Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

blends Related Abstracts

10 Evaluating the Functional Properties of Flours Varying Percentage Blend of Malted Acha, Aya and Ede flours as Potentials for Weaning Food Formulation

Authors: O. G. Onuoha, E. Chibuzo, H. M. Badau


Traditional weaning foods are dense or thick paste, which are then diluted with large volume of water to produce thin drinkable consistency for infants. This work was aimed at evaluating the functional properties of six varying percentage blends of locally abundant, underutilized crops; malted acha (Digitaria exiles), aya (Cyperus esculentus) and ede (Colocasia esculentum) flours as weaning foods. The results of bulk density and starch digestibility showed a decrease with increasing percentage addition of malted acha with values from 5.889±0.98 to 7.953±0.103; -5.45 to -13.6 respectively. While water absorption capacity, measure of dispersibility, wettability, swelling power, % solubility increased with increase in percentage addition of malted acha with values from 6.6±0.712 to 8.1±0.1; 2.12 to 37.225; 3.21±0.04 to 3.6±0.03; 20.64 to 24.46 respectively. There was no significant difference between all the formula and the control. Results of pasting properties showed that the peak viscosity, break down, final viscosity, setback values from -0.42±0.085 to -3.67±0.085; 5.63±0.045 to 1.79±0.04;-3.88±0.045 to -1.475±0.275; 2.17±0.045 to 2.93±0.045 respectively. There was no significant different between some of the weaning formula and the control for peak viscosity, break down, final viscosity and temperatures required to form paste. The formula compared favorably with the control- a commercially sold formula.

Keywords: weaning food, functional properties, under-utilized crops, blends

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9 Rheological Properties of PP/EVA Blends

Authors: Othman Y. Alothman


The study aims to investigate the effects of blend ratio, VA content and temperature on the rheological properties of PPEVA blends. The results show that all pure polymers and their blends show typical shear thinning behaviour. All neat polymers exhibit power-low type flow behaviour, with the viscosity order as EVA328 > EVA206 > PP in almost all frequency ranges. As temperature increases, the viscosity of all polymers decreases as expected, and the viscosity becomes more sensitive to the addition of EVA. Two different regions can be observed on the flow curve of some of the polymers and their blends, which is thought to be due to slip-stick transition or melt fracture.

Keywords: rheological properties, Polypropylene, blends, ethylene vinyl acetate

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8 Rheological and Thermomechanical Properties of Graphene/ABS/PP Nanocomposites

Authors: Marianna I. Triantou, Petroula A. Tarantili, Konstantina I. Stathi


In the present study, the incorporation of graphene into blends of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer with polypropylene (ABS/PP) was investigated focusing on the improvement of their thermomechanical characteristics and the effect on their rheological behavior. The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder and were characterized by measuring the MFI as well as by performing DSC, TGA and mechanical tests. The addition of graphene to ABS/PP blends tends to increase their melt viscosity, due to the confinement of polymer chains motion. Also, graphene causes an increment of the crystallization temperature (Tc), especially in blends with higher PP content, because of the reduction of surface energy of PP nucleation, which is a consequence of the attachment of PP chains to the surface of graphene through the intermolecular CH-π interaction. Moreover, the above nanofiller improves the thermal stability of PP and increases the residue of thermal degradation at all the investigated compositions of blends, due to the thermal isolation effect and the mass transport barrier effect. Regarding the mechanical properties, the addition of graphene improves the elastic modulus, because of its intrinsic mechanical characteristics and its rigidity, and this effect is particularly strong in the case of pure PP.

Keywords: Graphene, Polypropylene, blends, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer

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7 Fish Oil and Its Methyl Ester as an Alternate Fuel in the Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Authors: Pavan Pujar


Mackerel Fish oil was used as the raw material to produce the biodiesel in this study. The raw oil (RO) was collected from discarded fish products. This oil was filtered and heated to 110oC and made it moisture free. The filtered and moisture free RO was transesterified to produce biodiesel. The experimental results showed that oleic acid and lauric acid were the two major components of the fish oil biodiesel (FOB). Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were found approximately same in the quantity. The fuel properties kinematic viscosity, flash point, fire point, specific gravity, calorific value, cetane number, density, acid value, saponification value, iodine value, cloud point, pour point, ash content, Cu strip corrosion, carbon residue, API gravity were determined for FOB. A comparative study of the properties was carried out with RO and Neat diesel (ND). It was found that Cetane number was 59 for FOB which was more than RO, which showed 57. Blends (B20, B40, B60, B80: example: B20: 20% FOB + 80% ND) of FOB and ND were prepared on volume basis and comparative study was carried out with ND and FOB. Performance parameters BSFE, BSEC, A:F Ratio, Break thermal efficiency were analyzed and it was found that complete replacement of neat diesel (ND) is possible without any engine modifications.

