Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Blood Pressure Related Abstracts

30 Effect of Nigella sativa on Blood Pressure, Vascular Reactivity, Inflammatory Biomarkers and Nitric Oxide in L-Name-Induced Hypertensive Rats

Authors: Kamsiah Jaarin, Yusof Kamisah, Faizah Othman Nurul Akmal Muhammad, Zakiah Jubri, Qodriyah Mohd Saad, Srijit Das

Abstract:

Forty (40) normotensive adult male Sprague-Dawley rats aged three months weighing 180-200 g were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats per group: (1) normotensive control; (2) hypertensive rats; (3) hypertensive rats treated with Nigella sativa (2.5 ml/kg/day); and (4) hypertensive rats treated with nicardipine (5 mg/kg/day). After acclimatization, the hypertensive rats of the group 2, 3 and 4 were induced to be hypertensive by giving NW–nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 30 mg/kg/day) in their drinking water for consecutive 7 days. After one week, rats in the group 3 were given a daily oral dose of 2.5 ml/kg/day of Nigella sativa (NS) by oral gavage. Rats in the group 4 were given nicardipine (5 mg/kg/day) via oral gavages. All rats in this study received L-NAME continuously throughout the treatment duration. The blood pressure will be measured pre-treatment and weekly for 8 weeks using power lab. Blood was taken before and at the end of study for measurement of nitric oxide. At the end of 8 weeks, the rats are sacrificed and descending thoracic aorta was disserted for measurement of vascular reactivity, and intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1). Nigella sativa reduced both systolic and diastolic BP compared to control and L-name group. The BP lowering effect of NS was comparable to nicardipine a calcium antagonist. The blood pressure lowering effect of NS was accompanied with an increasing relaxation response to nitroprusside and acetylcholine and reducing vasoconstriction response to epinephrine. L-NAME and nicardipine on the other hand, reduced plasma nitric oxide concentration. In contrast, NS increased NO concentration. However, Nigella sativa had no significant effect on aortic VCAM- 1 and ICAM-1 expression. In conclusion; Nigella sativa oil reduces both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in L-NAME treated rats. The antihypertensive effect of NS was comparable to nicardipine. The BP lowering effect may be mediated via stimulating nitric oxide release from vascular endothelium.

Keywords: Blood Pressure, Nigella sativa, ICAM, VCAM, vascular reactivity

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29 25-Hydroxy Vit D, Adiponectin Levels and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a Sample of Obese Children

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Mones M. Abu Shady, Rokia A. El Banna, Muhammad Al-Tohamy, Mehrevan M. Abd El-Moniem, Mona Anwar, Manal Mouhamed Ali

Abstract:

Association between vitamin D, adiponectin and obesity is a matter of debate, as they play important role in linking obesity with different cardiometabolic risk factors. Objectives: Evaluation of the association between metabolic risk factors with both adiponectin and vitamin D levels and that between adiponectin and vitamin D among obese Egyptian children. Subjects and Methods: This case-control cross-sectional study consisted of 65 obese and 30 healthy children, aged 8-11 years. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH) D) level, serum adiponectin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured. Results: The mean 25(OH) D levels in the obese and control groups were 29.9± 10.3 and 39.7 ± 12.7 ng/mL respectively (P < 0.001). The mean 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels in the obese were lower than that in the control group (P < 0.0001). 25(OH) D were inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), while adiponectin level were inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and positively correlated with HDL-C. However, there is no relation between 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels among obese children and total sample. Conclusion: In spite of strong association between vitamin D and adiponectin levels with metabolic risk factors and obesity, there is no relation between 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels. In obese children, there are significant negative correlations between 25(OH) D with lipid profile, and between adiponectin levels with blood pressure. At certain adiponectin level, the relation between it and BMI disappears.

Keywords: Children, Blood Pressure, lipid profile, adiponectin

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28 Signal Processing of the Blood Pressure and Characterization

Authors: Hadj Abd El Kader Benghenia, Fethi Bereksi Reguig

Abstract:

In clinical medicine, blood pressure, raised blood hemodynamic monitoring is rich pathophysiological information of cardiovascular system, of course described through factors such as: blood volume, arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. In this work, we are interested in analyzing these signals to propose a detection algorithm to delineate the different sequences and especially systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the wave and dicrotic to do their analysis in order to extract the cardiovascular parameters.

Keywords: Blood Pressure, SBP, DBP, detection algorithm

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27 The Determination of Sodium/Potassium Ion Ratio in Selected Edible Leafy Vegetables in North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Raymond D. Uzoh, Philip K. Shallsuku, Christopher S. Vaachia

Abstract:

Selected edible leafy vegetables from North-eastern Nigeria were analysed for their sodium and potassium content in mg/100 g and the ratio Na+/K+ worked out. From experimental results, Venonia amydalina (bitter leaf) contained 150 mg (0.15 g) of sodium and 20500 mg (20.5 g) potassium with a ratio of 0.007, Brassica oleracea var capitata (cabbage) contained 300 mg (0.3 g) of sodium and 19000 mg (19 g) of potassium with a ration of 0.012. Others are Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) with 400 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 19500 mg (19.5 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020; Hibiscus sabdriffa (sorrel) has 200 mg (0.2 g) of sodium and 600 mg (0.6 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.300; and Amarantus caudatus (spinach) contained 450 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 23000 mg (23 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020. The presence of sodium and potassium in foods has become increasingly important as recent studies and dietary information gathered in this research has shown that sodium intake is not the sole consideration in elevated blood pressure but its considered as a ratio Na+/K+ fixed at 0.6. This ratio has been found to be a more important factor, suggesting that our diet should contain 67 % more potassium than sodium.

