Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Body Composition Related Abstracts

33 Investigating Relationship between Body Size and Physical Fitness Factors among University Students

Authors: Allahyar Arabmomeni, Hojjatollah Alaei


Background: The objectives of this study was to investigate effect of anthropometric variables and body composition on physical capabilities among male and female students. Materials and Methods: The study had a descriptive correlation method. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, from 2011 to 2013, which was about 7000 students. The statistical sample included 300 male and 300 female students who were randomly selected from among university students in proportion to frequency of students in each faculty. Descriptive statistical methods, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: Results of this research showed that body size of male students in the studied variables was more than that of female students (p<0.05). Moreover, there was significant difference between all the variables based on significance level of the table. Also, the results taken from the Pearson correlation of this study's variables showed a positive relationship between height and leg and hand length and sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests (p<0/01). Besides, there was a positive correlation between hand length, sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests. As far as tests of length of legs and vertical jump were concerned, a highly positive correlation was observed between them. Additionally, results of this study indicated a significant correlation at alpha level of 0.05 between age and height of the students; but, there was a negative correlation between age, sit-up and 1600-m tests (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a relationship between size of weight, height, length of hands and legs and some physical fitness tests. Therefore, it is required to consider anthropometric factors in addition to gender and age while preparing norms of physical fitness since variables of height and length of hands also affect physical fitness evaluation.

Keywords: Body Composition, students, anthropometric variables, physical fitness factors

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32 Variations in % Body Fat, the Amount of Skeletal Muscle and the Index of Physical Fitness in Relation to Sports Activity/Inactivity in Different Age Groups of the Adult Population in the Czech Republic

Authors: Hřebíčková Sylva, Grasgruber Pavel, Ondráček Jan, Cacek Jan, Kalina Tomáš


The aim of this study was to describe typical changes in several parameters of body composition – the amount of skeletal muscle mass (SMM), % body fat (BF) and body mass index (BMI) - in selected age categories (30+ years) of men and women in the Czech Republic, depending on the degree of sports activity. Study (n = 823, M = 343, F = 480) monitored differences in BF, SM and BMI in five age groups (from 30-39 years to 70+ years). Physically inactive individuals have (p < 0.05) higher % BF in comparison with physically active individuals (29.5 ± 0.59 vs. 27 ± 0.38%), higher BMI (27.3 ± 0.32 vs. 26.1 ± 0.20 kg/m2), but lower SM (39.0 ± 0.33 vs. 40.4 ± 0.21%). The results indicate that with an increasing age, there is a trend towards increasing values of BMI and % BF, and decreasing values of SMM.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Body Composition, Body Fat, skeletal muscle

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31 Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Young Soccer Players in Republic of Macedonia

Authors: Lidija Todorovska, Sanja Manchevska, Vaska Antevska, Beti Dejanova, Sunchica Petrovska, Ivanka Karagjozova, Elizabeta Sivevska, Jasmina Pluncevic Gligoroska


Introduction: A number of positive effects on the player’s physical status, including the body mass components are attributed to training process. As young soccer players grow up qualitative and quantitative changes appear and contribute to better performance. Player’s anthropometric and physiologic characteristics are recognized as important determinants of performance. Material: A sample of 52 soccer players with an age span from 9 to 14 years were divided in two groups differentiated by age. The younger group consisted of 25 boys under 11 years (mean age 10.2) and second group consisted of 27 boys with mean age 12.64. Method: The set of basic anthropometric parameters was analyzed: height, weight, BMI (Body Mass Index) and body mass components. Maximal oxygen uptake was tested using the treadmill protocol by Brus. Results: The group aged under 11 years showed the following anthropometric and physiological features: average height= 143.39cm, average weight= 44.27 kg; BMI= 18.77; Err = 5.04; Hb= 13.78 g/l; VO2=37.72 mlO2/kg. Average values of analyzed parameters were as follows: height was 163.7 cm; weight= 56.3 kg; BMI = 19.6; VO2= 39.52 ml/kg; Err=5.01; Hb=14.3g/l for the participants aged 12 to14 years. Conclusion: Physiological parameters (maximal oxygen uptake, erythrocytes and Hb) were insignificantly higher in the older group compared to the younger group. There were no statistically significant differences between analyzed anthropometric parameters among the two groups except for the basic measurements (height and weight).

Keywords: Body Composition, BMI, young soccer players, physical status

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30 Body Mass Components in Young Soccer Players

Authors: Lidija Todorovska, Sanja Manchevska, Vaska Antevska, Beti Dejanova, Sunchica Petrovska, Ivanka Karagjozova, Elizabeta Sivevska, Jasmina Pluncevic Gligoroska


Introduction: Body composition plays an important role in the selection of young soccer players and it is associated with their successful performance. The most commonly used model of body composition divides the body into two compartments: fat components and fat-free mass (muscular and bone components). The aims of the study were to determine the body composition parameters of young male soccer players and to show the differences in age groups. Material and methods: A sample of 52 young male soccer players, with an age span from 9 to 14 years were divided into two groups according to the age (group 1 aged 9 to 12 years and group 2 aged 12 to 14 years). Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the method of Mateigka. The following measurements were made: body weight, body height, circumferences (arm, forearm, thigh and calf), diameters (elbow, knee, wrist, ankle) and skinfold thickness (biceps, triceps, thigh, leg, chest, abdomen). The measurements were used in Mateigka’s equations. Results: Body mass components were analyzed as absolute values (in kilograms) and as percentage values: the muscular component (MC kg and MC%), the bone component (BCkg and BC%) and the body fat (BFkg and BF%). The group up to 12 years showed the following mean values of the analyzed parameters: MM=21.5kg; MM%=46.3%; BC=8.1kg; BC%=19.1%; BF= 6.3kg; BF%= 15.7%. The second group aged 12-14 year had mean values of body composition parameters as follows: MM=25.6 kg; MM%=48.2%; BC = 11.4 kg; BC%=21.6%; BF= 8.5 kg; BF%= 14. 7%. Conclusions: The young soccer players aged 12 up to 14 years who are in the pre-pubertal phase of growth and development had higher bone component (p<0.05) compared to younger players. There is no significant difference in muscular and fat body component between the two groups of young soccer players.

