signs of over weight and under weight and their prevalence in children are important. To determine this difficulty we have used the body mass index as screening tool since it is very prevalent and a good and important guide and has very good relation with body fat in children. In this study 2321 students from primary schools in Behbahan have been chosen randomly and evaluated by height and weight and their body mass index have been calculated and then recorded on the BMI percentile diagram which is for age and gender. The following results obtained: The amount of total fat, over weight and slimness are 9.3, 12.1 and 12.32 percent respectively. Therefore 21.4% of the children were over weighted. It did not show any meaningful statistical relation in fat conditions among boys and girls, but there has been a meaningful statistical relation in slimness among boys and girls.

Keywords: Assessment, students, body mass index, Behbahan

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30 Addressing Undernourishment of Pupils in a Depressed Community through Feeding Program and Vitamin Supplementation

Authors: Alma M. Corpuz

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This study evaluated the supplemental feeding program for 59 undernourished pupils in an elementary school located in one of the depressed communities in Tarlac City, Philippines in SY 2013-2014. Pupils were fed for one month with heavy breakfast and afternoon snacks. They were also given vitamins daily. Findings revealed that most of the pupils regained normal Body Mass Indices (BMIs) during a routine weighing in the school opening. In addition, results revealed that the academic performance of the pupils in the 4th Quarter, after the feeding program, was higher compared to the 3rd Quarter period. The researchers recommended that school extension programs should prioritize activities to address malnutrition among pupils to help them perform well in academics. In addition, feeding programs must include heavy meal plans like what was implemented in this project. The feeding program must also include giving of milk and vitamins to ensure significant improvement in their nutrition. It is also important that feacalysis and deworming be performed before the feeding program and proper handwashing be integrated into the feeding activity.

Keywords: body mass index, wasted, severely wasted, supplemental feeding

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29 Overweight and Neurocognitive Functioning: Unraveling the Antagonistic Relationship in Adolescents

Authors: Swati Bajpai, S. P. K Jena

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Background: There is dramatic increase in the prevalence and severity of overweight in adolescents, raising concerns about their psychosocial and cognitive consequences, thereby indicating the immediate need to understand the effects of increased weight on scholastic performance. Although the body of research is currently limited, available results have identified an inverse relationship between obesity and cognition in adolescents. Aim: to examine the association between increased Body Mass Index in adolescents and their neurocognitive functioning. Methods: A case –control study of 28 subjects in the age group of 11-17 years (14 Males and 14 females) was taken on the basis of main inclusion criteria (Body Mass Index). All of them were randomized to (experimental group: overweight) and (control group: normal weighted). A complete neurocognitive assessment was carried out using validated psychological scales namely, Color Progressive Matrices (to assess intelligence); Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (Perceptual motor functioning); PGI-Memory Scale for Children (memory functioning) and Malin’s Intelligence Scale Indian Children (verbal and performance ability). Results: statistical analysis of the results depicted that 57% of the experimental group lack in cognitive abilities, especially in general knowledge (99.1±12.0 vs. 102.8±6.7), working memory (91.5±8.4 vs. 93.1±8.7), concrete ability (82.3±11.5 vs. 92.6±1.7) and perceptual motor functioning (1.5±1.0 vs. 0.3±0.9) as compared to control group. Conclusion: Our investigations suggest that weight gain results, at least in part, from a neurological predisposition characterized by reduced executive function, and in turn obesity itself has a compounding negative impact on the brain. Though, larger sample is needed to make more affirmative claims.

Keywords: Obesity, Adolescents, body mass index, neurocognition

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28 The Effect of Exercise, Reflexology and Chrome on Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: F. Arslan, S.D. Guven, A. Özcan, H. Vatansev, Ö. Taşgin