Keywords: diet, Vegetables, Blood Pressure, Foods, potassium, sodium

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26 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: Sensors, Actuators, Blood Pressure, blood saturation, design improvement

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25 A Study to Identify Resistant Hypertension and Role of Spironolactone in its Management

Authors: A. Singh, A. Kumar, D. Himanshu, Ak Vaish, K. Usman, R. Misra, V. Atam, S. P. Verma, S. Singhal

Abstract:

Introduction: Resistant and uncontrolled hypertension offer great challenge, in terms of higher risk of morbidity, mortality and not the least, difficulty in diagnosis and management. Our study tries to identify the importance of two crucial aspects of hypertension management, i.e. drug compliance and optimum dosing and also the effect of spironolactone on blood pressure in cases of resistant hypertension. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out among patients, who were referred as case of resistant hypertension to Hypertension Clinic at Gandhi memorial and associated hospital, Lucknow, India from August, 2013 to July 2014. A total of 122 Subjects having uncontrolled BP with ≥3 antihypertensives were selected. After ruling out secondary resistance and with appropriate lifestyle modifications, effect of adherence and optimum doses was seen with monitoring of BP. Only those having blood pressure still uncontrolled were true resistant. These patients were given spironolactone to see its effect on BP over next 12 weeks. Results: Mean baseline BP of all (n=122) patients was 150.4±7.2 mmHg systolic and 92.1±5.7 mmHg diastolic. After promoting adherence to the regimen, there was reduction of 4.20±3.65 mmHg systolic and 2.08±4.74 mmHg Diastolic blood pressure, with 26 patients achieving target blood pressure goal. Further reduction of 6.66±5.99 mmHg in systolic and 2.59±3.67 mmHg in diastolic BP was observed after optimizing the drug doses with another 66 patients achieving target blood pressure goal. Only 30 patients were true resistant hypertensive and prescribed spironolactone. Over 12 weeks, mean reduction of 20.62±3.65 mmHg in systolic and 10.08 ± 6.46 mmHg in diastolic BP was observed. Out of these 30, BP was controlled in 24 patients. Side effects observed were hyperkalemia in 2 patients and breast tenderness in 2 patients. Conclusion: Improper adherence and suboptimal regimen appear to be the important reasons for uncontrolled hypertension. By virtue of maintaining proper adherence to an optimum regimen, target BP goal can be reached in many without adding much to the regimen. Spironolactone is effective in patients with resistant hypertension, in terms of blood pressure reduction with minimal side effects.

Keywords: Hypertension, Blood Pressure, resistant, spironolactone

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24 The Effect of Exercise, Reflexology and Chrome on Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: F. Arslan, S.D. Guven, A. Özcan, H. Vatansev, Ö. Taşgin

Abstract:

Weight, hypertension and dyslipidemia control and increased physical activity are required for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (METS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of core exercise, reflexology and intake chrome picolinate on METS. This study comprised a twelve-week randomized controlled trial. A total of 25 university workers with metabolic risk factors participated in this study voluntarily. They were randomly divided into three groups: Those undertaking a core exercise program (n=7), reflexology intervention group (n=8) and intake chrome group (n=10). The subjects took part in a core exercise program for one hour per day, three days a week and a reflexology interfered for thirty minutes per day, one days a week and chrome group took chrome picolinate every day in week for twelve weeks. The components of metabolic syndrome were analyzed before and after the completion of all the intervention. There were significant differences at pre-prandial blood glucose in the core exercise group and at systolic blood pressure in chrome group after the twelve week interventions (p < 0.005). While High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) excluding the components of METS decreased after the interventions on the all groups; levels of HDL and the other components of METS decreased in reflexology group. There was a clear response to the twelve-week interventions in terms of METS control. Besides, the reflexology intervention should not be applied to individuals with low HDL levels and core exercise and intake chrome picolinate suggested to improve the components of METS.

Keywords: Exercise, Blood Pressure, body mass index, METS, pre-prandial blood glucose

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23 The Association between C-Reactive Protein and Hypertension with Different US Participants Ethnicity-Findings from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010

Authors: Ghada Abo-Zaid

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to examine the association between the elevated level of CRP and incidence of hypertension before and after adjusting by age, BMI, gender, SES, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol LDL and cholesterol HDL and to determine whether the association were differ by race. Method: Cross sectional data for participations from age 17 to age 74 years who included in The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010 were analysed. CRP level was classified into three categories ( > 3mg/L, between 1mg/LL and 3mg/L, and < 3 mg/L). Blood pressure categorization was done using JNC 7 algorithm Hypertension defined as either systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mmHg or more and disystolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90mmHg or greater, otherwise a self-reported prior diagnosis by a physician. Pre-hypertension was defined as (139 > SBP > 120 or 89 > DPB > 80). Multinominal regression model was undertaken to measure the association between CRP level and hypertension. Results: In univariable models, CRP concentrations > 3 mg/L were associated with a 73% greater risk of incident hypertension compared with CRP concentrations < 1 mg/L (Hypertension: odds ratio [OR] = 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-1.99). Ethnic comparisons showed that American Mexican had the highest risk of incident hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.21-2.58).This risk was statistically insignificant, however, either after controlling by other variables (Hypertension: OR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.52-1.08,), or categorized by race [American Mexican: odds ratio [OR] = 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0,58-4.26, Other Hispanic: odds ratio [OR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-4.42, Non-Hispanic white: odds ratio [OR] = 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-1.59, Non-Hispanic Black: odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-0,87]. The same results were found for pre-hypertension, and the Non-Hispanic black showed the highest significant risk for Pre-Hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.03). When CRP concentrations were between 1.0-3.0 mg/L, in an unadjusted models prehypertension was associated with higher likelihood of elevated CRP (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.15-1.62). The same relationship was maintained in Non-Hispanic white, Non-Hispanic black, and other race (Non-Hispanic white: OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03-1.48, Non-Hispanic black: OR = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.27-2.03, other race: OR = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.32-4.74) while the association was insignificant with American Mexican and other Hispanic. In the adjusted model, the relationship between CRP and prehypertension were no longer available. In contrary, Hypertension was not independently associated with elevated CRP, and the results were the same after grouped by race or adjusted by the confounder variables. The same results were obtained when SBP or DBP were on a continuous measure. Conclusions: This study confirmed the existence of an association between hypertension, prehypertension and elevated level of CRP, however this association was no longer available after adjusting by other variables. Ethic group differences were statistically significant at the univariable models, while it disappeared after controlling by other variables.

