Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

board of directors Related Abstracts

17 Exploring Corporate Governance Structure in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

Authors: Zahra A. Al Nasser, Domenico Campa

Abstract:

This paper investigates board of directors and firms’ ownership structure on non-financial companies listed in Gulf Cooperation council (GCC) countries using data from 2009 to 2013. The overall result of the study is that board size and board meeting have increased over years. Additionally, all combined committee variables have improved as well as audit committee size, audit committee meeting and audit committee experience have improved over the years. Furthermore, Oman is the only country that has not shown any statistically significant change in value of its associated variables.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, ownership structure, GCC countries, board of directors

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16 Board of Directors Characteristics and Credit Union Financial Performance

Authors: Luisa Unda, Kamran Ahmed, Paul Mather

Abstract:

We examine the effect of board characteristics on the performance and asset quality of credit unions in Australia, using a large sample covering the period 2004-2012. Credit unions are unique in that they are customer-owned financial institutions and directors are democratically elected by members, which is distinctly different from other financial institutions, such as commercial banks. We find that board remuneration, board expertise, and attendance at board meetings have significantly positive impacts on credit union performance and asset quality, while board members who hold multiple directorships (busy directors), have a significant negative impact on credit union performance. Financial performance also improves with larger boards and long-tenured directors in credit unions. All of these relations hold after we control for alternative measures of performance, credit union characteristics and endogeneity problem.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Australia, Financial Performance, board of directors, credit unions, asset quality

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15 Relationship between Independence Directors and Performance of Firms During Financial Crisis

Authors: Gladie Lui

Abstract:

The global credit crisis of 2008 aroused renewed interest in the effectiveness of corporate governance mechanisms to safeguard investor interests. In this paper, we measure the effect of the crisis from 2008 to 2009 on the stock performance of 976 Hong Kong-listed companies and examine its link to corporate governance mechanisms. It is evident that the crisis and the economic downturn affected different industries. Empirical results show that firms with an independent board and a high concentration of ownership and management ownership had lower abnormal stock returns, but a lower price volatility during the global financial crisis. These results highlight that no single corporate governance mechanism is fit for all types of financial crises and time frames. To strengthen investors’ confidence in the ability of companies to deal with such swift financial catastrophes, companies should enhance the dynamism and responsiveness of their governance mechanisms in times of turbulence.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, capital market, Financial Crisis, board of directors

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14 Board of Directors' Structure and Corporate Restructuring: A Preliminary Evidences

Authors: Norazlan Alias, Mohd. Hasimi Yaacob

Abstract:

This study examines the impact of governance structure via corporate restructuring decision on selected firm characteristics and performance. Results of selected ratios that represent corporate decision, governance structure and performance in pre and post restructuring are analyzed for some conclusions. This study uses annual data of companies that are consistently listed on the Main Board of Bursa Malaysia and announced completed corporate restructuring. The results show that only debt ratio is significantly different before and after asset restructuring. This study concludes that firms do not view corporate restructuring namely asset restructuring as an opportunity to simultaneous enhance governance structure that could also contribute enhance firm performance and board of directors’ structure subsequent to asset restructuring only has significantly influence on changing capital structure but not on firm performance.

Keywords: Performance, Corporate restructuring, Capital Structure, board of directors

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13 Board of Directors Gender Diversity, Board Committees and Financial Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Aminu Baba, Yahaya Danjuma, Ahmad Sule Liman-Katagum

Abstract:

This paper examines the effects of the board of directors’ diversity on firm performance. We investigate the relationship between the number of women directors on the board and important board committees and financial performance measured as return on assets. Our statistical analysis supports the theoretical position of the effect diversity on financial performance. These studies enhanced the previous studies on the board of director’s gender diversity, board committees, and its impacts on firm financial performance. The study uses data from eighteen (18) Nigerian commercial banks. The study finds that banks with a higher number of females directors on board and board committees have higher Earning per share(EPS)) and Return on Assets (ROA). It also finds that some banks did not even have a single female on its corporate board. Evidence imply that decisions concerning the appointment of women to corporate boards should be on criteria and financial performance. It is recommended that banks can enhance their financial performance by having more female directors on their corporate board.

