Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

blood flow Related Abstracts

10 A Numerical Model for Simulation of Blood Flow in Vascular Networks

Authors: Houman Tamaddon, Mehrdad Behnia, Masud Behnia


An accurate study of blood flow is associated with an accurate vascular pattern and geometrical properties of the organ of interest. Due to the complexity of vascular networks and poor accessibility in vivo, it is challenging to reconstruct the entire vasculature of any organ experimentally. The objective of this study is to introduce an innovative approach for the reconstruction of a full vascular tree from available morphometric data. Our method consists of implementing morphometric data on those parts of the vascular tree that are smaller than the resolution of medical imaging methods. This technique reconstructs the entire arterial tree down to the capillaries. Vessels greater than 2 mm are obtained from direct volume and surface analysis using contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). Vessels smaller than 2mm are reconstructed from available morphometric and distensibility data and rearranged by applying Murray’s Laws. Implementation of morphometric data to reconstruct the branching pattern and applying Murray’s Laws to every vessel bifurcation simultaneously, lead to an accurate vascular tree reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithm generates full arterial tree topography down to the first capillary bifurcation. Geometry of each order of the vascular tree is generated separately to minimize the construction and simulation time. The node-to-node connectivity along with the diameter and length of every vessel segment is established and order numbers, according to the diameter-defined Strahler system, are assigned. During the simulation, we used the averaged flow rate for each order to predict the pressure drop and once the pressure drop is predicted, the flow rate is corrected to match the computed pressure drop for each vessel. The final results for 3 cardiac cycles is presented and compared to the clinical data.

Keywords: blood flow, morphometric data, vascular tree, Strahler ordering system

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9 A Novel NRIS Index to Evaluate Brain Activity in Prefrontal Regions While Listening to First and Second Languages for Long Time Periods

Authors: Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara, Hiroshi Tanaka, Takashi Kaburagi, Kensho Takahashi, Ko Watanabe


Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used as a non-invasive method to measure brain activity, but it is corrupted by baseline drift noise. Here we present a method to measure regional cerebral blood flow as a derivative of NIRS output. We investigate whether, when listening to languages, blood flow can reasonably localize and represent regional brain activity or not. The prefrontal blood flow distribution pattern when advanced second-language listeners listened to a second language (L2) was most similar to that when listening to their first language (L1) among the patterns of mean and standard deviation. In experiments with 25 healthy subjects, the maximum blood flow was localized to the left BA46 of advanced listeners. The blood flow presented is robust to baseline drift and stably localizes regional brain activity.

Keywords: Working memory, Second Language, first language, blood flow, NIRS, oxy-hemoglobin, baseline drift, BA46

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8 Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries: Analytical and Numerical Study

Authors: Shashi Sharma, V. K. Katiyar, Uaday Singh


Blood flow through a stenosed tube, which is of great interest to mechanical engineers as well as medical researchers. If stenosis exists in an artery, normal blood flow is disturbed. The deposition of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products in the inner lining of an artery results to plaque formation .The present study deals with a mathematical model for blood flow in constricted arteries. Blood is considered as a Newtonian, incompressible, unsteady and laminar fluid flowing in a cylindrical rigid tube along the axial direction. A time varying pressure gradient is applied in the axial direction. An analytical solution is obtained using the numerical inversion method for Laplace Transform for calculating the velocity profile of fluid as well as particles.

Keywords: Newtonian fluid, blood flow, stenosis, medical biology and genetics

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7 Simulation of the FDA Centrifugal Blood Pump Using High Performance Computing

Authors: Mehdi Behbahani, Sebastian Rible, Charles Moulinec, Yvan Fournier, Mike Nicolai, Paolo Crosetto


Computational Fluid Dynamics blood-flow simulations are increasingly used to develop and validate blood-contacting medical devices. This study shows that numerical simulations can provide additional and accurate estimates of relevant hemodynamic indicators (e.g., recirculation zones or wall shear stresses), which may be difficult and expensive to obtain from in-vivo or in-vitro experiments. The most recent FDA (Food and Drug Administration) benchmark consisted of a simplified centrifugal blood pump model that contains fluid flow features as they are commonly found in these devices with a clear focus on highly turbulent phenomena. The FDA centrifugal blood pump study is composed of six test cases with different volumetric flow rates ranging from 2.5 to 7.0 liters per minute, pump speeds, and Reynolds numbers ranging from 210,000 to 293,000. Within the frame of this study different turbulence models were tested including RANS models, e.g. k-omega, k-epsilon and a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) and, LES. The partitioners Hilbert, METIS, ParMETIS and SCOTCH were used to create an unstructured mesh of 76 million elements and compared in their efficiency. Computations were performed on the JUQUEEN BG/Q architecture applying the highly parallel flow solver Code SATURNE and typically using 32768 or more processors in parallel. Visualisations were performed by means of PARAVIEW. Different turbulence models including all six flow situations could be successfully analysed and validated against analytical considerations and from comparison to other data-bases. It showed that an RSM represents an appropriate choice with respect to modeling high-Reynolds number flow cases. Especially, the Rij-SSG (Speziale, Sarkar, Gatzki) variant turned out to be a good approach. Visualisation of complex flow features could be obtained and the flow situation inside the pump could be characterized.