Keywords: Hypertension, Ethnicity, Blood Pressure, CRP, NHANES

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22 Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

Authors: Qing Li, Maiko Kobayashi, Shigeyoshi Kumeda, Hiroko Ochiai, Toshiya Ochiai, Takashi Miura, Takahide Kagawa, Michiko Imai, Toshiaki Otsuka, Tomoyuki Kawada

Abstract:

In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing program on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen healthy male subjects (mean age: 51.3 ± 8.8 years) were selected after obtaining informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park named Akasawa Shizen Kyuyourin, Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture (situated in central Japan), and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as a control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled in the morning before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured by an ambulatory automatic blood pressure monitor. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS) test was conducted before, during and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitoring during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate, and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, and confusion in the POMS test. The levels of urinary noradrenaline and dopamine after forest bathing were significantly lower than those after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing program. The level of adiponectin in serum after the forest bathing program was significantly greater than that after urban area walking. There was no significant difference in blood pressure between forest and urban area trips during the trips.

Keywords: Human Health, Blood Pressure, ambient temperature, pulse rate, forest bathing, forest therapy, POMS

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21 Exercise Training for Management Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Noor F. Ilias, Mazlifah Omar, Hashbullah Ismail

Abstract:

Exercise training has been shown to improve functional capacity and is recommended as a therapy for management of blood pressure. Our purpose was to establish whether different exercise capacity produces different effect size for Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Exercise characteristic is required in order to have optimal benefit from the training, but optimal exercise capacity is still unwarranted. A MEDLINE search (1985 to 2015) was conducted for exercise based rehabilitation trials in hypertensive patients. Thirty-seven studies met the selection criteria. Of these, 31 (83.7%) were aerobic exercise and 6 (16.3%) aerobic with additional resistance exercise, providing a total of 1318 exercise subjects and 819 control, the total of subjects was 2137. We calculated exercise volume and energy expenditure through the description of exercise characteristics. 4 studies (18.2%) were 451kcal - 900 kcal, 12 (54.5%) were 900 kcal – 1350 kcal and 6 (27.3%) >1351kcal per week. Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) increased by mean difference of 1.44 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 to 1.79 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 21.2% for aerobic exercise compare to aerobic with additional resistance exercise 4.50 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.57 to 5.42 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 14.5%. SBP was clinically reduce for both aerobic and aerobic with resistance training by mean difference of -4.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.68 to -3.63 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 6% reduction and -5.06 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.32 to -2.8 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 5% reduction respectively. Result for DBP was clinically reduce for aerobic by mean difference of -1.62 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.09 to -1.15 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 4% reduction and aerobic with resistance training reduce by mean difference of -3.26 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.87 to -1.65 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 6% reduction. Optimum exercise capacity for 451 kcal – 900 kcal showed greater improvement in peak VO2 and SBP by 2.76 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47 to 4.05 ml/kg/min; p = 0.0001) with weighted mean 40.6% and -16.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -21.72 to -11.60 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 9.8% respectively. Our data demonstrated that aerobic exercise with total volume of 451 kcal – 900 kcal/ week energy expenditure may elicit greater changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Higher exercise capacity weekly does not seem better result in management hypertensive patients.

Keywords: Exercise, Hypertension, Blood Pressure, peak VO2

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20 Effect of Hypertension Exercise and Slow Deep Breathing Combination to Blood Pressure: A Mini Research in Elderly Community

Authors: Prima Khairunisa, Febriana Tri Kusumawati, Endah Luthfiana

Abstract:

Background: Hypertension in elderly, caused by cardiovascular system cannot work normally, because the valves thickened and inelastic blood vessels. It causes vasoconstriction of the blood vessels. Hypertension exercise, increase cardiovascular function and the elasticity of the blood vessels. While slow deep breathing helps the body and mind feel relax. Combination both of them will decrease the blood pressure. Objective: To know the effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to blood pressure in elderly. Method: The study conducted with one group pre-post test experimental design. The samples were 10 elderly both male and female in a Village in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The tool was manual sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure. Result: Based on paired t-test between hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with systole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0.045, while paired t-test between hypertension exercise hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with diastole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0,343. The changes of systole blood pressure were 127.5 mmHg, and diastole blood pressure was 80 mmHg. Systole blood pressure decreases significantly because the average of systole blood pressure before implementation was 135-160 mmHg. While diastole blood pressure was not decreased significantly. It was influenced by the average of diastole blood pressure before implementation of hypertension exercise was not too high. It was between 80- 90 mmHg. Conclusion: There was an effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to the blood pressure in elderly after 6 times implementations.

Keywords: Elderly, Blood Pressure, hypertension exercise, slow deep breathing

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19 Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measurements: A Correlational Study

Authors: Abdul-Monim Batiha, Manar AlAzzam, Mohammed ALBashtawy, Loai Tawalbeh, Ahmad Tubaishat, Fadwa N. Alhalaiqa

Abstract:

Background: Obesity is the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic illnesses especially high blood pressure. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric indices and high blood pressure, and which one was most strongly correlated with high blood pressure in Jordanian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total 622 students and workers from three Jordanian universities. Results: Nearly half of the participant are overweight (34.7%) and obese (15.4%) and hypertension was detected among 138 (22.2%) of the participants. Linear correlation was significant (p<0.01) between both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure for all anthropometric indices, except for A body shape index and diastolic blood pressure was significant at p< 0.05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of age and anthropometric measurements. Conclusions: The waist circumference was the only independent predictor of hypertension, showing that this simple measurement may be an importance marker of high blood pressure in Jordanian population.

Keywords: Obesity, Hypertension, Blood Pressure, jordan, waist circumference, anthropometric indices, cross-sectional study

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18 Hypertension and Its Association with Oral Health Status in Adults: A Pilot Study in Padusunan Adults Community

Authors: Murniwati, Nurul Khairiyah, Putri Ovieza Maizar

Abstract:

The association between general and oral health is clearly important, particularly in adults with medical conditions. Many of the medical systemic conditions are either caused or aggravated by poor oral hygiene and vice versa. Hypertension is one of common medical systemic problem which has been a public health concern worldwide due to its known consequences. Those consequences must be related to oral health status as well, whether it may cause or worsen the oral health conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association between hypertension and oral health status in adults. This study was an analytical observational study by using cross-sectional method. A total of 42 adults both male and female in Padusunan Village, Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia were selected as subjects by using purposive sampling. Manual sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure and dental examination was performed to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) scores in order to represent oral health status. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using One Way ANOVA to determine the association between hypertensive adults and their oral health status. The result showed that majority age of the subjects was ranging from 51-70 years (40.5%). Based on blood pressure examination, 57.1% of subjects were classified to prehypertension. Overall, the mean of DMFT score calculated in normal, prehypertension and hypertension group was not considered statistically significant. There was no significant association (p>0.05) between hypertension and oral health status in adults.