Keywords: Body Composition, Body Fat, young soccer players, fat-free mass

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29 Body Composition Analyser Parameters and Their Comparison with Manual Measurements

Authors: S. Petrovska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, V. Antevska, I. Karagjozova


Introduction: Medical checking assessment is important in sports medicine. To follow the health condition in subjects who perform sports, body composition parameters, such as intracellular water, extracellular water, protein and mineral content, muscle and fat mass might be useful. The aim of the study was to show available parameters and to compare them to manual assessment. Material and methods: A number of 20 subjects (14 male and 6 female) at age of 20±2 years were determined in the study, 5 performed recreational sports, while others were professional ones. The mean height was 175±7 cm, the mean weight was 72±9 cm, and the body mass index (BMI) was 23±2 kg/m2. The measured compartments were as following: intracellular water (IW), extracellular water (EW), protein component (PC), mineral component (MC), skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and body fat mass (BFM). Lean balance were examined for right and left arm (LA), trunk (T), right leg (RL) and left leg (LL). The comparison was made between the calculation derived by manual made measurements, using Matejka formula and parameters obtained by body composition analyzer (BCA) - Inbody 720 BCA Biospace. Used parameters for the comparison were muscle mass (SMM), body fat mass (BFM). Results: BCA obtained values were for: IW - 22.6±5L, EW - 13.5±2 L, PC - 9.8±0.9 kg, MC - 3.5±0.3, SMM - 27±3 kg, BFM - 13.8±4 kg. Lean balance showed following values for: RA - 2.45±0.2 kg, LA - 2.37±0.4, T - 20.9±5 kg, RL - 7.43±1 kg, and LL - 7.49 ±1.5 kg. SMM showed statistical difference between manual obtained value, 51±01% to BCA parameter 45.5±3% (p<0.001). Manual obtained values for BFM was lower (17±2%) than BCA obtained one, 19.5±5.9% (p<0.02). Discussion: The obtained results showed appropriate values for the examined age, regarding to all examined parameters which contribute to overview the body compartments, important for sport performing. Due to comparison between the manual and BCA assessment, we may conclude that manual measurements may differ from the certain ones, which is confirmed by statistical significance.

Keywords: Sports Medicine, Body Composition, athletes, bio electrical impedance

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28 A Comparison of Three Protocols Weight-Loss Interventions for Obese Females

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Rokia El-Banna, Mohamed S. El Hussieny


There are several different modalities for treatment of obesity. Common intervention methods for obesity include low-calorie diet, exercise. Also acupuncture has shown good therapeutic results in the treatment of obesity. A recent clinical observation showed that laser acupuncture could reduce body weight and body mass index in obese persons. So, the aim of this research is focused on body composition changes as related to type of intervention, before and after intentional weight loss in overweight and obesity. 76 subjects were included in the study analysis. The present study recommended that every obese female must do lipid profile and fasting blood sugar analysis before weight-loss intervention to take the decision of which method should be used.

Keywords: Obesity, modalities, Body Composition, weight-loss

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27 Body Composition Analysis of Wild Labeo Bata in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Chenab, Multan, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Amina Zubari, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari and Naveed Ahmad Khan


Seventy three wild Labeo bata of different body sizes, ranging from 8.20-16.00 cm total length and 7.4-86.19 g body weight, were studied for the analysis of body composition parameters (Water content, ash content, fat content, protein content) in relation to body size and condition factor. Mean percentage is found as for water 77.71 %, ash 3.42 %, fat 2.20 % and protein content 16.65 % in whole wet body weight. Highly significant positive correlations were observed between condition factor and body weight (r = 0.243). Protein contents, organic content and ash (% wet body weight) increase with increasing percent water contents for Labeo bata while these constituents (% dry body weight) and fat contents (% wet and dry body weight) have no influence on percent water. It was observed that variations in the body constituents have no association to body weight or length.

Keywords: Body Composition, Labeo bata, body size, condition factor

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26 The Impact of Coffee Consumption to Body Mass Index and Body Composition

Authors: A.L. Tamm, N. Šott, J. Jürimäe, E. Lätt, A. Orav, Ü. Parm


Coffee is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the world but still its effects on human organism are not completely understood. Coffee has also been used as a method for weight loss, but its effectiveness has not been proved. There is also not similar comprehension in classifying overweight in choosing between body mass index (BMI) and fat percentage (fat%). The aim of the study was to determine associations between coffee consumption and body composition. Secondly, to detect which measure (BMI or fat%) is more accurate to use describing overweight. Altogether 103 persons enrolled the study and divided into three groups: coffee non-consumers (n=39), average coffee drinkers, who consumed 1 to 4 cups (1 cup = ca 200ml) of coffee per day (n=40) and excessive coffee consumers, who drank at least five cups of coffee per day (n=24). Body mass (medical electronic scale, A&D Instruments, Abingdon, UK) and height (Martin metal anthropometer to the nearest 0.1 cm) were measured and BMI calculated (kg/m2). Participants´ body composition was detected with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic) and general data (history of chronic diseases included) and information about coffee consumption, and physical activity level was collected with questionnaires. Results of the study showed that excessive coffee consumption was associated with increased fat-free mass. It could be foremost due to greater physical activity level in school time or greater (not significant) male proportion in excessive coffee consumers group. For estimating the overweight the fat% in comparison to BMI recommended, as it gives more accurate results evaluating chronical disease risks. In conclusion coffee consumption probably does not affect body composition and for estimating the body composition fat% seems to be more accurate compared with BMI.

Keywords: Body Composition, body mass index, body fat percentage, coffee consumption

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25 The Reasons for Vegetarianism in Estonia and its Effects to Body Composition

Authors: Ülle Parm, Kata Pedamäe, Jaak Jürimäe, Evelin Lätt, Aivar Orav, Anna-Liisa Tamm


Vegetarianism has gained popularity across the world. It`s being chosen for multiple reasons, but among Estonians, these have remained unknown. Previously, attention to bone health and probable nutrient deficiency of vegetarians has been paid and in vegetarians lower body mass index (BMI) and blood cholesterol level has been found but the results are inconclusive. The goal was to explain reasons for choosing vegetarian diet in Estonia and impact of vegetarianism to body composition – BMI, fat percentage (fat%), fat mass (FM), and fat free mass (FFM). The study group comprised of 68 vegetarians and 103 omnivorous. The determining body composition with DXA (Hologic) was concluded in 2013. Body mass (medical electronic scale, A&D Instruments, Abingdon, UK) and height (Martin metal anthropometer to the nearest 0.1 cm) were measured and BMI calculated (kg/m2). General data (physical activity level included) was collected with questionnaires. The main reasons why vegetarianism was chosen were the healthiness of the vegetarian diet (59%) and the wish to fight for animal rights (72%) Food additives were consumed by less than half of vegetarians, more often by men. Vegetarians had lower BMI than omnivores, especially amongst men. Based on BMI classification, vegetarians were less obese than omnivores. However, there were no differences in the FM, FFM and fat percentage figures of the two groups. Higher BMI might be the cause of higher physical activity level among omnivores compared with vegetarians. For classifying people as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese both BMI and fat% criteria were used. By BMI classification in comparison with fat%, more people in the normal weight group were considered; by using fat% in comparison with BMI classification, however, more people categorized as overweight. It can be concluded that the main reasons for vegetarianism chosen in Estonia are healthiness of the vegetarian diet and the wish to fight for animal rights and vegetarian diet has no effect on body fat percentage, FM and FFM.