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Weight, hypertension and dyslipidemia control and increased physical activity are required for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (METS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of core exercise, reflexology and intake chrome picolinate on METS. This study comprised a twelve-week randomized controlled trial. A total of 25 university workers with metabolic risk factors participated in this study voluntarily. They were randomly divided into three groups: Those undertaking a core exercise program (n=7), reflexology intervention group (n=8) and intake chrome group (n=10). The subjects took part in a core exercise program for one hour per day, three days a week and a reflexology interfered for thirty minutes per day, one days a week and chrome group took chrome picolinate every day in week for twelve weeks. The components of metabolic syndrome were analyzed before and after the completion of all the intervention. There were significant differences at pre-prandial blood glucose in the core exercise group and at systolic blood pressure in chrome group after the twelve week interventions (p < 0.005). While High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) excluding the components of METS decreased after the interventions on the all groups; levels of HDL and the other components of METS decreased in reflexology group. There was a clear response to the twelve-week interventions in terms of METS control. Besides, the reflexology intervention should not be applied to individuals with low HDL levels and core exercise and intake chrome picolinate suggested to improve the components of METS.

Keywords: Exercise, Blood Pressure, body mass index, METS, pre-prandial blood glucose

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27 Obese and Overweight Women and Public Health Issues in Hillah City, Iraq

Authors: Amean A. Yasir, Zainab Kh. A. Al-Mahdi Al-Amean

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In both developed and developing countries, obesity among women is increasing, but in different patterns and at very different speeds. It may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. This research studied the age distribution among obese women, the types of overweight and obesity, and the extent of the problem of overweight/obesity and the obesity etiological factors among women in Hillah city in central Iraq. A total of 322 overweight and obese women were included in the study, those women were randomly selected. The Body Mass Index was used as indicator for overweight/ obesity. The incidence of overweight/obesity among age groups were estimated, the etiology factors included genetic, environmental, genetic/environmental and endocrine disease. The overweight and obese women were screened for incidence of infection and/or diseases. The study found that the prevalence of 322 overweight and obese women in Hillah city in central Iraq was 19.25% and 80.78%, respectively. The obese women types were recorded based on BMI and WHO classification as class-1 obesity (29.81%), class-2 obesity (24.22%) and class-3 obesity (26.70%), the result was discrepancy non-significant, P value < 0.05. The incidence of overweight in women was high among those aged 20-29 years (90.32%), 6.45% aged 30-39 years old and 3.22% among ≥ 60 years old, while the incidence of obesity was 20.38% for those in the age group 20-29 years, 17.30% were 30-39 years, 23.84% were 40-49 years, 16.92% were 50-59 years group and 21.53% were ≥ 60 years age group. These results confirm that the age can be considered as a significant factor for obesity types (P value < 0.0001). The result also showed that the both genetic factors and environmental factors were responsible for incidents of overweight or obesity (84.78%) p value < 0.0001. The results also recorded cases of different repeated infections (skin infection, recurrent UTI and influenza), cancer, gallstones, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and infertility. Weight stigma and bias generally refers to negative attitudes; Obesity can affect quality of life, and the results of this study recorded depression among overweight or obese women. This can lead to sexual problems, shame and guilt, social isolation and reduced work performance. Overweight and Obesity are real problems among women of all age groups and is associated with the risk of diseases and infection and negatively affects quality of life. This result warrants further studies into the prevalence of obesity among women in Hillah City in central Iraq and the immune response of obese women.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, Iraq, body mass index

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26 The Relationship of Aromatase Activity and Being Very Overweight in East Indian Women with or Without Polycystic Ovary Disease

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty, Rimi Pal, Siddhartha Chatterjee, Joyshree Chaterjee, Amal Mallik