Keywords: Hypertension, Blood Pressure, DMFT, oral health status

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17 Revealing the Risks of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Authors: Oyuntsetseg Sandag, Lkhagvadorj Khosbayar, Naidansuren Tsendeekhuu, Densenbal Dansran, Bandi Solongo

Abstract:

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder affecting at least 2% to 4% of the adult population. It is estimated that nearly 80% of men and 93% of women with moderate to severe sleep apnea are undiagnosed. A number of screening questionnaires and clinical screening models have been developed to help identify patients with OSA, also it’s indeed to clinical practice. Purpose of study: Determine dependence of obstructive sleep apnea between for severe risk and risk factor. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study included 114 patients presenting from theCentral state 3th hospital and Central state 1th hospital. Patients who had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)selected in this study. Standard StopBang questionnaire was obtained from all patients.According to the patients’ response to the StopBang questionnaire was divided into low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk.Descriptive statistics were presented mean ± standard deviation (SD). Each questionnaire was compared on the likelihood ratio for a positive result, the likelihood ratio for a negative test result of regression. Statistical analyses were performed utilizing SPSS 16. Results: 114 patients were obtained (mean age 48 ± 16, male 57)that divided to low risk 54 (47.4%), intermediate risk 33 (28.9%), high risk 27 (23.7%). Result of risk factor showed significantly increasing that mean age (38 ± 13vs. 54 ± 14 vs. 59 ± 10, p<0.05), blood pressure (115 ± 18vs. 133 ± 19vs. 142 ± 21, p<0.05), BMI(24 IQR 22; 26 vs. 24 IQR 22; 29 vs. 28 IQR 25; 34, p<0.001), neck circumference (35 ± 3.4 vs. 38 ± 4.7 vs. 41 ± 4.4, p<0.05)were increased. Results from multiple logistic regressions showed that age is significantly independently factor for OSA (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.23, p<0.01). Predictive value of age was significantly higher factor for OSA (AUC=0.833, 95% CI 0.758-0.909, p<0.001). Our study showing that risk of OSA is beginning 47 years old (sensitivity 78.3%, specifity74.1%). Conclusions: According to most of all patients’ response had intermediate risk and high risk. Also, age, blood pressure, neck circumference and BMI were increased such as risk factor was increased for OSA. Especially age is independently factor and highest significance for OSA. Patients’ age one year is increased likelihood risk factor 1.1 times is increased.

Keywords: Blood Pressure, obstructive sleep apnea, Stop-Bang, BMI (Body Mass Index)

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16 A Preliminary Outcome of the Effect of an Accumulating 10,000 Daily Steps on Blood Pressure and Diabetes in Overweight Thai Participants

Authors: Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat, Duangnate Pepatsitipong, Panthip Sangprasert

Abstract:

High blood pressure and diabetes have been suggested as being non-communicable disease (NCDs), and there is one of the components of the definition of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week pedometer based community walking intervention on change in resting blood pressure and blood glucose in participants with overweight in the community setting. Method: Participants were recruited both males and females who had a sedentary lifestyle aged 35-59 years (mean aged 49.67 years). A longitudinal quasi-experimental study was designed with 35 overweight participants who had body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. These volunteers were assigned to the 12-week pedometer-based walking program (an accumulated at least 10,000 steps a day). Blood pressure and blood glucose were measured initially before and after 12-week intervention. Results: Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in 30 individuals who had accumulated 10,000 steps d-1 in the intervention group at 12 week follow-up (-13.74 mmHg and 5.3 bpm, respectively). In addition, reduction in blood glucose (-14.89 mmol) in the intervention participants was statistically significant (p < .001). A regression analysis indicated that reductions in systolic blood pressure were significantly related to the increase in steps per day. Conclusion: The accumulation of least 10,000 steps d-1 resulted in decreased resting systolic blood pressure and blood glucose in overweight participants. This has also shown that an increase in physical activity in overweight participants with sedentary lifestyle by accumulating at least 10,000 steps a day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (e.g., hypertension and diabetes).

Keywords: Physical Activity, Diabetes, Walking, Hypertension, blood glucose, Blood Pressure

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15 Regression-Based Approach for Development of a Cuff-Less Non-Intrusive Cardiovascular Health Monitor

Authors: Pranav Gulati, Isha Sharma

Abstract:

Hypertension and hypotension are known to have repercussions on the health of an individual, with hypertension contributing to an increased probability of risk to cardiovascular diseases and hypotension resulting in syncope. This prompts the development of a non-invasive, non-intrusive, continuous and cuff-less blood pressure monitoring system to detect blood pressure variations and to identify individuals with acute and chronic heart ailments, but due to the unavailability of such devices for practical daily use, it becomes difficult to screen and subsequently regulate blood pressure. The complexities which hamper the steady monitoring of blood pressure comprises of the variations in physical characteristics from individual to individual and the postural differences at the site of monitoring. We propose to develop a continuous, comprehensive cardio-analysis tool, based on reflective photoplethysmography (PPG). The proposed device, in the form of an eyewear captures the PPG signal and estimates the systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a sensor positioned near the temporal artery. This system relies on regression models which are based on extraction of key points from a pair of PPG wavelets. The proposed system provides an edge over the existing wearables considering that it allows for uniform contact and pressure with the temporal site, in addition to minimal disturbance by movement. Additionally, the feature extraction algorithms enhance the integrity and quality of the extracted features by reducing unreliable data sets. We tested the system with 12 subjects of which 6 served as the training dataset. For this, we measured the blood pressure using a cuff based BP monitor (Omron HEM-8712) and at the same time recorded the PPG signal from our cardio-analysis tool. The complete test was conducted by using the cuff based blood pressure monitor on the left arm while the PPG signal was acquired from the temporal site on the left side of the head. This acquisition served as the training input for the regression model on the selected features. The other 6 subjects were used to validate the model by conducting the same test on them. Results show that the developed prototype can robustly acquire the PPG signal and can therefore be used to reliably predict blood pressure levels.