Keywords: Body Composition, body mass index, body fat percentage, vegetarianism

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24 The Effects of Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) towards Male Skeletal Muscle Mass

Authors: Mohd Faridz Ahmad, Amirul Hakim Hasbullah


Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has been introduced to the world in the 19th and 20th centuries and has globally gained increasing attention on its usefulness. EMS is known as the application of electrical current transcutaneous to muscles through electrodes to induce involuntary contractions that can lead to the increment of muscle mass and strength. This study can be used as an alternative to help people especially those living a sedentary lifestyle to improve their muscle activity without having to go through a heavy workout session. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the effectiveness of EMS training in 5 weeks interventions towards male body composition. It was a quasi-experimental design, held at the Impulse Studio Bangsar, which examined the effects of EMS training towards skeletal muscle mass among the subjects. Fifteen subjects (n = 15) were selected to assist in this study. The demographic data showed that, the average age of the subjects was 43.07 years old ± 9.90, height (173.4 cm ± 9.09) and weight was (85.79 kg ± 18.07). Results showed that there was a significant difference on the skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.01 < 0.05), upper body (p = 0.01 < 0.05) and lower body (p = 0.00 < 0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis has been rejected in this study. As a conclusion, the application of EMS towards body composition can increase the muscle size and strength. This method has been proven to be able to improve athlete strength and thus, may be implemented in the sports science area of knowledge.

Keywords: Body Composition, Strength, EMS, skeletal muscle mass

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23 Effect of Ginger, Red Pepper, and Their Mixture in Diet on Growth Performance and Body Composition of Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Sarah Jorjani, Afshin Ghelichi, Mazyar Kamali


The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of addition of ginger and red pepper and their mixture in diet on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Astronotus ocellatus (Oscar fish). This study had been carried out for 8 weeks. For this reason 132 oscar fishes with intial weight of 2.44±0.26 (gr) were divided into 4 treatments with three replicate as compeletly randomize design test and fed by 100% Biomar diet (T1), Biomar + red pepper (55 mg/kg) (T2), Biomar + ginger (1%) (T3) and Biomar + mixture of red pepper and ginger (T4).The fish were fed in 5% of their body weight. The results showed T2 have significant differences in most of growth parameters in compare with other treatments, such as PBWI, SGR, PER and SR (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences between treatments in FCR and FE (P > 0.05).

Keywords: Body Composition, Growth Performance, ginger, red pepper, oscar fish

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22 Influence of Machine Resistance Training on Selected Strength Variables among Two Categories of Body Composition

Authors: Hassan Almoslim


Background: The machine resistance training is an exercise that uses the equipment as loads to strengthen and condition the musculoskeletal system and improving muscle tone. The machine resistance training is easy to use, allow the individual to train with heavier weights without assistance, useful for beginners and elderly populations and specific muscle groups. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of nine weeks of machine resistance training on maximum strength among lean and normal weight male college students. Method: Thirty-six male college students aged between 19 and 21 years from King Fahd University of petroleum & minerals participated in the study. The subjects were divided into two an equal groups called Lean Group (LG, n = 18) and Normal Weight Group (NWG, n = 18). The subjects whose body mass index (BMI) is less than 18.5 kg / m2 is considered lean and who is between 18.5 to 24.9 kg / m2 is normal weight. Both groups performed machine resistance training nine weeks, twice per week for 40 min per training session. The strength measurements, chest press, leg press and abdomen exercises were performed before and after the training period. 1RM test was used to determine the maximum strength of all subjects. The training program consisted of several resistance machines such as leg press, abdomen, chest press, pulldown, seated row, calf raises, leg extension, leg curls and back extension. The data were analyzed using independent t-test (to compare mean differences) and paired t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: No change was (P ˃ 0.05) observed in all body composition variables between groups after training. In chest press, the NWG recorded a significantly greater mean different value than the LG (19.33 ± 7.78 vs. 13.88 ± 5.77 kg, respectively, P ˂ 0.023). In leg press and abdomen exercises, both groups revealed similar mean different values (P ˃ 0.05). When the post-test was compared with the pre-test, the NWG showed significant increases in the chest press by 47% (from 41.16 ± 12.41 to 60.49 ± 11.58 kg, P ˂ 001), abdomen by 34% (from 45.46 ± 6.97 to 61.06 ± 6.45 kg, P ˂ 0.001) and leg press by 23.6% (from 85.27 ± 15.94 to 105.48 ± 21.59 kg, P ˂ 0.001). The LG also illustrated significant increases by 42.6% in the chest press (from 32.58 ± 7.36 to 46.47 ± 8.93 kg, P ˂ 0.001), the abdomen by 28.5% (from 38.50 ± 7.84 to 49.50 ± 7.88 kg, P ˂ 0.001) and the leg press by 30.8% (from 70.2 ± 20.57 to 92.01 ± 22.83 kg, P ˂ 0.001). Conclusion: It was concluded that the lean and the normal weight male college students can benefit from the machine resistance-training program remarkably.