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Background: Women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) frequently suffer from metabolic disturbances. PCOD is a common ovulatory disorder in young women, which affects 5-10% of the population and results in infertility due to anovulation. Importantly, aromatase in ovarian granulosa and luteinized granulosa cells plays an important role for women of reproductive age. Generation and metabolism of androgen is directly related to aromatase activity. The E2/T ratio provides important information about aromatase activity because conversion of androgens to estrogens is mediated by CYP19, suggesting that the E2/T ratio may be a direct marker of aromatase activity. The nature of the interaction between ovarian aromatase activity and PCOD in women has been controversial, and the impact of weight gain on aromatase activity as well as E2 levels is unknown. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the association and relation between aromatase activity and levels of body mass index (BMI) from a reproductive hormone perspective in a group of women with or without PCOD. Methods: We designed a cohort study which included 200 individuals. It enrolled 100 cases of PCOD based on 2006 Rotterdam criteria and 100 ovulatory normal- non PCOD, healthy, age-matched controls. Plasma sex hormones viz. estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by ELISA on the second day of the menstrual cycle, together with BMI and E2/T were calculated. Aromatase activity in PCOD patients with different BMI, T and E2 levels were compared. Results: PCOD patients showed significantly increased levels of BMI, E2 (P=0.004), T and LH, while their E2/T (P= <0.001), FSH and FSH/LH values were decreased compared with the control group. Higher E2 levels correlated with a relatively enhanced E2/T as well as T and LH levels but reduced BMI, FSH and FSH/LH levels in women with PCOD. Hyperandrogenic PCOD patients had increased E2 levels but their aromatase activity was markedly inhibited independent of their BMI values. Conclusions: We found a significant decrease of ovarian aromatase activity in women with PCOD as compared to controls. Our study showed that ovarian aromatase activity in PCOD was decreased which was independent of BMI. Enhancing aromatase activity may become an optimized strategy for developing therapies for PCOD women, especially those with obesity.

Keywords: Obesity, body mass index, aromatase activity, polycystic ovary disease

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25 Relationship between the Development of Sepsis, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Body Mass Index among Adult Trauma Patients at University Hospital in Cairo

Authors: Mohamed Hendawy Mousa, Warda Youssef Mohamed Morsy

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Background: Sepsis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. Body mass index as an indicator of nutritional status was reported as a predictor of injury pattern and complications among critically ill injured patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body mass index and the development of sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome among adult trauma patients at emergency hospital - Cairo University. Research design: Descriptive correlational research design was utilized in the current study. Research questions: Q1. What is the body mass index profile of adult trauma patients admitted to the emergency hospital at Cairo University over a period of 6 months?, Q2. What is the frequency of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis among adult trauma patients admitted to the emergency hospital at Cairo University over a period of 6 months?, and Q3. What is the relationship between the development of sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and body mass index among adult trauma patients admitted to the emergency hospital at Cairo University over a period of 6 months?. Sample: A purposive sample of 52 adult male and female trauma patients with revised trauma score 10 to 12. Setting: The Emergency Hospital affiliated to Cairo University. Tools: Four tools were utilized to collect data pertinent to the study: Socio demographic and medical data tool, Systemic inflammatory response syndrome assessment tool, Revised Trauma Score tool, and Sequential organ failure assessment tool. Results: The current study revealed that, (61.5 %) of the studied subjects had normal body mass index, (25 %) were overweight, and (13.5 %) were underweight. 84.6% of the studied subjects had systemic inflammatory response syndrome and 92.3% were suffering from mild sepsis. No significant statistical relationship was found between body mass index and occurrence of Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (2= 2.89 & P = 0.23). However, Sequential organ failure assessment scores were affected significantly by body mass index was found mean of initial and last Sequential organ failure assessment score for underweight, normal and obese where t= 7.24 at p = 0.000, t= 16.49 at p = 0.000 and t= 9.80 at p = 0.000 respectively. Conclusion: Underweight trauma patients showed significantly higher rate of developing sepsis as compared to patients with normal body weight and obese. Recommendations: based on finding of this study the following are recommended: replication of the study on a larger probability sample from different geographical locations in Egypt; Carrying out of further studies in order to assess the other risk factors influencing trauma outcome and incidence of its complications; Establishment of standardized guidelines for managing underweight traumatized patients with sepsis.

Keywords: sepsis, body mass index, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, adult trauma

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24 Mechanical Ventilation: Relationship between Body Mass Index and Selected Patients' Outcomes at a University Hospital in Cairo

Authors: Warda Youssef Mohamed Morsy, Mohamed Mamdouh Al-Banna, Hanaa Ali El-Feky, Ashraf Hussein Abdelmohsen