Keywords: gender diversity, Financial Performance, board of directors, board committees

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12 The Impact of Board Characteristics on Firm Performance: Evidence from Banking Industry in India

Authors: Manmeet Kaur, Madhu Vij

Abstract:

The Board of Directors in a firm performs the primary role of an internal control mechanism. This Study seeks to understand the relationship between internal governance and performance of banks in India. The research paper investigates the effect of board structure (proportion of nonexecutive directors, gender diversity, board size and meetings per year) on the firm performance. This paper evaluates the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on bank’s financial performance using panel data for 28 listed banks in National Stock Exchange of India for the period of 2008-2014. Returns on Asset, Return on Equity, Tobin’s Q and Net Interest Margin were used as the financial performance indicators. To estimate the relationship among governance and bank performance initially the Study uses Pooled Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Estimation and Generalized Least Square (GLS) Estimation. Then a well-developed panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) Estimator is developed to investigate the dynamic nature of performance and governance relationship. The Study empirically confirms that two-step system GMM approach controls the problem of unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity as compared to the OLS and GLS approach. The result suggests that banks with small board, boards with female members, and boards that meet more frequently tend to be more efficient and subsequently have a positive impact on performance of banks. The study offers insights to policy makers interested in enhancing the quality of governance of banks in India. Also, the findings suggest that board structure plays a vital role in the improvement of corporate governance mechanism for financial institutions. There is a need to have efficient boards in banks to improve the overall health of the financial institutions and the economic development of the country.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, board of directors, GMM estimation, Indian banking

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11 CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility Performance of Indian Automobiles Companies

Authors: Jagbir Singh Kadyan

Abstract:

This research paper critically analyse the performance of those Indian Automobile Companies which are listed and traded on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India and which are also included in the NSE nifty auto Index. In India, CSR–Corporate Social Responsibility is mandatory for certain qualifying companies under the Indian Companies Act 2013, which replaces the erstwhile Companies Act 1956. There has been a significant shift in the focus and approaches of the Indian Corporates towards their CSR obligations with the insertion of section 135, revision of section 198 and introduction of schedule VII of the Indian Companies Act 2013. Every such qualifying companies are required to mandatorily spend at least 2% of their annual average net profit of the immediately preceding three financial years on such CSR activities as specified under schedule VII of the Companies act 2013. This research paper analyzes the CSR performance of such Indian companies. This research work is originally based on the secondary data. The annual reports of the selected Indian automobile companies have been extensively used and considered for this research work.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, national stock exchange, board of directors, CSR committees, Indian automobile companies, Indian companies act 2013

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10 Board Regulation and Its Impact on Composition and Effects: Evidence from German Cooperative Banks

Authors: Markus Stralla

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This study employs a GMM framework to examine the impact of potential regulatory intervention regarding the occupations of supervisory board members in cooperative banking. To achieve insights, the study proceeds in two different ways. First, it investigates the changes in board structure prior and following to the German Act to Strengthen Financial Market and Insurance Supervision (FinVAG). Second, the study estimates the influence of Ph.D.Share, professional concentration and supervisory power on bank-risk changes in consideration of the implementation of FinVAG. Therefore, the study is based on a sample of 246 German cooperative banks from 2006-2011 while applying four different measures of bank risk, namely credit-, equity-, liquidity-risk, and Z-Score, with the former three also being addressed in FinVAG. Results indicate that the implementation of FinVAG results in (most likely unintentional) structural changes, especially at the expense of farmers, and affects all risk measures and relations between risk measures and supervisory board characteristics in a risk-reducing and therefore intended way. To disentangle the complex relationship between board characteristics and risk measures, the study utilizes two-step system GMM estimator to account for unobserved heterogeneity and simultaneity in order to reduce endogeneity problems. The findings may be especially relevant for stakeholders, regulators, supervisors and managers.