Keywords: Body Composition, Lean, machine resistance training, normal weight

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21 Risk of Disrupted Eating Attitudes in Disabled Athletes

Authors: Zehra Buyuktuncer, Aylin H. Büyükkaragöz, Tuğçe N. Balcı, Nevin Ergun


Background: Undergoing rigid dietary habits for enhancing athletic performance could lead to eating disorders. High prevalence of eating disorders among female athletes has been already reported. However, the risk of disordered eating among disabled athletes is not known. A better knowledge of the different eating behaviors and their prevalence in disabled athletes would be helpful to understand interactions between eating and health. This study aimed to examine the cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating behaviors in a disabled athlete population. Method: A total of 70 disabled Turkish national athletes (33 female, 37 male) from 5 sport branches (soccer, weight lifting, shooting, table tennis and basketball) were involved in the study. The cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating behaviors were assessed using the revised version of Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-R18). The questionnaires were conducted by dietitian during the preparation camps of athletes. Body weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured; and body composition was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis method. Results: The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 13.9±4.2, uncontrolled eating score of 17.7±5.8 and emotional eating score of 4.9±2.5. The mean score of total TFEQ-R18 was 36.5±8.62. Neither total TFEQ-R18 score nor subscale scores differed significantly by gender or sport branches (p>0.05, for each). The scores were also similar in BMI groups (n=63; p>0.05). Total TFEQ, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores were significantly higher among the athletes with congenital disabilities compared to the scores of the athletes with acquired disabilities (p<0.05, for each). Moreover, the cognitive dietary restraint score was significantly high in athletes who would like to lose weight (p=0.009). Conclusion: Disabled athletes might have a risk of disordered eating. The different eating behaviors among disabled athletes should be assessed using validated tools to develop personalized nutritional strategies for those athletes.

Keywords: Body Composition, disabled athletes, eating behaviour, three-factor eating questionnaire-r18

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20 How to Evaluate Resting and Walking Energy Expenditures of Individuals with Different Body Mass Index

Authors: Zeynep Altinkaya, Ugur Dal, Figen Dag, Dilan D. Koyuncu, Merve Turkegun


Obesity is defined as abnormal fat-tissue accumulation as a result of imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Since 50-70% daily energy expenditure of sedantary individuals is consumed as resting energy expenditure (REE), it takes an important place in the evaluation of new methods for obesity treatment. Also, it is known that walking is a prevalent activity in the prevention of obesity. The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the resting and walking energy expenditures of individuals with different body mass index (BMI). In this research, 4 groups are formed as underweight (BMI < 18,5 kg/m2), normal (BMI=18,5-24,9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI=25-29,9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥ 30) according to BMI of individuals. 64 healthy young adults (8 man and 8 woman per group, age 18-30 years) with no known gait disabilities were recruited in this study. The body compositions of all participants were measured via bioelectric empedance analysis method. The energy expenditure of individuals was measured with indirect calorimeter method as inspired and expired gas samples are collected breath-by-breath through a special facemask. The preferred walking speed (PWS) of each subject was determined by using infrared sensors placed in 2nd and 12th meters of 14 m walkway. The REE was measured for 15 min while subjects were lying, and walking energy expenditure was measured during subjects walk in their PWS on treadmill. The gross REE was significantly higher in obese subjects compared to underweight and normal subjects (p < 0,0001). When REE was normalized to body weight, it was higher in underweight and normal groups than overweight and obese groups (p < 0,0001). However, when REE was normalized to fat-free mass, it did not differ significantly between groups. The gross walking energy expenditure in PWS was higher in obese and overweight groups than underweight and normal groups (p < 0,0001). The regression coefficient between gross walking energy expenditure and body weight was significiant among normal and obese groups (p < 0.05). It accounted for 70,5% of gross walking energy expenditure in normal group, and 57,9% of gross walking energy expenditure in obese group. It is known that obese individuals have more metabolically inactive fat-tissue compared to other groups. While excess fat-tissue increases total body weight, it does not contribute much to REE. Therefore, REE results normalized to body weight could lead to misleading results. In order to eliminate fat-mass effect on REE of obese individuals, REE normalized to fat-free mass should be used to acquire more accurate results. On the other hand, the fat-mass increasement raises energy requirement while walking to retain the body balance. Thus, gross walking energy expenditure should be taken into consideration for the evaluating energy expenditure of walking.

Keywords: Obesity, Body Composition, resting energy expenditure, walking energy expenditure

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19 Impact of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Body Composition Analysis of Women during Perimenopause: A Framework for Action

Authors: Varsha Chorsiya, Pooja Aneja, Dhananjay Kaushik, Abhinav Yadav


Intoduction: Women’s Health Initiatives (WHI) focuses on defining the risks and benefits of strategies that could potentially reduce the incidence of obesity, heart disease, breast cancer and colorectal cancer, and fractures in menopause women. The utility of the present research work determines to find the role of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) in changing the different component of body composition during perimenopause period. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study included 30 subjects, aged between 40 and 50 years which were assigned into 2 groups i.e. 15 subjects in HRT (Group A) and 15 subjects in non-HRT (Group B). The subjects were taken from the hospitals and clinics of Faridabad undergoing HRT in supervision of the consultant gynecologist. The informed consents were signed before including the participants in the study. The body composition and lipid profile were evaluated for all the subjects. Result and Discussion: The BMI, body density, percent body fats and fat mass in both groups showed statistically significant differences i.e. p < 0.05. Our study did not reveal any statistically significant difference between non-HRT and HRT for lipid profile composition of HDL, LDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol although these indicators (LDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol) showed difference clinically with a higher mean values for non-HRT as compared to HRT group. The mean value for HDL was higher for HRT group in contrast to non-HRT group. The result clearly showed that HRT group has a good lipid profile composition. Conclusion: In conclusion, our data show that HRT has statistically significant role in determining BMI, fat percent mass and fat mass. The lipid profile including LDL, HDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol found to be clinically better in HRT group as compared to the non-HRT group. The rationale for non-significant lipid profile probably lie in the fact that hormonal changes need a particular time period and might become significant in post-menopausal period.

Keywords: Body Composition, Women Health, Perimenopause, hormone replacement therapy

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18 The Impact of Community Settlement on Leisure Time Use and Body Composition in Determining Physical Lifestyles among Women

Authors: Mawarni Mohamed, Sharifah Shahira A. Hamid


Leisure time is an important component to offset the sedentary lifestyle of the people. Women tend to benefit from leisure activities not only to reduce stress but also to provide opportunities for well-being and self-satisfaction. This study was conducted to investigate body composition and leisure time use among women in Selangor from the influences of community settlement. A total of 419 women aged 18-65 years were selected to participate in this study. Descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze the level of physical activity and the relationship between leisure-time use and body composition were made to analyze the physical lifestyles. The results showed that women with normal body composition seem to be involved in more passive activities than women with less weight gain and obesity. Thus, the study recommended that the government and other health and recreational agencies should develop more places and activities suitable for leisure preference for women in their community settlement so they become more interested to engage in more active recreational and physical activities.