Keywords: Blood Pressure, Physiological Monitoring, photoplethysmograph, eyewear

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14 Effects of Handgrip Isometric Training in Blood Pressure of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

Authors: Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, Marilia A. Correia, Wagner J. R. Domingues, Aline C. Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Lauro C. Vianna, Gabriel G. Cucato

Abstract:

Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have a high prevalence of hypertension, which contributes to a high risk of acute cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk of these patients are needed. Meta-analysis studies have shown that isometric handgrip training promotes reductions in clinical blood pressure in normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of this exercise training on other cardiovascular function indicators in PAD patients remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of isometric handgrip training on blood pressure in patients with PAD. In this clinical trial, 28 patients were randomly allocated into two groups: isometric handgrip training (HG) and control (CG). The HG conducted the unilateral handgrip training three days per week (four sets of two minutes, with 30% of maximum voluntary contraction with an interval of four minutes between sets). CG was encouraged to increase their physical activity levels. At baseline and after eight weeks blood pressure and heart rate were obtained. ANOVA two-way for repeated measures with the group (GH and GC) and time (pre- and post-intervention) as factors was performed. After 8 weeks of training there were no significant changes in systolic blood pressure (HG pre 141 ± 24.0 mmHg vs. HG post 142 ± 22.0 mmHg; CG pre 140 ± 22.1 mmHg vs. CG post 146 ± 16.2 mmHg; P=0.18), diastolic blood pressure (HG pre 74 ± 10.4 mmHg vs. HG post 74 ± 11.9 mmHg; CG pre 72 ± 6.9 mmHg vs. CG post 74 ± 8.0 mmHg; P=0.22) and heart rate (HG pre 61 ± 10.5 bpm vs. HG post 62 ± 8.0 bpm; CG pre 64 ± 11.8 bpm vs. CG post 65 ± 13.6 bpm; P=0.81). In conclusion, our preliminary data indicate that isometric handgrip training did not modify blood pressure and heart rate in patients with PAD.

Keywords: Exercise, Blood Pressure, isometric, peripheral artery disease

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13 Effect of Inulin-Substituted Ice Cream on Waist Circumference and Blood Pressure of Adolescents with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Nur H. Ahmad, Silvia S. Inge, Vanessa A. Julliete, A. Veraditias, Laila F. Febinda

Abstract:

Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and mostly found in adolescents. Waist circumference is related to abdominal obesity which has a significant effect on the increase of blood pressure. Inulin is one of prebiotic, that has health benefits by offering the potential for lipid management, that can be useful to decrease the risk factor of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the research is to evaluate the effect of 10 gram inulin-substituted ice cream in waist circumference and blood pressure of abdominal obesity adolescents. Inulin had the ability to produce Short Chain Fatty Acid which can improve blood pressure and waist circumference. Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the treatment group (p=0.028) with the mean of reduction 7.35 ± 11.59 mmHg. However, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference showed no significant effect. Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was decreased in control group. These results suggest that inulin-substituted ice cream used as therapeutics and prevention for the early onset of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Blood Pressure, inulin, waist circumference

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12 Cadmium Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Thasala Southern Thailand

Authors: Supabhorn Yimthiang, Wiyada Khanwian

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Cadmium is a heavy metal that is important in the environment because it is highly toxic. The incidence and severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated with cadmium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cadmium levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at diabetes mellitus clinic, Thasala hospital, Nakhon Si Thummarat, Thailand. The study population was composed of forty five subjects. Among them, twenty two were diabetic patients and twenty three were apparently healthy non-diabetic individual subjects. After an overnight fasting, blood and morning urine samples were collected from each subject to determine fasting blood sugar and cadmium levels in urine, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were measured by aneroid sphygmomanometer. Study approval was taken from the human subject ethics committee of Walailak University. Verbal and written informed consent was taken from all participants. In the study samples, there were 31.8% males and 68.2% females with mean age of 47+10.53 years. The geometric mean of urine cadmium was significantly higher in diabetic patients (1.015 + 0.79 µg/g creatinine) when compared with the healthy subjects (0.395 + 0.53 µg/g creatinine) (P<0.05). This result also showed that urine cadmium excretion in diabetic patients was higher than in healthy subjects by 2.6 times. Moreover, fasting blood sugar (153+47.86 μg/dl) and systolic blood pressure (183.26+17.15 mmHg) of diabetic patients was significantly different when compared with healthy subjects (79+5.38 μg/dl and 112.78+11.32 mmHg, respectively) (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the concentration of cadmium in urine showed positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r=0.616) and systolic blood pressure (r=0.487). This preliminary study showed that cadmium might play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in general population. However, these findings require confirmation through additional epidemiological and biological research.

Keywords: Blood Pressure, cadmium, type 2 diabetes mellitus, fasting blood sugar

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
11 Improvement of Cardiometabolic after 8 Weeks of Weight Loss Intervention

Authors: Boris Bajer, Andrea Havranova, Miroslav Vlcek, Richard Imrich, Adela Penesova

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Lifestyle interventions can prevent the deterioration of impaired glucose tolerance to manifest type 2 diabetes, and also prevent cardiovascular diseases, as it showed many studies (the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), . the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study, etc.) Therefore the aim of our study was to compare the effect of intensified lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic parameters. Methods: It is an ongoing randomized interventional clinical study (NCT02325804) focused on the reduction of body weight/fat. Intervention: hypocaloric diet (30% restriction of calories) and physical activity 150 minutes/week. Before and after 8 weeks of intervention all patients underwent complete medical examination (measurement of physical fitness, resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition analysis, oral glucose tolerance test, parameters of lipid metabolism, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: So far 39 patients finished the intervention. The average reduction of body weight was 6,8 + 4,9 kg (0-15 kg; p=0,0006), accompanied with significant reduction of body fat percentage (p ≤ 0,0001), amount of fat mass (p=0,03), waist circumference (p=0.02). Amount of lean mass and RMR remained unchanged. Heart rate (p=0,02), systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reduced (p=0,01 p=0,02 resp.) as well as insulin sensitivity was improved. Lipid parameters also changed - cholesterol, LDL decreased (p=0,05, p=0,04 resp.), while triglycerides showed tendency to decrease (p=0,055). Liver function improved, alanine aminotrasnferase (ALT) were reduced (p=0,01). Physical fitness significantly improved (as measure VO2 max (p=0,02). Conclusion: Results of our study are in line with previous results about the beneficial effect of intensive lifestyle changes on the reduction of cardiometabolic risk factors and improvement of liver function. Supported by grants APVV 15-0228; VEGA 2/0161/16