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Background: The mechanically ventilated patients need a special nursing care with continuous closed observation. The patients’ body mass index may affect their prognosis or outcomes. Aim of the study: to investigate the relationship between BMI and selected outcomes of critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Research Design: A descriptive correlational research design was utilized Research questions: a) what is the BMI profile of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to critical care units over a period of six months? b) What is the relationship between body mass index and frequency of organ dysfunction, length of ICU stay, weaning from mechanical ventilation, and the mortality rate among adult critically ill mechanically ventilated patients? Setting: different intensive care units of Cairo University Hospitals. Sample: A convenience sample of 30 mechanically ventilated patients for at least 72 hours. Tools of data collection: Three tools were utilized to collect data pertinent to the current study: tool 1: patients’ sociodemographic and medical data sheet, tool 2: BURNS Wean Assessment Program (BWAP) checklist, tool 3: Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score) sheet. Results: The majority of the studied sample (77%) was males, and (26.7 %) of the studied sample were in the age group of 18-28 years old, and (26.7 %) were in the age group of 40-50 years old. Moreover, two thirds (66.7%) of the studied sample were within normal BMI. No significant statistical relationship between BMI category and ICU length of stay or the mortality rate among the studied sample, (X² = 11.31, P value = 0.79), (X² = 0.15, P value = 0.928) respectively. No significant statistical relationship between BMI category and the weaning trials from mechanical ventilation among the studied sample, (X² = 0.15, P value = 0.928). No significant statistical relationship was found between BMI category and the occurrence of organ dysfunction among the studied sample, (X² = 2.54, P value = 0.637). Conclusion: No relationship between the BMI categories and the selected patients’ outcomes (weaning from MV, length of ICU stay, occurrence of organ dysfunction, mortality rate). Recommendations: Replication of this study on a larger sample from different geographical locations in Arab Republic of Egypt, conducting farther studies to assess the effect of the quality of nursing care on the mechanically ventilated patients’ outcomes.

Keywords: body mass index, mechanical ventilation, outcomes of mechanically ventilated patient, organ failure

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23 A Cross-Sectional Study on the Correlation between Body Mass Index and Self-Esteem among Children Ages 9-12 Years Old in a Public Elementary School in Makati, Philippines

Authors: Jerickson Abbie Flores, Jana Fragante, Jan Paolo Dipasupil, Jan Jorge Francisco

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Malnutrition is one of the rapidly growing health problems affecting the world at present. Children affected are not only at risk for significant health problems, but are also faced with psychological and social consequences, including low self-esteem. School-age children are specifically vulnerable to develop poor self-esteem especially when their peers find them physically unattractive. Thus, malnutrition, whether obesity or undernourishment, contributes a significant role to a developing child’s health and behavior. This research aims to determine if there is a significant difference on the level of self-esteem among Filipino children ages 9-12 years old with abnormal body mass index (BMI) and those children with desirable BMI. Using a cross-sectional study design, the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and self-esteem was observed among children ages 9-12 years old. Participants took the Hare self esteem questionnaire, which is specifically designed to measure self-esteem in school age children. The lowest possible score is 15 and the highest possible score is 45. A total of 1140 students with ages 9-12 years old from Cembo Elementary School (public school) participated in the study. Among the participants, 239 out of the 1140 have desirable body mass index, 878 are underweight, and 23 are overweight. Using the test questionnaire, the computed mean scores were 36.599, 36.045 and 36.583 for normal, underweight and overweight categories respectively. Using Pearson’s Correlation Test and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient Test, the study showed positive correlation (p value of 0.047 and 0.004 respectively) between BMI and Self-esteem scores which indicates that the higher the BMI, the higher the self-esteem of the participants.

Keywords: Malnutrition, body mass index, school-age children, self-esteem

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22 Body Mass Index and Dietary Habits among Nursing College Students Living in the University Residence in Kirkuk City, Iraq