Keywords: Body Composition, leisure time, community settlement, physical lifestyles

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17 Development of a Computer Based, Nutrition and Fitness Programme and Its Effect on Nutritional Status and Fitness of Obese Adults

Authors: Richa Soni, Vibha Bhatnagar, N. K. Jain


This study was conducted to develop a computer mediated programme for weight management and physical fitness and examining its efficacy in reducing weight and improving physical fitness in obese adults. A user friendly, computer based programme was developed to provide a simple, quick, easy and user-friendly method of assessing energy balance at individual level. The programme had four main sections viz. personal Profile, know about your weight, fitness and food exchange list. The computer programme was developed to provide facilities of creating individual profile, tracking meal and physical activities, suggesting nutritional and exercise requirements, planning calorie specific menus, keeping food diaries and revising the diet and exercise plans if needed. The programme was also providing information on obesity, underweight, physical fitness. An exhaustive food exchange list was also given in the programme to assist user to make right food choice decisions. The developed programme was evaluated by a panel of 15 experts comprising endocrinologists, nutritionists and diet counselors. Suggestions given by the experts were paned down and the entire programme was modified in light of suggestions given by the panel members and was reevaluated by the same panel of experts. For assessing the impact of the programme 22 obese subjects were selected purposively and randomly assigned to intervention group (n=12) and no information control group. (n=10). The programme group was asked to strictly follow the programme for one month. Significant reduction in the intake of energy, fat and carbohydrates was observed while intake of fruits, green leafy vegetables was increased. The programme was also found to be effective in reducing body weight, body fat percent and body fat mass whereas total body water and physical fitness scores improved significantly. There was no significant alteration observed in any parameters in the control group.

Keywords: Body Composition, Physical Fitness, body weight, computer programme

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16 Relationship between Body Composition and Balance in Young Adults

Authors: Betul Taspinar, Eda O. Okur, Ismail Saracoglu, Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Emrah Afsar


Overweight and obesity has been associated with postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition and balance. One hundred and thirty two young adults (58 male, 74 female) were included in the study. Mean age of participants were found as 21.21±1.51 years. Body composition (body mass index, total body fat ratio, total body muscle ratio) and balance (right anterior, right postero-medial, right postero-lateral, left anterior, left postero-medial, left postero-lateral) were evaluated by Tanita BC-418 and Y balance test, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between the parameters. Significance level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. According to results, no correlation was found between body mass index and balance parameters. There was negative correlation between total body fat ratio and balance parameters (r=0.419-0.509, p˂0.05). On the other hand, positive correlation was found between total body muscle ratio and balance parameters (r=0.390-0.494, p˂0.05). This study demonstrated that body fat and muscle ratio affects the balance. Body composition should be considered in rehabilitation programs including postural balance training.

Keywords: Body Composition, Balance, young adults, body mass

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15 The Correlation between Body Composition and Spinal Alignment in Healthy Young Adults

Authors: Betul Taspinar, Ismail Saracoglu, Gamze Kurt, Emrah Afsar, Ferruh Taspinar, Eda O. Okur, Gulce K. Seyyar


Although it is thought that abdominal adiposity is one of the risk factor for postural deviation, such as increased lumbar lordosis, the body mass index is not sufficient to indicate effects of abdominal adiposity on spinal alignment and postural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation with detailed body composition and spine alignment in healthy young adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with sixty seven healthy volunteers (37 men and 30 women) whose ages ranged between 19 and 27 years. All participants’ sagittal spinal curvatures of lumbar and thoracic region were measured via Spinal mouse® (Idiag, Fehraltorf, Switzerland). Also, body composition analysis (whole body fat ratio, whole body muscle ratio, abdominal fat ratio, and trunk muscle ratio) estimation by means of bioelectrical impedance was evaluated via Tanita Bc 418 Ma Segmental Body Composition Analyser (Tanita, Japan). Pearson’s correlation was used to analysis among the variables. The mean lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis angles were 21.02°±9.39, 41.50°±7.97, respectively. Statistically analysis showed a significant positive correlation between whole body fat ratio and lumbar lordosis angle (r=0.28, p=0.02). Similarly, there was a positive correlation between abdominal fat ratio and lumbar lordosis angle (r=0.27, p=0.03). The thoracic kyphosis angle showed also positive correlation with whole body fat ratio (r=0.33, p=0.00) and abdominal fat ratio (r=0.40, p=0.01). The whole body muscle ratio showed negative correlation between lumbar lordosis (r=-0.28, p=0.02) and thoracic kyphosis angles (r=-0.33, p=0.00), although there was no statistically correlation between trunk muscle ratio, lumbar and thoracic curvatures (p>0.05). The study demonstrated that an increase of fat ratio and decrease of muscle ratio in abdominal region or whole body shifts the spinal alignment which may adversely affect the spinal loading. Therefore, whole body composition should be taken into account in spine rehabilitation.

Keywords: Body Composition, lumbar lordosis, spinal alignment, thoracic kyphosis

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14 The Investigation of Correlation between Body Composition and Physical Activity in University Students

Authors: Betul Taspinar, Eda O. Okur, Ismail Saracoglu, Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Emrah Afsar


Alterations of physical activity can effect body composition (especially body fat ratio); however body mass index may not sufficient to indicate these minimal differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition and physical activity in university students. In this study, 132 university students (mean age; 21.21±1.51) were included. Tanita BC-418 and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were used to evaluate participants. The correlation between the parameters was analysed via Spearman correlation analysis. Significance level in statistical analyses was accepted is 0.05. The results showed that there was no correlation between body mass index and physical activity (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between body muscle ratio and physical activity, whereas a negative correlation between body fat ratio and physical activity (p<0.05). This study showed that body fat and muscle ratio affects the level of physical activity in healthy university students. Therefore, we thought that physical activity might reduce effects of the diseases caused by disturbed body composition. Further studies are required to support this idea.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Body Composition, body mass index, university student

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13 Effect of Exercise Training and Dietary Silymarin on Levels of Leptin, Adiponectin, Paraoxonase and Body Composition

Authors: Saeed Shirali, Alireza Barari


The etiology of obesity is heterogeneous with several factors, and the pathophysiology of obesity has recently related to leptin, oxidative damage, and inflammation. Silybum marianum have a health-promoting perspective and has shown that bioactive molecules of silymarin have the antioxidant and antitumor properties and can affect secretion of hormones and enzyme activity in animal. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects and changes in hormonal levels and body composition after silymarin consumption. Forty-five healthy untrained colleges male take part in the 4-week investigation. The subjects were assigned to 5 groups: endurance training, Silymarin with endurance training, strength training with placebo, Silymarin with strength training or placebo. Body fat percentage and Blood sample analysis were measured before and after the intervention to assay leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase in the sample of subject's serum. There was a considerable decrease in body fat percent and a significant increase in VO2 max in 'Strength training' and 'Strength training with Silymarin' groups. But, no significant changes in levels of leptin, adiponectinin, and paraoxanase (PON) that were observed between exercise and exercise with Silymarin in these groups. We observed reduction in body fat% and increase in adiponectin induced by exercise for 4 weeks in untrained healthy men. Silybin, could not effectively improve all parameters and don’t prevent the progression of cell damage by antioxidant activity of PON.