Keywords: Obesity, weight loss, Blood Pressure, liver enzymes, diet lipids

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10 The Role of Physical Activity on Some Factors Affecting Cardiovascular Disease

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, Sh. Khoshemehry, M. E. Bahram

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Hyperlipidemia or an increase in blood lipids is a condition that has been rising, especially during the last decade, with the advancement of the life-span of the car, as an important disease. In fact, it is one of the complications of industrial life and semi-industrial. Hyperlipidemia alone is not a disease, but it is recognized as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. The methodology of this review article is the use of research to provide the best solution for physical activity and exercise in relation to lowering blood lipids and lowering blood pressure. Also, factors that contribute to improving the health status of humans should be introduced. Research findings in this article show that physical activity with a specific duration and severity can keep a person away from the cardiovascular disease. The result shows that regular physical activity with low intensity and long periods of time is essential for human health. Physical mobility reduces blood pressure, reduces the harmful fats and does not cause cardiovascular disease. More than half of the patients suffering from cardiovascular problems are afflicted with blood lipids. On the other hand, high blood pressure is one of the serious health hazards in the world today, which causes a large number of cardiovascular problems and mortality in the world. Undoubtedly, the second most common risk factor for heart disease is high blood pressure after cigarette smoking.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Blood Pressure, hyperlipidemia, risk factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
9 Artificial Intelligence Based Online Monitoring System for Cardiac Patient

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Syed Qasim Gilani, Muhammad Noman, Syed Bilawal Shah, Aqib Abbasi, Muhammad Waheed

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Cardiovascular Diseases(CVD's) are the major cause of death in the world. The main reason for these deaths is the unavailability of first aid for heart failure. In many cases, patients die before reaching the hospital. We in this paper are presenting innovative online health service for Cardiac Patients. The proposed online health system has two ends. Users through device developed by us can communicate with their doctor through a mobile application. This interface provides them with first aid.Also by using this service, they have an easy interface with their doctors for attaining medical advice. According to the proposed system, we developed a device called Cardiac Care. Cardiac Care is a portable device which a patient can use at their home for monitoring heart condition. When a patient checks his/her heart condition, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Blood Pressure(BP), Temperature are sent to the central database. The severity of patients condition is checked using Artificial Intelligence Algorithm at the database. If the patient is suffering from the minor problem, our algorithm will suggest a prescription for patients. But if patient's condition is severe, patients record is sent to doctor through the mobile Android application. Doctor after reviewing patients condition suggests next step. If a doctor identifies the patient condition as critical, then the message is sent to the central database for sending an ambulance for the patient. Ambulance starts moving towards patient for bringing him/her to hospital. We have implemented this model at prototype level. This model will be life-saving for millions of people around the globe. According to this proposed model patients will be in contact with their doctors all the time.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, classification, electrocardiogram, Blood Pressure

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8 Enhanced Physiological Response of Blood Pressure and Improved Performance in Successive Divided Attention Test Seen with Classical Instrumental Background Music Compared to Controls

Authors: Shantala Herlekar

Abstract:

Introduction: Entrainment effect of music on cardiovascular parameters is well established. Music is being used in the background by medical students while studying. However, does it really help them relax faster and concentrate better? Objectives: This study was done to compare the effects of classical instrumental background music versus no music on blood pressure response over time and on successively performed divided attention test in Indian and Malaysian 1st-year medical students. Method: 60 Indian and 60 Malaysian first year medical students, with an equal number of girls and boys were randomized into two groups i.e music group and control group thus creating four subgroups. Three different forms of Symbol Digit Modality Test (to test concentration ability) were used as a pre-test, during music/control session and post-test. It was assessed using total, correct and error score. Simultaneously, multiple Blood Pressure recordings were taken as pre-test, during 1, 5, 15, 25 minutes during music/control (+SDMT) and post-test. The music group performed the test with classical instrumental background music while the control group performed it in silence. Results were analyzed using students paired t test. p value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. A drop in BP recording was indicative of relaxed state and a rise in BP with task performance was indicative of increased arousal. Results: In Symbol Digit Modality Test (SDMT) test, Music group showed significant better results for correct (p = 0.02) and total (p = 0.029) scores during post-test while errors reduced (p = 0.002). Indian music group showed decline in post-test error scores (p = 0.002). Malaysian music group performed significantly better in all categories. Blood pressure response was similar in music and control group with following variations, a drop in BP at 5minutes, being significant in music group (p < 0.001), a steep rise in values till 15minutes (corresponding to SDMT test) also being significant only in music group (p < 0.001) and the Systolic BP readings in controls during post-test were at lower levels compared to music group. On comparing the subgroups, not much difference was noticed in recordings of Indian student’s subgroups while all the paired-t test values in the Malaysian music group were significant. Conclusion: These recordings indicate an increased relaxed state with classical instrumental music and an increased arousal while performing a concentration task. Music used in our study was beneficial to students irrespective of their nationality and preference of music type. It can act as an “active coping” strategy and alleviate stress within a very short period of time, in our study within a span of 5minutes. When used in the background, during task performance, can increase arousal which helps the students perform better. Implications: Music can be used between lectures for a short time to relax the students and help them concentrate better for the subsequent classes, especially for late afternoon sessions.