Authors: Jenan Shakoor

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Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide. University life is a challenging period especially for students who have to leave their familiar surroundings and settle in a new environment. The current study aimed to assess the diet and exercise habits and their association with body mass index (BMI) among nursing college students living at Kirkuk University residence. This was a descriptive study. A non-probability (purposive) sample of 101 students living in Kirkuk University residence was recruited during the period from the 15th November 2015 to the 5th May 2016. A questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of the study which consisted of four parts: the demographic characteristics of the study sample, eating habits, eating at college and healthy habits. The data were collected by interviewing the study sample and the weight and height were measured by a trained researcher at the college. Descriptive statistical analysis was undertaken. Data were prepared, organized and entered into the computer file; the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 20) was used for data analysis. A p value≤ 0.05 was accepted as statistical significant. A total of 63 (62.4%) of the sample were aged20-21with a mean age of 22.1 (SD±0.653). A third of the sample 38 (37.6%) were from level four at college, 67 (66.3%) were female and 46 45.5% of participants were from a middle socio-economic status. 14 (13.9%) of the study sample were overweight (BMI =25-29.9kg/m2) and 6 (5.9%) were obese (BMI≥30kg/m2) compared to 73 (72.3%) were of normal weight (BMI =18.5-24.9kg/m2). With regard to eating habits and exercise, 42 (41.6%) of the students rarely ate breakfast, 79 (78.2%) eat lunch at university residence, 77 (78.2%) of the students reported rarely doing exercise and 62 (61.4%) of them were sleeping for less than eight hours. No significant association was found between the variables age, sex, level of college and socio-economic status and BMI, while there was a significant association between eating lunch at university and BMI (p =0.03). No significant association was found between eating habits, healthy habits and BMI. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the study sample was 19.8% with female students being more obese than males. Further studies are needed to identify BMI among residence students in other colleges and increasing the awareness of undergraduate students to healthy food habits.

Keywords: Obesity, diet, body mass index, university residence

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21 Effects of High-Protein, Low-Energy Diet on Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Clinical Trial

Authors: Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Makan Cheraghpour, Saeed Shirali, Matin Ghanavati, Meysam Alipour, Damoon Ashtary-Larky

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Background: In addition to reducing body weight, the low-calorie diets can reduce the lean body mass. It is hypothesized that in addition to reducing the body weight, the low-calorie diets can maintain the lean body mass. So, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of high-protein diet with calorie restriction on body composition in overweight and obese individuals. Methods: 36 obese and overweight subjects were divided randomly into two groups. The first group received a normal-protein, low-energy diet (RDA), and the second group received a high-protein, low-energy diet (2×RDA). The anthropometric indices including height, weight, body mass index, body fat mass, fat free mass, and body fat percentage were evaluated before and after the study. Results: A significant reduction was observed in anthropometric indices in both groups (high-protein, low-energy diets and normal-protein, low-energy diets). In addition, more reduction in fat free mass was observed in the normal-protein, low-energy diet group compared to the high -protein, low-energy diet group. In other the anthropometric indices, significant differences were not observed between the two groups. Conclusion: Independently of the type of diet, low-calorie diet can improve the anthropometric indices, but during a weight loss, high-protein diet can help the fat free mass to be maintained.

Keywords: diet, body mass index, body fat percentage, high-protein

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20 Relationship between Body Mass Composition and Primary Dysmenorrhoea

Authors: Snehalata Tembhurne

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Introduction: A healthy menstrual cycle is a sign of women’s sound health.Various variables may influence the length and regularity of menstrual cycle.Studies have revealed that menstrual cycle abnormalities may be associated with psychological stress,lack of physical exercise, alteration in body composition,endocrine disturbances,higher estrogen levels as seen in obese females.Hence there is an urgent need to find out the relationship between variations in body mass composition(BMI & body fat%) with menstrual abnormalities like primary dysmenorrhoea. Aim: To find out the relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Objectives: 1.To check whether there is any association between body mass index and primary dysmenorrhoea.2.To check whether there is any association between body fat percentage and primary dysmenorrhoea. NULL HYPOTHESES-There is no relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Hypothesis: There exists a relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months with 90 samples selected on random basis. The procedure was explained to the participant and a written consent was taken thereafter. The participant was made to stand on the BODY COMPOSITION SCANNING MONITOR, which scanned the physical profile of the participant (height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage and visceral fat).Thereafter, the candidate was asked about her menstrual irregularities and was asked to grade her level of dysmenorrhoea (if present) using the Verbal Dimensional Dysmenorrhea Scale. Results: Chi square test of association was used to find out the association between body mass composition(body mass index,body fat percentage) and primary dysmenorrhea.The chi-square value for association between body mass index and primary dysmenorrhea was 38.63 p<0.001 which was statistically significant.The chi-square value for the association of body fat % & primary dysmenorrhea was 30.09,p<0.001which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Study shows that there exists a significant relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea and as the value of Body mass index and body fat percentages goes on increasing in females, the severity of primary dysmenorrhea also increases.