Keywords: Body Composition, Silymarin, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, paraoxonase (PON)

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12 The Effect of Core Training on Physical Fitness Characteristics in Male Volleyball Players

Authors: Sibel Karacaoglu, Fatma Ç. Kayapinar


The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of the core training program on physical fitness characteristics and body composition in male volleyball players. 26 male university volleyball team players aged between 19 to 24 years who had no health problems and injury participated in the study. Subjects were divided into training (TG) and control groups (CG) as randomly. Data from twenty-one players who completed all training sessions were used for statistical analysis (TG,n=11; CG,n=10). A core training program was applied to the training group three days a week for 10 weeks. On the other hand, the control group did not receive any training. Before and after the 10-week training program, pre- and post-testing comprised of body composition measurements (weight, BMI, bioelectrical impedance analysis) and physical fitness measurements including flexibility (sit and reach test), muscle strength (back, leg and grip strength by dynamometer), muscle endurance (sit-ups and push-ups tests), power (one-legged jump and vertical jump tests), speed (20m sprint, 30m sprint) and balance tests (one-legged standing test) were performed. Changes of pre- and post- test values of the groups were determined by using dependent t test. According to the statistical analysis of data, no significant difference was found in terms of body composition in the both groups for pre- and post- test values. In the training group, all physical fitness measurements improved significantly after core training program (p<0.05) except 30m speed and handgrip strength (p>0.05). On the hand, only 20m speed test values improved after post-test period (p<0.05), but the other physical fitness tests values did not differ (p>0.05) between pre- and post- test measurement in the control group. The results of the study suggest that the core training program has positive effect on physical fitness characteristics in male volleyball players.

Keywords: Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Volleyball, core training

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11 The Effect of Elastic-Resistance Training on Postural Control in Sedentary Women

Authors: Nurtekin Erkmen, Yagmur Kocaoglu


The aim of this study was to determine effects of elastic resistance band training on body composition and postural control in sedentary women. Thirty-four sedentary females participated voluntarily for this study. Subjects' age was 21.88 ± 1.63 years, height was 161.50 ± 4.45 cm, and weight was 59.47 ± 7.03 kg. Participants were randomly placed into one of two groups (Experimental = 17, Control = 17). The elastic resistance training program lasted 8 weeks with 3 sessions per week. Experimental Group performed elastic resistance band training with red color for first 3 weeks, blue color for second 3 weeks and for last 2 weeks. The subjects carried out exercises 3 set, 10-15 repetitions with 15 seconds rest between exercises. The rest between sets was 30 seconds. The subjects underwent a standard warm-up for 10 minutes in every session. The elastic resistance training lasted 40 minutes for each session. After the training, all subjects performed a standard cool down for 10 minutes in each session. After and before 8 weeks training period, all subjects in experimental group and control group participated body composition and postural control measurements. Independent t-Test and Mann Whitney U Test were conducted to compare differences between experimental and control groups. Paired t-Test and Wilcoxon Z Test were used to compare differences between pre and posttests. There is no significant difference between pre and posttests in BMI (p>0.05). After the elastic resistance training, postural control scores and body fat significantly decreased in experimental group (p<0.05). In conclusion, it can be concluded that elastic resistance training improves postural control and body composition in sedentary women.

Keywords: Body Composition, sedentary women, postural control, elastic resistance band

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10 Body Composition Evaluation among High Intensity and Long Term Walking Distance Participants

Authors: Priscila Vitorino, Jeeziane Rezende, Edison Pereira, Adrielly Silva, Weimar Barroso


Body composition insight during physical activity is relevant to follow up sports income since it can be important and actuate in velocity, resistance, potency, and has an effect on force and agility. The purpose of this study was to identify anthropometric profile, evaluate and correlate body mass index and bioimpedance behavior during the days of Caminhada Ecológica de Goiás - Brasil. A longitudinal study was performed with 25 male participants, with an average age of 45.6±9.1 years. All patients were actives. Body composition was evaluated by body mass index (BMI) measurement and bioimpedance procedures. Both were collected 20 days before walking beginning (A0) and in the four days along the same (A1, A2, A3 e A4). Data were collected in the end of each walking day at athletes accommodations. Final distance during walking route was 308 km in five days, with an average of 62km/day and 7,6 km/hour, and an average temperature of 30°C. Data are represented with mean and standard deviation. ANOVA (Bonferroni pos test) was used to compare frequent measurements between the days. Pearson's correlation test was used to correlate BMI with lean mass, fat mass, and water. BMI decreased from A0 to A1, A2 and A3 (p < 0,01) and increased on A4 (p < 0,01). No changes were observed concerning fat percentage (p=0,60), lean mass (p=0,10) and body water composition (p=0,09). A positive and moderate correlation between BMI and fat percentage was observed; an inverse and moderate correlation between BMI, lean mass and body water composition occurred. Total body mass increased during high intensity and long term walking distance. However, the values of body fat, lean mass and water were maintained.

Keywords: Sports, Metabolism, Body Composition, Aerobic Exercise

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9 Evaluation of Nutrition Supplement on Body Composition during Catch-Up Growth, in a Pre-Clinical Model of Growth Restriction

Authors: Bindya Jacob


The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of catchup growth induced by Oral Nutrition Supplement (ONS), in animal model of growth restriction due to under nutrition. Quality of catch-up growth was assessed by proportion of lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM). Young SD rats were food restricted at 70% of normal caloric intake for 4 weeks; and re-fed at 120% of normal caloric intake for 4 weeks. Refeeding diet had 50% calories from animal diet and 50% from ONS formulated for optimal growth. After refeeding, the quantity and quality of catch-up growth were measured including weight, length, LBM and FM. During nutrient restriction, body weight and length of animals was reduced compared to healthy controls. Both LBM and FM were significantly lower than healthy controls (p < 0.001). Refeeding with ONS resulted in increase of weight and length, with significant catch-up growth compared to baseline (p < 0.001). Detailed examination of body composition showed that the catch-up in body weight was due to proportionate increase of LBM and FM, resulting in a final body composition similar to healthy controls. This data supports the use of well-designed ONS for recovery from growth restriction due to under nutrition, and return to normal growth trajectory characterized by normal ratio of lean and fat mass.