Keywords: Ethnicity, Blood Pressure, classical instrumental background music, symbol digit modality test

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7 Effect of Acute Ingestion of Ice Water on Blood Pressure in Relation to Body Mass Index

Authors: Shantala Herlekar, Savitri Siddanagoudra, Priya Arjunwadekar

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Background: The physiological response to water drinking in healthy subjects is an integrated response with an increase in sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity with induced bradycardia. Obesity is a modern pandemic, implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In autonomic failure patients, water drinking has been shown the increased high blood pressure and bradycardia. Acute effects of ice water ingestion on blood pressure (BP) in relation to body mass index (BMI) is not addressed in literature. Objectives: Objective of this study is to evaluate BP before and after ingestion of cold water in all the three groups. Methods and Material: 60 healthy subjects between the age group of 18-24 yrs were selected and assigned into 3 groups based on BMI. BMI less than and equal to 25 kg/m2 is selected as Normal BMI group ,between 25- 29 kg/m2 as Overweight and BMI more than and equal to 30 kg/m2 as Obese. Procedure: Basal and after ingestion of 250 ml of cold water (7 0C ± 0.5 0C)BP was recorded in all the 3 groups. Results: Basal and after ice water ingestion BP increased statistically in all 3 groups. Conclusion: On acute ingestion of ice water overweight, obese may have more sympathoexcitaion compared to normal subjects.

Keywords: Blood Pressure, body mass index, ice water, symathoexcitation

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6 Changes in Blood Pressure in a Longitudinal Cohort of Vietnamese Women

Authors: Yun Zhao, Colin W. Binns, Andy H. Lee, Anh Vo Van Ha, Luat Cong Nguyen, Tan Khac Chu, Phung Hoang Nguyen, Minh Ngoc Pham

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This study aims to study longitudinal changes in blood pressure (BP) during the 1-year postpartum period and to evaluate the influence of parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, gestational age at delivery and postpartum maternal weight. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of 883 singleton Vietnamese women was conducted in Hanoi, Haiphong, and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam during 2015-2017. Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of gestation, pre-eclampsia, and hypoglycemia was excluded from analysis. BP was repeatedly measured at discharge, 6 and 12 months postpartum using automatic blood pressure monitors. Linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to describe changes occurring during pregnancy to 1-year postpartum. Parity, self-reported prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, maternal age and gestational age at delivery will be treated as time-invariant variables and measured maternal weight will be treated as a time-varying variable in models. Women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), 0.20 mmHg, 95% CI [0.12, 0.28]. Similarly, women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 0.15 mmHg, 95% CI [0.08, 0.23]. These differences were both statistically significant, P < 0.001. There were no differences in SBP and DBP depending on parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and gestational age at delivery. Compared with discharge measurement, SBP was significantly higher in 6 months postpartum, 6.91 mmHg, 95% CI [6.22, 7.59], and 12 months postpartum, 6.39 mmHg, 95% CI [5.64, 7.15]. Similarly, DBP was also significantly higher in 6 and months postpartum than at discharge, 10.46 mmHg 95% CI [9.75, 11.17], and 11.33 mmHg 95% CI [10.54, 12.12]. In conclusion, BP measured repeatedly during the postpartum period (6 and 12 months postpartum) showed a statistically significant increase, compared with after discharge from the hospital. Maternal weight was a significant predictor of postpartum blood pressure over the 1-year postpartum period.

Keywords: Postpartum, Blood Pressure, Vietnam, maternal weight

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5 Assessment of Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Percentage Oxygen Saturation in Young Habitual Shisha Smokers in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: M. A. Yahaya, B. I. Waziri

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Background: Practice of shisha smoking involves the use of a multi-stemmed instrument to smoke tobacco or non-tobacco herbal mixture where the smoke is designed to pass through water or other liquid before reaching the smoker. The presence of tobacco content and the use of charcoal when burning the ingredients in this popular practice necessitate for investigation of many physiological parameters of habitual shisha smokers in our environment. Methods: 103 young shisha smokers, regular in the practice for more than three years living in Nasarawa, Kano state, Nigeria, were recruited for the study. The controls were 100 university students (nonsmokers) match for age (18 - 30 years), sex and BMI (20 - 24) with the smokers. Participants with known history of cigarette smoking, cardiovascular or respiratory diseases were excluded. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Kano Nigeria. Hear rate, blood pressure and percentage oxygen saturation (SPO₂) were measured using stethoscope, sphygmomanometer and pulse oximeter respectively. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20 and mean values of the measured parameters were compared between the smokers and controls using independent sample t-test. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean Heart rate was found to be significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the shisha smokers (91.32 ± 0.84) compared to controls (79.19 ± 1.18). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also higher (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (128.75 ± 1.11 and 85.85 ± 0.78 respectively) compared to controls with the systolic and diastolic pressure of 116.64 ± 0.82 and 80.39 ± 0.83 respectively. SPO₂ was significantly lower (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (91.98% ± 0.42%) compared to the controls (97.98 ± 0.18). Conclusion: Habitual Shisha Smoking caused a significant increase in Heart rate, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a significant decrease in SPO2 among youth in Kano State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Youth, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, shisha

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4 Understanding the Nature of Blood Pressure as Metabolic Syndrome Component in Children