Keywords: High Performance Computing, Turbulence, Scalability, blood flow, centrifugal blood pump

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6 Effects of the Non-Newtonian Viscosity of Blood on Flow Field in a Constricted Artery with a Porous Plaque

Authors: Maedeh Shojaeizadeh, Amirreza Yeganegi


Nowadays many people lose their lives due to cardiovascular diseases. Inappropriate food habits and lack of exercise expedite deposit process of fatty substances on inner surface of blood arteries. This abnormal lump disturbs uniform blood flow and reduces oxygen delivery to active organs. This work presents a numerical simulation of Non-Newtonian blood flow in a stenosis vessel. The vessel is considered as two dimensional channel and plaque area is modelled as a homogenous porous medium. To simulate blood flow reaction around stenosis region, we use C++ code and solve coupled Cauchy, Darcy, governing continuity and energy equations. The analyses results show that viscosity power (n) plays an important role in flow separation and the size of the eddy at the downstream edge of the plaque. It is also observed that with increasing (n) value, temperature discontinuity and likelihood of vessel rupture declined.

Keywords: porosity, Computational Fluid Dynamic, blood flow, power law fluid

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5 Integrating Computational Modeling and Analysis with in Vivo Observations for Enhanced Hemodynamics Diagnostics and Prognosis

Authors: Shreyas S. Hegde, Anindya Deb, Suresh Nagesh


Computational bio-mechanics is developing rapidly as a non-invasive tool to assist the medical fraternity to help in both diagnosis and prognosis of human body related issues such as injuries, cardio-vascular dysfunction, atherosclerotic plaque etc. Any system that would help either properly diagnose such problems or assist prognosis would be a boon to the doctors and medical society in general. Recently a lot of work is being focused in this direction which includes but not limited to various finite element analysis related to dental implants, skull injuries, orthopedic problems involving bones and joints etc. Such numerical solutions are helping medical practitioners to come up with alternate solutions for such problems and in most cases have also reduced the trauma on the patients. Some work also has been done in the area related to the use of computational fluid mechanics to understand the flow of blood through the human body, an area of hemodynamics. Since cardio-vascular diseases are one of the main causes of loss of human life, understanding of the blood flow with and without constraints (such as blockages), providing alternate methods of prognosis and further solutions to take care of issues related to blood flow would help save valuable life of such patients. This project is an attempt to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to solve specific problems related to hemodynamics. The hemodynamics simulation is used to gain a better understanding of functional, diagnostic and theoretical aspects of the blood flow. Due to the fact that many fundamental issues of the blood flow, like phenomena associated with pressure and viscous forces fields, are still not fully understood or entirely described through mathematical formulations the characterization of blood flow is still a challenging task. The computational modeling of the blood flow and mechanical interactions that strongly affect the blood flow patterns, based on medical data and imaging represent the most accurate analysis of the blood flow complex behavior. In this project the mathematical modeling of the blood flow in the arteries in the presence of successive blockages has been analyzed using CFD technique. Different cases of blockages in terms of percentages have been modeled using commercial software CATIA V5R20 and simulated using commercial software ANSYS 15.0 to study the effect of varying wall shear stress (WSS) values and also other parameters like the effect of increase in Reynolds number. The concept of fluid structure interaction (FSI) has been used to solve such problems. The model simulation results were validated using in vivo measurement data from existing literature

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, blood flow, hemodynamics, results validation, arteries

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4 Dynamics of Follicle Vascular Perfusion, Dimensions, Antrum Growth, Circulating Angiogenic Mediators from Deviation to Ovulation