Keywords: blends, fish oil biodiesel, raw oil, performance parameters

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6 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Nkiru T. Meludu, Ladele Ademola A., Olufunke Ezekiel, Olaoye Taye F., Okanlowan Oluwatoyin M.


Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and micro-enterprises of sweet potato production. The study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods. The first method involved the use of a fabricated gas powered cabinet dryer to dry sulphited chips and the second method was the use of traditional sun drying method without the addition of the chemical. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, chemical analysis carried out revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: Utilization, sweet potato, blends, sensory evaluation, diversification

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5 Study of Oxidative Stability, Cold Flow Properties and Iodine Value of Macauba Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Matthieu Tubino, Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Acacia A. Salomão, Willian L. Gomes da Silva


Biodiesel physical and chemical properties depend on the raw material composition used in its synthesis. Saturated fatty acid esters confer high oxidative stability, while unsaturated fatty acid esters improve the cold flow properties. In this study, an alternative vegetal source - the macauba kernel oil - was used in the biodiesel synthesis instead of conventional sources. Macauba can be collected from native palm trees and is found in several regions in Brazil. Its oil is a promising source when compared to several other oils commonly obtained from food products, such as soybean, corn or canola oil, due to its specific characteristics. However, the usage of biodiesel made from macauba oil alone is not recommended due to the difficulty of producing macauba in large quantities. For this reason, this project proposes the usage of blends of the macauba oil with conventional oils. These blends were prepared by mixing the macauba biodiesel with biodiesels obtained from soybean, corn, and from residual frying oil, in the following proportions: 20:80, 50:50 e 80:20 (w/w). Three parameters were evaluated, using the standard methods, in order to check the quality of the produced biofuel and its blends: oxidative stability, cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and iodine value. The induction period (IP) expresses the oxidative stability of the biodiesel, the CFPP expresses the lowest temperature in which the biodiesel flows through a filter without plugging the system and the iodine value is a measure of the number of double bonds in a sample. The biodiesels obtained from soybean, residual frying oil and corn presented iodine values higher than 110 g/100 g, low oxidative stability and low CFPP. The IP values obtained from these biodiesels were lower than 8 h, which is below the recommended standard value. On the other hand, the CFPP value was found within the allowed limit (5 ºC is the maximum). Regarding the macauba biodiesel, a low iodine value was observed (31.6 g/100 g), which indicates the presence of high content of saturated fatty acid esters. The presence of saturated fatty acid esters should imply in a high oxidative stability (which was found accordingly, with IP = 64 h), and high CFPP, but curiously the latter was not observed (-3 ºC). This behavior can be explained by looking at the size of the carbon chains, as 65% of this biodiesel is composed by short chain saturated fatty acid esters (less than 14 carbons). The high oxidative stability and the low CFPP of macauba biodiesel are what make this biofuel a promising source. The soybean, corn and residual frying oil biodiesels also have low CFPP, but low oxidative stability. Therefore the blends proposed in this work, if compared to the common biodiesels, maintain the flow properties but present enhanced oxidative stability.

Keywords: Biodiesel, stability oxidative, blends, macauba kernel oil

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4 Study of the Montmorillonite Effect on PET/Clay and PEN/Clay Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachour


Nanocomposite polymer / clay are relatively important area of research. These reinforced plastics have attracted considerable attention in scientific and industrial fields because a very small amount of clay can significantly improve the properties of the polymer. The polymeric matrices used in this work are two saturated polyesters ie polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN).The success of processing compatible blends, based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/ poly(ethylene naphthalene) (PEN)/clay nanocomposites in one step by reactive melt extrusion is described. Untreated clay was first purified and functionalized ‘in situ’ with a compound based on an organic peroxide/ sulfur mixture and (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) as the activator for sulfur. The PET and PEN materials were first separately mixed in the molten state with functionalized clay. The PET/4 wt% clay and PEN/7.5 wt% clay compositions showed total exfoliation. These compositions, denoted nPET and nPEN, respectively, were used to prepare new n(PET/PEN) nanoblends in the same mixing batch. The n(PET/PEN) nanoblends were compared to neat PET/PEN blends. The blends and nanocomposites were characterized using various techniques. Microstructural and nanostructural properties were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the exfoliation of tetrahedral clay nanolayers is complete and the octahedral structure totally disappears. It was shown that total exfoliation, confirmed by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements, contributes to the enhancement of impact strength and tensile modulus. In addition, WAXS results indicated that all samples are amorphous. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study indicated the occurrence of one glass transition temperature Tg, one crystallization temperature Tc and one melting temperature Tm for every composition. This was evidence that both PET/PEN and nPET/nPEN blends are compatible in the entire range of compositions. In addition, the nPET/nPEN blends showed lower Tc and higher Tm values than the corresponding neat PET/PEN blends. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that n(PET/PEN) blends are different from the pure ones in nanostructure and physical behavior.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, montmorillonite, blends, PET, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing, DSC, PEN, DRX, plastograph

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3 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro


In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: Emission, Ethanol, blends, gasoline, spark ignition engine

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2 Single Ion Conductors for Lithium-Ion Battery Application

Authors: Ayhan Bozkurt, Seyda Tugba Gunday Anil


Next generation lithium batteries are taking more attention and single-ion polymer electrolytes are expected to play a significant role in the development of these kinds of energy storage systems. In the present work we used a different strategy to design of novel solid single-ion conducting inorganic polymer electrolytes based on lithium polyvinyl alcohol oxalate borate (Li(PVAOB), lithium polyacrylic acid oxalate borate (LiPAAOB) and poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA). Free radical polymerization was used to convert PEGMA into PPEGMA and LiPAAOB is prepared from poly (acrylic acid), oxalic acid and boric acid. Blend polymer electrolytes were produced by mixing of LiPAAOB or Li (PVAOB with PPEGMA at different stoichiometric ratios to enhance the single ion conductivity of the systems. To exploit the flexible chemistry and increase the segmental mobility of the blend electrolyte, the composition was changed up to 80% with respect to the guest polymer, PPEGMA. FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter techniques confirmed the interaction between the host and guest polymers. TGA verified that the thermal stability of the blends increased up to approximately 200 C. Scanning electron microscopy images confirm the homogeneity of the blend electrolytes. CV studies showed that electrochemical stability electrochemical stability window is approximately 5 V versus Li/Li⁺. The effect of PPEGMA on to the Lithium-ion conductivity was investigated using dielectric impedance analyzer. The maximum single ion conductivity was measured as 1.3 × 10⁻⁴ S/cm at 100 C for the sample LiPAAOB-80PPEGMA. Clearly, the results confirmed the positive effect to the increment in ionic conductivity of the blend electrolytes with the addition of PPEGMA.

Keywords: Inorganic Polymer, blends, polymer electrolyte, single-ion conductor

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1 Synthesis and Characterisation of Different Blends of Virgin Polyethylene Modified by Naturel Fibres Alfa

Authors: Benalia Kouini


The basic idea of this study is to promote a polyethylene recycle and local vegetable fiber (alfa) in the development and characterization of a new composite material. In this work, different sizes of fiber alfa (<63 microns, between 63 and 125 microns, 125 and 250 microns) were incorporated into the blends (HDPE / recycled HDPE) with different methods elaboration (extruder twin-screw and twin-cylinder mixer). The fiber was modified by sodium hydroxide in order to evaluate the effect of alkaline treatment on the interfacial adhesion and therefore the properties of composites prepared. These were characterized by various techniques: mechanical (tensile and Charpy impact test), Rheological (melt flow), morphological (SEM). The demonstration of the effect of alkali treatment on alfa fiber was examined by FTIR spectroscopy and morphological analysis. The introduction of alfa treated fiber in the (HDPE/recycled HDPE) increased stress, impact strength and Young's modulus on the contrary, the elongation at break decreased. The results of the mechanical properties showed an improvement is better in extrusion twin-screw mixer than two cylinders.

Keywords: Recycling, Polyethylene, blends, naturel fiber, alfa

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