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

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Pediatric overweight and obesity need attention because they may cause morbid obesity, which may develop metabolic syndrome (MetS). Criteria used for the definition of adult MetS cannot be applied for pediatric MetS. Dynamic physiological changes that occur during childhood and adolescence require the evaluation of each parameter based upon age intervals. The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of blood pressure (BP) values within diverse pediatric age intervals and the possible use and clinical utility of a recently introduced Diagnostic Obesity Notation Model Assessment Tension (DONMA tense) Index derived from systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) [SBP+DBP/200]. Such a formula may enable a more integrative picture for the assessment of pediatric obesity and MetS due to the use of both SBP and DBP. 554 children, whose ages were between 6-16 years participated in the study; the study population was divided into two groups based upon their ages. The first group comprises 280 cases aged 6-10 years (72-120 months), while those aged 10-16 years (121-192 months) constituted the second group. The values of SBP, DBP and the formula (SBP+DBP/200) covering both were evaluated. Each group was divided into seven subgroups with varying degrees of obesity and MetS criteria. Two clinical definitions of MetS have been described. These groups were MetS3 (children with three major components), and MetS2 (children with two major components). The other groups were morbid obese (MO), obese (OB), overweight (OW), normal (N) and underweight (UW). The children were included into the groups according to the age- and sex-based body mass index (BMI) percentile values tabulated by WHO. Data were evaluated by SPSS version 16 with p < 0.05 as the statistical significance degree. Tension index was evaluated in the groups above and below 10 years of age. This index differed significantly between N and MetS as well as OW and MetS groups (p = 0.001) above 120 months. However, below 120 months, significant differences existed between MetS3 and MetS2 (p = 0.003) as well as MetS3 and MO (p = 0.001). In comparison with the SBP and DBP values, tension index values have enabled more clear-cut separation between the groups. It has been detected that the tension index was capable of discriminating MetS3 from MetS2 in the group, which was composed of children aged 6-10 years. This was not possible in the older group of children. This index was more informative for the first group. This study also confirmed that 130 mm Hg and 85 mm Hg cut-off points for SBP and DBP, respectively, are too high for serving as MetS criteria in children because the mean value for tension index was calculated as 1.00 among MetS children. This finding has shown that much lower cut-off points must be set for SBP and DBP for the diagnosis of pediatric MetS, especially for children under-10 years of age. This index may be recommended to discriminate MO, MetS2 and MetS3 among the 6-10 years of age group, whose MetS diagnosis is problematic.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, Children, Blood Pressure, index

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3 Oral Biofilm and Stomatitis Denture: Local Implications and Cardiovascular Risks

Authors: Adriana B. Ribeiro, Camila B. Araujo, Frank L. Bueno, Luiz Eduardo V. Silva, Caroline V. Fortes, Helio C. Salgado, Rubens Fazan Jr., Claudia H. L. da Silva

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Denture-related stomatitis (DRS) has recently been associated with deleterious cardiovascular effects, including hypertension. This study evaluated salivary parameters, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV), before and after DRS treatment in edentulous patients (n=14). Collection of unstimulated and stimulated saliva, as well as blood pressure (BP) measurements and electrocardiogram recordings were performed before and after 10 days of DRS treatment. The salivary flow (mL/min) was found similar at both times while pH was smaller (more neutral) after treatment (7.3 ± 2.2 vs. 7.1 ± 0.24). Systolic BP (mmHg) showed a trend, but not a significant reduction after DRS treatment (158 ± 25.68 vs. 148 ± 16,72, p=0,062) while diastolic BP was found similar in both times (86 ± 13.93 and 84 ± 9.38). Overall HRV, measured by standard deviation of RR intervals was not affected by DRS treatment (24 ± 4 vs 18 ± 2 ms), but differences of successive RR intervals (an index of parasympathetic cardiac modulation) increased after the treatment (26 ± 4 vs 19 ± 2 ms). Moreover, another index of vagal modulation of the heart, the power of RR interval spectra at high-frequency, was also markedly higher after DRS treatment (236 ± 63 vs 135 ± 32 ms²). Such findings strongly suggest that DRS is linked to an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is markedly deleterious, increasing cardiovascular risk and the incidence of diseases such as hypertension. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by FAPESP, CNPq.

Keywords: Biofilm, Blood Pressure, HRV, denture stomatitis

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2 Monitoring Blood Pressure Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Ahmad Dagamseh, Qasem Qananwah, Hiam AlQuran, Khalid Shaker Ibrahim

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Blood pressure helps the physicians greatly to have a deep insight into the cardiovascular system. The determination of individual blood pressure is a standard clinical procedure considered for cardiovascular system problems. The conventional techniques to measure blood pressure (e.g. cuff method) allows a limited number of readings for a certain period (e.g. every 5-10 minutes). Additionally, these systems cause turbulence to blood flow; impeding continuous blood pressure monitoring, especially in emergency cases or critically ill persons. In this paper, the most important statistical features in the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals were extracted to estimate the blood pressure noninvasively. PPG signals from more than 40 subjects were measured and analyzed and 12 features were extracted. The features were fed to principal component analysis (PCA) to find the most important independent features that have the highest correlation with blood pressure. The results show that the stiffness index means and standard deviation for the beat-to-beat heart rate were the most important features. A model representing both features for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) was obtained using a statistical regression technique. Surface fitting is used to best fit the series of data and the results show that the error value in estimating the SBP is 4.95% and in estimating the DBP is 3.99%.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, Blood Pressure, PCA, continuous monitoring, noninvasive optical system

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1 A Physiological Approach for Early Detection of Hemorrhage

Authors: Rabie Fadil, Parshuram Aarotale, Shubha Majumder, Bijay Guargain

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Hemorrhage is the loss of blood from the circulatory system and leading cause of battlefield and postpartum related deaths. Early detection of hemorrhage remains the most effective strategy to reduce mortality rate caused by traumatic injuries. In this study, we investigated the physiological changes via non-invasive cardiac signals at rest and under different hemorrhage conditions simulated through graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), blood pressure (BP), impedance cardiogram (ICG), and phonocardiogram (PCG) were acquired from 10 participants (age:28 ± 6 year, weight:73 ± 11 kg, height:172 ± 8 cm). The LBNP protocol consisted of applying -20, -30, -40, -50, and -60 mmHg pressure to the lower half of the body. Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean aerial pressure (MAP) were extracted from ECG and blood pressure. Systolic amplitude (SA), systolic time (ST), diastolic time (DT), and left ventricle Ejection time (LVET) were extracted from PPG during each stage. Preliminary results showed that the application of -40 mmHg i.e. moderate stage simulated hemorrhage resulted significant changes in HR (85±4 bpm vs 68 ± 5bpm, p < 0.01), ST (191 ± 10 ms vs 253 ± 31 ms, p < 0.05), LVET (350 ± 14 ms vs 479 ± 47 ms, p < 0.05) and DT (551 ± 22 ms vs 683 ± 59 ms, p < 0.05) compared to rest, while no change was observed in SA (p > 0.05) as a consequence of LBNP application. These findings demonstrated the potential of cardiac signals in detecting moderate hemorrhage. In future, we will analyze all the LBNP stages and investigate the feasibility of other physiological signals to develop a predictive machine learning model for early detection of hemorrhage.

Keywords: Machine Learning, hemorrhage, Blood Pressure, lower-body negative pressure, LBNP

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