Keywords: body mass index, body composition screening monitor, primary dysmenorrhea, verbal dimensional dysmenorrhea scale

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19 A Comparitive Study of the Effect of Stress on the Cognitive Parameters in Women with Increased Body Mass Index before and after Menopause

Authors: Ramesh Bhat, Ammu Somanath, A. K. Nayanatara

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Background: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a critical public health problem for women. The negative effect of stress on memory and cognitive functions has been widely explored for decades in numerous research projects using a wide range of methodology. Deterioration of memory and other brain functions are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. Estrogen fluctuations and withdrawal have myriad direct effects on the central nervous system that have the potential to influence cognitive functions. Aim: The present study aims to compare the effect of stress on the cognitive functions in overweight/obese women before and after menopause. Material and Methods: A total of 142 female subjects constituting women before menopause between the age group of 18–44 years and women after menopause between the age group of 45–60 years were included in the sample. Participants were categorized into overweight/obese groups based on the body mass index. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) the major tool was used for measuring the perception of stress. Based on the stress scale measurement each group was classified into with stress and without stress. Addenbrooke’s cognitive Examination-III was used for measuring the cognitive functions. Results: Premenopausal women with stress showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the cognitive parameters such as attention and orientation Fluency, language and visuospatial ability. Memory did not show any significant change in this group. Whereas, in the postmenopausal stressed women all the cognitive functions except fluency showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease after menopause stressed group. Conclusion: Stress is a significant factor on the cognitive functions of obese and overweight women before and after menopause. Practice of Yoga, Encouragement in activities like gardening, embroidery, games and relaxation techniques should be recommended to prevent stress. Insights into the neurobiology before and after menopause can be gained from future studies examining the effect on the HPA axis in relation to cognition and stress.

Keywords: Cognition, stress, body mass index, premenopausal

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18 The Investigation of Correlation between Body Composition and Physical Activity in University Students

Authors: Betul Taspinar, Eda O. Okur, Ismail Saracoglu, Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Emrah Afsar

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Alterations of physical activity can effect body composition (especially body fat ratio); however body mass index may not sufficient to indicate these minimal differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition and physical activity in university students. In this study, 132 university students (mean age; 21.21±1.51) were included. Tanita BC-418 and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were used to evaluate participants. The correlation between the parameters was analysed via Spearman correlation analysis. Significance level in statistical analyses was accepted is 0.05. The results showed that there was no correlation between body mass index and physical activity (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between body muscle ratio and physical activity, whereas a negative correlation between body fat ratio and physical activity (p<0.05). This study showed that body fat and muscle ratio affects the level of physical activity in healthy university students. Therefore, we thought that physical activity might reduce effects of the diseases caused by disturbed body composition. Further studies are required to support this idea.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Body Composition, body mass index, university student

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17 An Evaluation of the Relationship between the Anthropometric Measurements and Blood Lipid Profiles in Adolescents

Authors: Nalan Hakime Nogay

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Childhood obesity is a significant health issue that is currently on the rise all over the world. In recent years, the relationship between childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease risk has been pointed out. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between some of the anthropometric indicators and blood lipid levels in adolescents. The present study has been conducted on a total of 252 adolescents -200 girls and 52 boys- within an age group of 12 to 18 years. Blood was drawn from each participant in the morning -after having fasted for 10 hours from the day before- to analyze their total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Their body weight, height, waist circumference, subscapular skinfold thicknesses and triceps skinfold thicknesses measurements were taken and their individual waist/height ratios, BMI and body fat ratios were calculated. The blood lipid levels of the participants were categorized as acceptable, borderline and high in accordance with the 2011 Expert Panel Integrated Guidelines. The body fat ratios, total blood cholesterol and HDL levels of the girls were significantly higher than the boys whereas their waist circumference values were lower. The triglyceride levels, total cholesterol/HDL, LDL/HDL, triglyceride/HDL ratios of the group with the BMI ≥ 95 percentile ratio (the obese group) were higher than the groups that were considered to be overweight and normal weight as per their respective BMI values, while the HDL level of the obese group was lower; a fact that was found to be statistically significant. No significant relationship could be established, however, between the total blood cholesterol and LDL levels with their anthropometric measurements. The BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio, body fat ratio and triglyceride level of the group with the higher triglyceride level ( ≥ 130mg/dl) were found to be significantly higher compared to borderline (90-129 mg/dl) and the normal group (< 90 mg/dl). The BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio values of the group with the lower HDL level ( < 40 mg/dl) were significantly higher than the normal ( > 45 mg/dl) and borderline (40-45 mg/dl) groups. All of the anthropometric measurements of the group with the higher triglyceride/HDL ratio ( ≥ 3) were found to be significantly higher than that of the group with the lower ratio (< 3). Having a high BMI, waist/height ratio and waist circumference is related to low HDL and high blood triglyceride and triglyceride/HDL ratio. A high body fat ratio, on the other hand, is associated with a low HDL and high triglyceride/HDL ratio. Tackling childhood and adolescent obesity are important in terms of preventing cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Adolescent, Body Fat, lipid profile, body mass index