Keywords: Body Composition, catch up growth, nutrient restriction, healthy growth

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8 Nutritional Status in Ramadan Influences Body Compositions Differently in Men and Women

Authors: Meskure Pak, Nihal Buyukuslu


During Ramadan Muslims refrain from eating and drinking from dawn to sunset. Transformation of the eating habits cause profound changes in body composition. This study was performed during Ramadan of June-July 2015 with the regular fasting healthy adults (15 women and 15 men). The participants who were not fasting the whole month, have chronic diseases, pregnant and lactated were excluded. All attendances were informed about study. Written informed consent was taken from the voluntary participants. The work was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee of Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey. A questionnaire was conducted to determine the nutritional status, demographic and anthropometric data at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of Ramadan. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 18.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for analyses. The mean ages of women and men were 34.4±9.45 and 28.9±10.55 years respectively. The BMI values (kg/m2) were slightly increased in men (26.5±3.9 to 26.2±3.7) and decreased in women (22.5±3.5 to 23.3±4.5). However the differences in BMI values between genders were not significant. Waist circumferences (WC) (cm) decreased in both women (80.2±14.6 to 79.4±17.7) and men (98.9±8.4 to 95.2±11.0) through the Ramadan. Fat percentages of women (27.0±71) increased in the middle of Ramadan (28.4±7.8) and decreased at the end of Ramadan (27.8±8.3). The fat percentages of men (21.5±6.3) were not affected in the middle of Ramadan (21.5±6.4) however decreased at the end of Ramadan (20.8±6.2). The total change in fat mass from beginning to end of Ramadan was higher in women than in men. The daily energy intake was higher in men than in women during Ramadan. In the middle of Ramadan energy intake (kcal) was reached to the highest level (2057.8±693.1) and at the end of Ramadan it decreased to the beginning level (1656.7±553.2) for men. However, daily energy intake of women slightly decreased from the beginning (1410.0±359.7) to the end (1409.2±366.7) of Ramadan. The comparison of energy intake between men and women was significant in the middle of Ramadan (p < 0.05). Water consumptions for both groups were increased in Ramadan fasting period. In comparison with the beginning of Ramadan, daily carbohydrate and fat consumptions increased and the consumption of protein decreased for men and for women at the end of Ramadan. The gender comparison resulted in a significant increase for protein and carbohydrate consumption of men in the middle of Ramadan (p < 0.05). In the first two weeks, the daily energy intake, the consumption of carbohydrates and fats seemed to increase for both men and women. However the later days of Ramadan daily fat consumption decreased to the level of beginning consumption levels which may indicate the nutritional adaptation period. In spite of the consumption of protein sources such as meat, poultry and egg increased, the decrease in the total amount of protein consumed in Ramadan may be due to a decrease in the consumption of milk and dairy products. In conclusion, the nutritional habits and preferred foods changed during Ramadan as a result affected the body composition.

Keywords: Body Composition, Fasting, Nutritional status, Ramadan

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7 The Impact of Protein Content on Athletes’ Body Composition

Authors: G. Vici, L. Cesanelli, L. Belli, R. Ceci, V. Polzonetti


Several factors contribute to success in sport and diet is one of them. Evidence-based sport nutrition guidelines underline the importance of macro- and micro-nutrients’ balance and timing in order to improve athlete’s physical status and performance. Nevertheless, a high content of proteins is commonly found in resistance training athletes’ diet with carbohydrate intake that is not enough or not well planned. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of different protein and carbohydrate diet contents on body composition and sport performance on a group of resistance training athletes. Subjects were divided as study group (n=16) and control group (n=14). For a period of 4 months, both groups were subjected to the same resistance training fitness program with study group following a specific diet and control group following an ab libitum diet. Body compositions were evaluated trough anthropometric measurement (weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds) and Bioimpedence Analysis. Physical strength and training status of individuals were evaluated through the One Repetition Maximum test (RM1). Protein intake in studied group was found to be lower than in control group. There was a statistically significant increase of body weight, free fat mass and body mass cell of studied group respect to the control group. Fat mass remains almost constant. Statistically significant changes were observed in quadriceps and biceps circumferences, with an increase in studied group. The MR1 test showed improvement in study group’s strength but no changes in control group. Usually people consume hyper-proteic diet to achieve muscle mass development. Through this study, it was possible to show that protein intake fixed at 1,7 g/kg/d can meet the individual's needs. In parallel, the increased intake of carbohydrates, focusing on quality and timing of assumption, has enabled the obtainment of desired results with a training protocol supporting a hypertrophic strategy. Therefore, the key point seems related to the planning of a structured program both from a nutritional and training point of view.

Keywords: Exercise, Protein, diet, Body Composition

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6 Association of Body Composition Parameters with Lower Limb Strength and Upper Limb Functional Capacity in Quilombola Remnants

Authors: Leonardo Costa Pereira, Frederico Santos Santana, Mauro Karnikowski, Luís Sinésio Silva Neto, Aline Oliveira Gomes, Marisete Peralta Safons, Margô Gomes De Oliveira Karnikowski