Keywords: Regulation, board of directors, bank risk-taking, bank governance

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9 Analyzing the Impact of Board Diversity on Firm Performance: Case Study of the Nigerian Banking Sector

Authors: Data Collete Bob-Manuel

Abstract:

In light of global financial crisis in 2007-2008 various factors including board diversity, succession planning and board evaluation have been identified as essential ingredients in ensuring board effectiveness. The composition and structure of the board is of outmost importance in assessing a board’s ability and success in achieving its objectives. Following the corporate frauds and accounting scandals such as Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Oceanic Bank Nigeria and AfriBank Nigeria, there has been a notable amount of research about the effectiveness of the board of directors in the corporate governance of firms. The need to have an effective board cannot be over emphasized as it results in a more stable and thriving company. There has been an overarching need in the business world for a more diverse workforce and board of directors. Big corporations like Texaco, Ford Motors and DuPont have stated how diversity at every level of the workforce including the board of directors has been cited as a vital element for a company to succeed. Developed countries are also seeking for companies to have a more diverse board. For instance Norway has implemented a 60:40 board ratio to all companies. In West Africa, particularly Nigeria, the topic of diversity has received little attention as most studies conducted have focused on the gender aspect of diversity, which results found to have a negative impact on firm performance. This paper seeks to examine four variables of diversity; age, ethnicity, gender and skills to weigh the positive or negative impact the variables have on firm performance, based on evidence from the Nigerian Financial sector. Information used for this study will be gathered from financial statements and annual reports so as to enable the researcher to reflect on past years to know what is being done differently today. The findings of this study will help the researcher to develop a working definition for ethnicity with regards to the West African context where the issue of “tribe” is a sensitive topic.

Keywords: Firm Performance, Nigeria, board of directors, Board Diversity

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8 The Impact of Board of Directors on CEO Compensation: Evidence from the UK

Authors: Saleh Alagla, Murya Habbash

Abstract:

The paper investigates whether the board of directors plays a monitoring role or not in CEO compensation for the UK firms during the eve of the recent financial crisis, 2004-2008. The use of heteroscedastic and autocorrelated error consistent estimation of the panel data shows, surprisingly, that four board characteristics variables are found to play a significant role in increasing the level of CEO compensation. This insightful result would suggest evidence of the managerial power theory in general and the cronyism hypothesis in particular. Moreover, the interesting evidence supporting managerial power perspective is that CEO-Chair duality reduces long-term compensation while increasing short-term compensation, thus suggesting that CEOs are risk averse who prefer short-term compensation to long-term compensation. Finally, consistent with the agency perspective board size is found to increase all compensation variables as expected.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Agency Theory, board of directors, CEO compensation, internal governance mechanisms, managerial power theory, cronyism hypothesis

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7 Directors’ Compensation: Analyzing the Multilevel Factors That Exert the Greatest Influence

Authors: Isabel Acero, Nuria Alcalde

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The economic crisis and notorious corporate scandals have caused social indignation and sparked the debate concerning the underlying rationality of the compensation that directors receive. In this context, this study examines the determinants of the remuneration of directors in listed Spanish companies using individualized data. A multilevel methodology appropriate for this type of data has been used that allows us to differentiate between inter-company variations and intra-company variations. The results show that company size is the variable (at the company level) that exerts the greatest influence on the level of director´s compensation. One surprising finding is that the presence of independent directors on the board has a positive influence on remuneration. At the individual level, tenure and experience have a significant influence on the level of compensation, while the director´s level of education does not appear to have an effect on it.

Keywords: Experience, Tenure, Compensation, multilevel, board of directors

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6 The Role of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officers in Leading and Embedding Corporate Social Responsibility within Corporate Governance Regulations

Authors: Khalid Alshaikh

Abstract:

In recent years, leadership, Corporate Governance (CG) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) have been under scrutiny in the Libyan society. Scholars and institutions have commenced investigating the possible resolutions they can arrange to alleviate the economic, social and environmental problems the war has produced. Thus far, these constructs requisite an in-depth reinvestigation, reconceptualization, and analysis to clearly reconstruct their rules and regulations. With the demise of Qaddafi’s regime, levels, degrees, and efforts to apply CG regulations have varied in public and private commercial banks. CSR is a new organizational culture that still designs its route within these financial institutions. Detaching itself from any notion of dictatorship and autocratic traits, leadership counts on transformational and transactional styles. Therefore, this paper investigates the extent to which the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) redefine these concepts and how they entrench CSR within the framework of CG. The research methodology used both public and private banks as a case study and qualitative research to interview ten Board of Directors (BoDs) and eleven Chief executive managers to explore how leadership, CG, and CSR are defined and how leadership integrates CSR into CG structures. The findings suggest that the CG framework in Libya still requires great efforts to be developed. Full CG code implementation appears daunting. Also, the CSR is still influenced by the power of religion. Nevertheless, the Islamic perspective is more consistent with the social contract concept of the CSR. The Libyan commercial banks do not solely focus on the economic side of maximizing profits, but also concentrate on its morality. The issue is that CSR activities are not enough to achieve good charity publicly and needs strategies to address major social issues. Moreover, leadership is more transformational and transactional and endeavors to make economic, social and environmental changes, but these changes are curtailed by tradition and traditional values dominating the Libyan social life where religious and tribal practices establish the relationship between leaders and their subordinates. Finally, the findings reveal that transformational and transactional leadership styles encourage the incorporation of CSR into the CG regulations. The boardroom and executive management have such a particular role in flagging up how embedded corporate Social responsibility is in organizational culture across the commercial banks, yet it is still important that the BoDs and CEOs need to do much more to embed corporate social responsibility through their core functions. They need to boost their standing to be more influential and make sure that the right discussions about CSR happen with the right stakeholders involved.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibility, board of directors, chief executive officers

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5 Demographic Diversity in the Boardroom and Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence in the French Context

Authors: Elhem Zaatir, Taher Hamza

Abstract:

Several governments seek to implement gender parity on boards, but the results of doing so are not clear and could harm corporations and economies. The present paper aims to investigate the relationship between women’s presence on boards and firms’ performance in the context of the French listed firms during the quota period. A dynamic panel generalized method of moment estimation is applied to control the endogenous effect of board structure and reverse the causality impact of the financial performance. Our results show that the impact of gender diversity manifests in conflicting directions, positively affecting accounting performance and negatively influencing market performance. These results suggest that female directors create economic value, but the market discounts their impact. Apparently, they are subject to a biased evaluation by the market, which undervalues their presence on boards. Added to that, our results confirm a twofold nature of female representation in the French market. The effect of female directorship on firm performance varies with the affiliation of the directors. In other words, the positive impact of gender diversity on return on assets primarily originates from the positive effect of non-family-affiliated women directors on market performance rather than on the effect of family-affiliated women directors on ROA. Finally, according to our results, women’s demographic attributes namely the level of education and multiple directorships strongly and positively impact firm performance as measured by return on assets (ROA). Obviously, women directors seem to be appointed to the business case rather than as token directors.

Keywords: gender diversity, Corporate Governance, Women, Firm Performance, board of directors, demographic attributes

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4 Sustainable Development Goals: The Effect of a Board Structure on the Sustainability Performance

Authors: V. Naciti, L. Pulejo, F. Cesaroni

Abstract:

This study empirically analyzes whether the composition of the board of directors (BoD) enhances sustainability performance, in order to understand how the BoD contribute to the integration of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in their businesses. Hypotheses are developed based on the agency theory and stakeholder theory. Using a system generalized method of the moment (SGMM) two-step estimator, with data from Sustainalytics and Compustat databases for 362 firms in six regions, we find that firms with more diversity on the board and a separation of chair and CEO roles have higher sustainability performance. Moreover, our findings provide that a higher number of independent directors is negatively associated with sustainability performance. This study contributes to the literature on corporate governance and the firm’s performance by demonstrating that the composition of the board of directors contributes to a better sustainability performance: by the implementation of a particular corporate governance mechanism, it is possible to integrate SDGs in the corporate strategy.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Sustainable Development Goals, board of directors, sustainability performance

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3 Corporate Governance Mechanisms, Whistle-Blowing Policy and Earnings Management Practices of Firms in Malaysia

