Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

bleaching Related Abstracts

2 Development of Ready Reckoner Charts for Easy, Convenient, and Widespread Use of Horrock’s Apparatus by Field Level Health Functionaries in India

Authors: Gumashta Raghvendra, Gumashta Jyotsna


Aim and Objective of Study : The use of Horrock’s Apparatus by health care worker requires onsite mathematical calculations for estimation of ‘volume of water’ and ‘amount of bleaching powder’ necessary as per the serial number of first cup showing blue coloration after adding freshly prepared starch-iodide indicator solution. In view of the difficulties of two simultaneous calculations required to be done, the use of Horrock’s Apparatus is not routinely done by health care workers because it is impractical and inconvenient Material and Methods: Arbitrary use of bleaching powder in wells results in hyper-chlorination or hypo-chlorination of well defying the purpose of adequate chlorination or non-usage of well water due to hyper-chlorination. Keeping this in mind two nomograms have been developed, one to assess the volume of well using depth and diameter of well and the other to know the quantity of bleaching powder to b added using the number of the cup of Horrock’s apparatus which shows the colour indication. Result & Conclusion: Out of thus developed two self-speaking interlinked easy charts, first chart will facilitate bypassing requirement of formulae ‘πr2h’ for water volume (ready reckoner table with depth of water shown on ‘X’ axis and ‘diameter of well’ on ‘Y’ axis) and second chart will facilitate bypassing requirement formulae ‘2ab/455’ (where ‘a’ is for ‘serial number of cup’ and ‘b’ is for ‘water volume’, while ready reckoner table showing ‘water volume’ shown on ‘X’ axis and ‘serial number of cup’ on ‘Y’ axis). The use of these two charts will help health care worker to immediately known, by referring the two charts, about the exact requirement of bleaching powder. Thus, developed ready reckoner charts will be easy and convenient to use for ensuring prevention of water-borne diseases occurring due to hypo-chlorination, especially in rural India and other developing countries.

Keywords: Apparatus, chlorination, bleaching, Horrock’s, nomogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
1 High Pressure Delignification Process for Nanocrystalline Cellulose Production from Agro-Waste Biomass

Authors: Nhol Kao, Sati Bhattacharya, Rahul Gupta, Sakinul Islam


Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has been widely used for miscellaneous applications due to its superior properties over other nanomaterials. However, the major problems associated with the production of NCC are long reaction time, low production rate and inefficient process. The mass production of NCC within a short period of time is still a great challenge. The main objective of this study is to produce NCC from rice husk agro waste biomass from a high pressure delignification process (HPDP), followed by bleaching and hydrolysis processes. The HPDP has not been explored for NCC production from rice husk biomass (RHB) until now. In order to produce NCC, powder rice husk (PRH) was placed into a stainless steel reactor at 80 ˚C under 5 bars. Aqueous solution of NaOH (4M) was used for the dissolution of lignin and other amorphous impurities from PRH. After certain experimental times (1h, 3.5h and 6h), bleaching and hydrolysis were carried out on delignified samples. NaOCl (20%) and H2SO4 (4M) solutions were used for bleaching and hydrolysis processes, respectively. The NCC suspension from hydrolysis was sonicated and neutralized by buffer solution for various characterisations. Finally NCC suspension was dried and analyzed by FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TEM. The chemical composition of NCC and PRH was estimated by TAPPI (Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry) standard methods to observe the product purity. It was found that, the 6h of the HPDP was more efficient to produce good quality NCC than that at 1h and 3.5h due to low separation of non-cellulosic components from RHB. The analyses indicated the crystallinity of NCC to be 71 %, particle size of 20-50 nm (diameter) and 100-200 nm in length.

Keywords: Hydrolysis, Nanocrystalline cellulose, NCC, bleaching, high pressure delignification, agro-waste biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 163