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16 Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents in Relation to Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight

Authors: E. Anagnostou, E. Vlachopapadopoulou, E. Dikaiakou, I. Panagiotopoulos, E. Kaloumenou, M. Kafetzi, A. Fotinou, S. Michalacos

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Aim: To investigate the relation and impact of Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Fat Weight (BFW) on insulin resistance (MATSUDA INDEX < 2.5) in children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 95 overweight and obese children (47 boys and 48 girls) with mean age 10.7 ± 2.2 years were analyzed. ROC analysis was used to investigate the predictive ability of BMI, WC and BFW for insulin resistance and find the optimal cut-offs. The overall performance of the ROC analysis was quantified by computing area under the curve (AUC). Results: ROC curve analysis indicated that the optimal-cut off of WC for the prediction of insulin resistance was 97 cm with sensitivity equal to 75% and specificity equal to 73.1%. AUC was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63-0.92, p=0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of obesity for the discrimination of participants with insulin resistance from those without insulin resistance were equal to 58.3% and 75%, respectively (AUC=0.67). BFW had a borderline predictive ability for insulin resistance (AUC=0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.74, p=0.101). The predictive ability of WC was equivalent with the correspondence predictive ability of BMI (p=0.891). Obese subjects had 4.2 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 1.71-10.30, p < 0.001), while subjects with WC more than 97 had 8.1 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 2.14-30.86, p=0.002). Conclusion: BMI and WC are important clinical factors that have significant clinical relation with insulin resistance in children and adolescents. The cut off of 97 cm for WC can identify children with greater likelihood for insulin resistance.

Keywords: insulin resistance, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat weight, obese children

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15 Vitamin D Status in Relation to Body Mass Index: Population of Carpathian Region

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Ivan Pankiv

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The present research has attempted to link a higher body weight with a lower vitamin D status. Objective: Vitamin D status of Carpathian region population in Ukraine was studied to examine whether serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data collected from 302 adults (18–84 years) were analyzed. Variables measured included serum 25(OH)D, weight and height used to determine BMI status. Results: Mean 25(OH)D level was 23.2 ± 8.1 ng/mL for the group; 26.3 ± 8.4 ng/mL and 22.8 ± 9.1 ng/mL for males and females, respectively. Based on BMI, 3.6% were underweight, 21.2% had a normal weight, 46.4% were overweight and 28.8% obese. Only in 28 cases (9.3%), content of 25(ОН)D in the serum of blood was within the normal limits, and there were vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency observed in other cases (90.7%). Thus, severe vitamin D deficiency was revealed in 1.7% of the inspected. A significant interrelation between levels of 25(OH)D in blood and BMI was found among persons with BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2. Mean value of 25(OH)D levels among persons with obesity did not differ to a significant extent from indexes in persons with normal body weight. Conclusion: Status of vitamin D among the population of Carpathian region remains far from optimal and requires urgent measures in correction and prevention. Results confirmed a poor inverse relationship between vitamin D status and BMI. Intercommunication between maintenance of vitamin D and BMI requires further investigations.

Keywords: Obesity, body mass index, vitamin D, Carpathian region

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