Authors: Elshymaa A. Abdelnaby, Amal M. Abo El-Maaty


This study aimed to investigate dynamics of dominant and subordinate follicles change in dimensions, vascularity and angiogenic hormones after completing deviation till ovulation. Five cyclic mares were subjected to daily blood sampling and rectal Doppler ultrasonographic examination along two estrous cycles. Using electronic calipers, three diameters were recorded for each follicle to estimate area and volume. Leptin, Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), nitric oxide (NO) and estradiol (E2) were measured. Area of color- and power- Doppler modes with area and circumference of the first (preovulatory) and subordinate follicles were measured in pixels. Follicles were classified into F1O (preovulatory), F2O (subordinate), F3O (third ovulatory) on the dominant ovary and F1C (first contra) and F2C (second contra) on the contralateral ovary. Days before ovulation significantly (P < 0.0001) affected diameter, circumference, area, volume, area/pixel and antrum area of the preovulatory follicle. With the increase of diameter, area, volume area/pixel, antrum area/pixel and circumference of F1O, those of all subordinates were decreasing. The blue blood flow area, power and power minus red blood flow area of F1O increased from day -6 till day of ovulation (day 0), but red blood flow area significantly decreased. F1O had the lowest percent of colored pixels and percent of the colored pixels without antrum. Estradiol and leptin increased from day -6 till day 0 but IGF-1 decreased till day -1 but NO achieved a peak on day -3 then decreased till day 0. In conclusion, antrum growth, blood flow and angiogenic hormones play a role in maturation and ovulation of the dominant follicle in mares.

Keywords: blood flow, angiogenic hormones, mare, preovulatory follicle

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3 Numerical Simulation of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Blood Flow in a Stenosed Artery

Authors: Sreeparna Majee, G. C. Shit


Unsteady blood flow has been numerically investigated through stenosed arteries to achieve an idea about the physiological blood flow pattern in diseased arteries. The blood is treated as Newtonian fluid and the arterial wall is considered to be rigid having deposition of plaque in its lumen. For direct numerical simulation, vorticity-stream function formulation has been adopted to solve the problem using implicit finite difference method by developing well known Peaceman-Rachford Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The effects of magnetic parameter and Reynolds number on velocity and wall shear stress are being studied and presented quantitatively over the entire arterial segment. The streamlines have been plotted to understand the flow pattern in the stenosed artery, which has significant alterations in the downstream of the stenosis in the presence of magnetic field. The results show that there are nominal changes in the flow pattern when magnetic field strength is enhanced upto 8T which can have remarkable usage to MRI machines.

Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamics, blood flow, energy dissipation, stenosis

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2 Effects of the Fractional Order on Nanoparticles in Blood Flow through the Stenosed Artery

Authors: Mohammed Abdulhameed, Sagir M. Abdullahi


In this paper, based on the applications of nanoparticle, the blood flow along with nanoparticles through stenosed artery is studied. The blood is acted by periodic body acceleration, an oscillating pressure gradient and an external magnetic field. The mathematical formulation is based on Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative without singular kernel. The model of ordinary blood, corresponding to time-derivatives of integer order, is obtained as a limiting case. Analytical solutions of the blood velocity and temperature distribution are obtained by means of the Hankel and Laplace transforms. Effects of the order of Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional derivatives and three different nanoparticles i.e. Fe3O4, TiO4 and Cu are studied. The results highlights that, models with fractional derivatives bring significant differences compared to the ordinary model. It is observed that the addition of Fe3O4 nanoparticle reduced the resistance impedance of the blood flow and temperature distribution through bell shape stenosed arteries as compared to TiO4 and Cu nanoparticles. On entering in the stenosed area, blood temperature increases slightly, but, increases considerably and reaches its maximum value in the stenosis throat. The shears stress has variation from a constant in the area without stenosis and higher in the layers located far to the longitudinal axis of the artery. This fact can be an important for some clinical applications in therapeutic procedures.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Mathematical Models, blood flow, stenosed artery

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1 Mathematical Modelling of Blood Flow with Magnetic Nanoparticles as Carrier for Targeted Drug Delivery in a Stenosed Artery

Authors: Sreeparna Majee, G. C. Shit


A study on targeted drug delivery is carried out in an unsteady flow of blood infused with magnetic NPs (nanoparticles) with an aim to understand the flow pattern and nanoparticle aggregation in a diseased arterial segment having stenosis. The magnetic NPs are supervised by the magnetic field which is significant for therapeutic treatment of arterial diseases, tumor and cancer cells and removing blood clots. Coupled thermal energy have also been analyzed by considering dissipation of energy because of the application of the magnetic field and the viscosity of blood. Simulation technique used to solve the mathematical model is vorticity-stream function formulations in the diseased artery. An elevation in SLP (Specific loss power) is noted in the aortic bloodstream when the agglomeration of nanoparticles is higher. This phenomenon has potential application in the treatment of hyperthermia. The study focuses on the lowering of WSS (Wall Shear Stress) with increasing particle concentration at the downstream of the stenosis which depicts the vigorous flow circulation zone. These low shear stress regions prolong the residing time of the nanoparticles carrying drugs which soaks up the LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) deposition. Moreover, an increase in NP concentration enhances the Nusselt number which marks the increase of heat transfer from the arterial wall to the surrounding tissues to destroy tumor and cancer cells without affecting the healthy cells. The results have a significant influence in the study of medicine, to treat arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis without the need for surgery which can minimize the expenditures on cardiovascular treatments.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, magnetic nanoparticles, hyperthermia, blood flow

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