In Brazil, projections of population aging follow all world projections, the birth rate tends to be surpassed by the mortality rate around the year 2045. Historically, the population of Brazilian blacks suffered for several centuries from the oppression of dominant classes. A group, especially of blacks, stands out in relation to territorial, historical and social aspects, and for centuries they have isolated themselves in small communities, in order to maintain their freedom and culture. The isolation of the Quilombola communities generated socioeconomic effects as well as the health of these blacks. Thus, the objective of the present study is to verify the association of body composition parameters with lower and upper limb strength and functional capacity in Quilombola remnants. The research was approved by ethics committee (1,771,159). Anthropometric evaluations of hip and waist circumference, body mass and height were performed. In order to verify the body composition, the relationship between stature and body mass (BM) was performed, generating the body mass index (BMI), as well as the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) test. The Time Up and Go (TUG) test was used to evaluate the functional capacity, and a maximum repetition test (1MR) for knee extension and handgrip (HG) was applied for strength magnitude analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS 22.0. Shapiro Wilk's normality test was performed. For the possible correlations, the suggestions of the Pearson or Spearman tests were adopted. The results obtained after the interpretation identified that the sample (n = 18) was composed of 66.7% of female individuals with mean age of 66.07 ± 8.95 years. The sample’s body fat percentage (%BF) (35.65 ± 10.73) exceeds the recommendations for age group, as well as the anthropometric parameters of hip (90.91 ± 8.44cm) and waist circumference (80.37 ± 17.5cm). The relationship between height (1.55 ± 0.1m) and body mass (63.44 ± 11.25Kg) generated a BMI of 24.16 ± 7.09Kg/m2, that was considered normal. The TUG performance was 10.71 ± 1.85s. In the 1MR test, 46.67 ± 13.06Kg and in the HG 23.93±7.96Kgf were obtained, respectively. Correlation analyzes were characterized by the high frequency of significant correlations for height, dominant arm mass (DAM), %BF, 1MR and HG variables. In addition, correlations between HG and BM (r = 0.67, p = 0.005), height (r = 0.51, p = 0.004) and DAM (r = 0.55, p = 0.026) were also observed. The strength of the lower limbs correlates with BM (r = 0.69, p = 0.003), height (r = 0.62, p = 0.01) and DAM (r = 0.772, p = 0.001). In this way, we can conclude that not only the simple spatial relationship of mass and height can influence in predictive parameters of strength or functionality, being important the verification of the conditions of the corporal composition. For this population, height seems to be a good predictor of strength and body composition.

Keywords: Body Composition, Functional Capacity, Strength, African Continental Ancestry Group

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5 Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata with a Structured Exercise Program in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Authors: D. Maryama AG. Daud, Zuliana Bacho, Stephanie Chok, DG. Mashitah PG. Baharuddin, Mohd Hatta Tarmizi, Nathira Abdul Majeed, Helen Lasimbang


Lifestyle, physical activity, food intake, genetics and medication are contributing factors for people getting obese. Which in some of the obese people were a low or non-responder to exercise. And obesity is very common clinical feature in women affected by Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). Labisia pumila var. alata (LP) is a local herb which had been widely used by Malay women in treating menstrual irregularities, painful menstruation and postpartum well-being. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of LP with a structured exercise program on anthropometric, body composition and physical fitness performance of PCOS patients. By using a single blind and parallel study design, where by subjects were assigned into a 16-wk structured exercise program (3 times a week) interventions; (LP and exercise; LPE, and exercise only; E). All subjects in the LPE group were prescribed 200mg LP; once a day, for 16 weeks. The training heart rate (HR) was monitored based on a percentage of the maximum HR (HRmax) achieved during submaximal exercise test that was conducted at wk-0 and wk-8. The progression of aerobic exercise intensity from 25–30 min at 60 – 65% HRmax during the first week to 45 min at 75–80% HRmax by the end of this study. Anthropometric (body weight, Wt; waist circumference, WC; and hip circumference, HC), body composition (fat mass, FM; percentage body fat, %BF; Fat Free Mass, FFM) and physical fitness performance (push up to failure, PU; 1-minute Sit Up, SU; and aerobic step test, PVO2max) were measured at wk-0, wk-4, wk-8, wk-12, and wk-16. This study found that LP does not have a significant effect on body composition, anthropometric and physical fitness performance of PCOS patients underwent a structured exercise program. It means LP does not improve exercise responses of PCOS patients towards anthropometric, body composition and physical fitness performance. The overall data shows exercise responses of PCOS patients is by increasing their aerobic endurance and muscle endurance performances, there is a significant reduction in FM, PBF, HC, and Wt significantly. Therefore, exercise program for PCOS patients have to focus on aerobic fitness, and muscle endurance.

Keywords: polycystic ovarian syndrome, Body Composition, anthropometric, Labisia pumila var. alata, aerobic endurance, muscle endurance

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4 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effect on Body Weight and Body Composition in Women: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Hanady Hamdallah, H. Elyse Ireland, John H. H. Williams


Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a food supplement that is reported to have multiple beneficial health effects, including being anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity. Animal studies have shown a significant anti-obesity effect of CLA, but results in humans were inconsistent, where some of the studies found an anti-obesity effect while other studies failed to find any decline in obesity markers after CLA supplementation. This meta-analysis aimed to determine if oral CLA supplementation has been shown to reduce obesity related markers in women. Pub Med, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were used to identify the eligible trials using two main searching strategies: the first one was to search eligible trials using keywords 'Conjugated linoleic acid', 'CLA', 'Women', and the second strategy was to extract the eligible trials from previously published systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The eligible trials were placebo control trials where women supplemented with CLA mixture in the form of oral capsules for 6 months or less. Also, these trials provided information about body composition expressed as body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), total body fat (TBF), percentage body fat (BF %), and/ or lean body mass (LBM). The quality of each included study was assessed using both JADAD scale and an adapted CONSERT checklist. Meta-analysis of 8 eligible trials showed that CLA supplementation was significantly associated with reduced BW (Mean ± SD, 1.2 ± 0.26 kg, p < 0.001), BMI (0.6 ± 0.13kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (0.76 ± 0.26 kg, p= 0.003) in women, when supplemented over 6-16 weeks. Subgroup meta-analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in BW (1.29 ± 0.31 kg, p < 0.001), BMI (0.60 ± 0.14 kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (0.82 ± 0.28 kg, p= 0.003) in the trials that had recruited overweight-obese women. The second subgroup meta-analysis, that considered the menopausal status of the participants, found that CLA was significantly associated with reduced BW (1.35 ± 0.37 kg, p < 0.001; 1.05 ± 0.36 kg, p= 0.003) and BMI (0.50 ± 0.17 kg/m², p= 0.003; 0.75 ± 0.2 kg/m², p < 0.001) in both pre and post-menopausal age women, respectively. A reduction in TBF (1.09 ± 0.37 kg, p= 0.003) was only significant in post-menopausal women. Interestingly, CLA supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in BW (1.05 ± 0.35 kg, p< 0.003), BMI (0.73 ± 0.2 kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (1.07 ± 0.36 kg, p= 0.003) in the trials without lifestyle monitoring or interventions. No significant effect of CLA on LBM was detected in this meta-analysis. This meta-analysis suggests a moderate anti-obesity effect of CLA on BW, BMI and TBF reduction in women, when supplemented over 6-16 weeks, particularly in overweight-obese women and post-menopausal women. However, this finding requires careful interpretation due to several issues in the designs of available CLA supplementation trials. More well-designed trials are required to confirm this meta-analysis results.

Keywords: Body Composition, body mass index, body weight, Conjugated Linoleic Acid

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