Authors: Mujeeb Saif Mohsen Al-Absy, Ku Nor Izah Ku Ismail, Sitraselvi Chandren

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This study examines whether corporate governance (CG) mechanisms in firms that have a whistle-blowing policy (WHBLP) are more effective in constraining earnings management (EM), than those without. A sample of 288 Malaysian firms for the years 2013 to 2015, amounting to 864 firm-years were grouped into firms with and without WHBLP. Results show that for firms without WHBLP, the board chairman tenure would minimize EM activities. Meanwhile, for firms with WHBLP, board chairman independence, board chairman tenure, audit committee size, audit committee meeting and women in the audit committees are found to be associated with less EM activities. Further, it is found that ownership concentration and Big 4 auditing firms help to reduce EM activities in firms with WHBLP, while not in firms without WHBLP. Hence, functional and effective governance can be achieved by having a WHBLP, which is in line with agency and resource dependent theories. Therefore, this study suggests that firms should have a WHBLP in place, and policymakers should come up with enhanced criteria to strengthen the mechanisms of WHBLP.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Earnings Management, audit committee, board of directors, whistle-blowing policy

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2 The Legal Implications of Gender Quota for Public Companies

Authors: Murat Can Pehlivanoglu

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Historically, gender equality has been mainly defended in the legal arenas of constitutional law and employment law. However, social and economic progress has required corporate law to provide gender equality on corporate boards. Recently, following the trend in Europe, the State of California (United States) enacted a law requiring that every publicly traded corporation based in California should have women on its board of directors. Still, the legal, social and economic implications of this law are yet to be discovered. The contractarian view of corporate law is predominant in the U.S. jurisprudence. However, gender quota law may not be justified through contractarian theory grounds. Therefore, the conformity of gender quota law with the general principles of U.S. corporate law remains questionable, and the immunity of close corporations from the scope of gender quota legislation provides support for the discrepancy. The methodology employed in this paper in the discussion of the rule’s conformity with corporate law is doctrinal, and American case law and legal scholarship are the basis for this discussion. This paper uses the aforementioned California law as sample legislation to evaluate the gender quota laws’ conformity with the contractarian theory of corporate law. It chooses California law as the sample due to its newness and the presence of pending shareholder lawsuits against it. Also, since California is home to global companies, the effect of such law is expected to be wider. As alternative theories laid down by corporate law may already be activated to provide gender equality on boards of publicly traded corporations, enacting a specific gender quota law would not be justified by an allegedly present statutory deficiency based on contractarian theory. However, this theoretical reality would not enable shareholders to succeed in their lawsuits against such law on corporate law grounds, and investors will have limited options against its results. This will eventually harm the integrity of the marketplace. Through the analysis of the contractarian theory of corporate law and California gender quota law, the major finding of this paper is that the contractarian theory of corporate law does not permit mandating board room equality through corporate law. In conclusion, it expresses that the issue should be dealt with through separate legislation with a different remedial structure, to preserve the traditional rationale of corporate law in U.S. law.

Keywords: Gender equality, board of directors, gender quota, publicly traded corporations

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1 Corporate Governance and Audit Report Lag: The Case of Tunisian Listed Companies

Authors: Lajmi Azhaar, Yab Mdallelah

Abstract:

This study examines the Tunisian market in which recent events, notably financial scandals, provide an appropriate framework for studying the impact of corporate governance on the audit report lag. Moreover, very little research has been done to examine this relationship in this context. The objective of this work is, therefore, to understand the factors influencing audit report lag, drawing primarily on agency theory (Jensen and Meckling, 1976), which shows that the characteristics of the board of directors have an impact on the report lag (independence, diligence, and size). In addition, the characteristics of the committee also have an impact on the audit report lag (size, independence, diligence, and expertise). Therefore, our research provides empirical evidence on the impact of governance mechanisms attributes on audit report lag. Using a sample of forty-seven (47) Tunisian companies listed on the Tunis Stock Exchange (BVMT) during the period from 2014 to 2019, and basing on the GMM method of the dynamic panel, multivariate analysis shows that most corporate governance attributes have a significant effect on audit report lag. Specifically, the audit committee diligence and the audit committee expertise have a significant and positive effect on audit report lag. But the diligence of the board has a significant and negative effect on audit report lag. However, this study finds no evidence that the audit committee independence, the size, independence, and diligence of the director’s board are associated with the audit report lag. In addition, the results of this study also show that there is a significant effect of some control variables. Finally, we are contributing to this study by using the GMM method of the dynamic panel. We are also using an emerging context that is very poorly developed and exploited by previous studies.

Keywords: Governance Mechanisms, audit committee, board of directors, audit report lag

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