Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

bisphenol A Related Abstracts

8 Teratogenic Effect of Bisphenol A in Development of Balb/C Mouse

Authors: Nazihe Sedighi, Mohsen Nokhbatolphoghaei


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Due to having properties such as transparency, heat and impact resistance, it is used widely in medicine, sorts, electronic components, and food containers. It is also used in the production of resins which is applied for lining cans. BPA releases from resins and polycarbonate when it is heated or continuously used the containers from which BPA can enter the body. There are several reports indicating the presence of BPA in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and the embryo itself. While researchers investigated the teratogenic effect of BPA on embryos, very limited work has been done on the effects of BPA when applied from early stages of development. In this study, The teratogenic effect of BPA was investigated at earliest preimplantation (day zero) through day 15.5 of the development of Balb/C mouse embryos. After ensuring the pregnancy via observing vaginal plug, Pregnant mice were divided into five groups. For the three experimental groups, the amount of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg/d Bisphenol A was given orally according to body weight. The sham group that was treated with sesame oil, which was used as vehicle and control group remained intact. On day 18.5 of gestation, embryos were removed from the uterus. Randomly half of the embryo were fixed in Bouin for tissue analysis. The other half were prepared for skeletal system staining using Alizarin Red and alcian blue dies. The results showed that the embryonic weight and the crown-rump length of embryos decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all experimental groups compared to the control group and the sham. In this study, skeletal abnormalities such as delay in ossification of skull and limbs as well as the deviation in the backbone were seen. This research suggests that pregnant mothers need to be aware of possible teratogenic effects of BPA at any stage of pregnancy especially from early to mid stages. In this case, pregnant mothers may need to stop using any manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, as a container for food or drinking.

Keywords: Development, bisphenol A, polycarbonate plastic, skeletal system, teratogenicity

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7 Oxidative and Hormonal Disruptions Underlie Bisphenol A: Induced Testicular Toxicity in Male Rabbits

Authors: Kadry M. Sadek, Tarek K. Abouzed, Mousa A. Ayoub


The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as bisphenol A (BPA), in the environment can cause serious health problems. However, there are controversial opinions. This study investigated the reproductive, metabolic, oxidative and immunologic-disrupting effects of bisphenol A in male rabbits. Rabbits were divided into five groups. The first four rabbit groups were administered oral BPA (1, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) for ten weeks. The fifth group was administered corn oil as the vehicle. BPA significantly decreased serum testosterone, estradiol and the free androgen index (FAI) and significantly increased sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) compared with the placebo group. The higher doses of BPA showed a significant decrease in follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). A significant increase in blood glucose levels was identified in the BPA groups. The non-significant difference in insulin levels is a novel finding. The cumulative testicular toxicity of BPA was clearly demonstrated by the dose-dependent decrease in absolute testes weight, primary measures of semen quality and a significant increase in testicular malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, BPA significantly decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and significantly increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) at the highest concentration. Our results suggest that BPA, especially at higher doses, is associated with many adverse effects on metabolism, oxidative stress, immunity, sperm quality and markers of androgenic action. These results may reflect the estrogenic effects of BPA, which we hypothesize could be related, in part, to an inhibitory effect on testicular steroidogenesis. The induction of oxidative stress by BPA may play an additional role in testicular toxicity. These results suggest that BPA poses a threat to endocrine and reproductive functions.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Rabbits, bisphenol A, semen quality, steroidogenesis

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6 The Effect of Bisphenol A and Its Selected Analogues on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Human Erythrocytes

Authors: Aneta Maćczak, Bożena Bukowska, Jaromir Michałowicz


Bisphenols are one of the most widely used chemical compounds worldwide. They are used in the manufacturing of polycarbonates, epoxy resins and thermal paper which are applied in plastic containers, bottles, cans, newspapers, receipt and other products. Among these compounds, bisphenol A (BPA) is produced in the highest amounts. There are concerns about endocrine impact of BPA and its other toxic effects including hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity on human organism. Moreover, BPA is supposed to increase the incidence the obesity, diabetes and heart disease. For this reason the use of BPA in the production of plastic infant feeding bottles and some other consumers products has been restricted in the European Union and the United States. Nowadays, BPA analogues like bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been developed as alternative compounds. The replacement of BPA with other bisphenols contributed to the increase of the exposure of human population to these substances. Toxicological studies have mainly focused on BPA. In opposite, a small number of studies concerning toxic effects of BPA analogues have been realized, which makes impossible to state whether those substituents are safe for human health. Up to now, the mechanism of bisphenols action on the erythrocytes has not been elucidated. That is why, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of BPA and its selected analogues such as BPF and BPS on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. catalase (EC, glutathione peroxidase (E.C. and superoxide dismutase (EC. in human erythrocytes. Red blood cells in respect to their function (transport of oxygen) and very well developed enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative system, are useful cellular model to assess changes in redox balance. Erythrocytes were incubated with BPA, BPF and BPS in the concentration ranging from 0.5 to 100 µg/ml for 24 h. The activity of catalase was determined by the method of Aebi (1984). The activity of glutathione peroxidase was measured according to the method described by Rice-Evans et al. (1991), while the activity of superoxide dismutase (EC. was determined by the method of Misra and Fridovich (1972). The results showed that BPA and BPF caused changes in the antioxidative enzymes activities. BPA decreased the activity of examined enzymes in the concentration of 100 µg/ml. We also noted that BPF decreased the activity of catalase (5-100 µg/ml), glutathione peroxidase (50-100 µg/ml) and superoxide dismutase (25-100 µg/ml), while BPS did not cause statistically significant changes in investigated parameters. The obtained results suggest that BPA and BPF disrupt redox balance in human erythrocytes but the observed changes may occur in human organism only during occupational or subacute exposure to these substances.

Keywords: bisphenol A, antioxidant enzymes, bisphenol a analogues, human erythrocytes

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5 The Possible Interaction between Bisphenol A, Caffeine and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Neurotoxicity Induced by Manganese in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Asmaa Abdelaty, Hebatalla I. Ahmed


Background: Manganese (Mn) is a naturally occurring element. Exposure to high levels of Mn causes neurotoxic effects and represents an environmental risk factor. Mn neurotoxicity is poorly understood but changing of AChE activity, monoamines and oxidative stress has been established. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics. There is considerable debate about whether its exposure represents an environmental risk. Caffeine is one of the major contributors to the dietary antioxidants which prevent oxidative damage and may reduce the risk of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is another major component of green tea and has known interactions with caffeine. It also has health-promoting effects in CNS. Objective: To evaluate the potential protective effects of Caffeine and/or EGCG against Mn-induced neurotoxicity either alone or in the presence of BPA in rats. Methods: Seven groups of rats were used and received daily for 5 weeks MnCl2.4H2O (10 mg/kg, IP) except the control group which received saline, corn oil and distilled H2O. Mn was injected either alone or in combination with each of the following: BPA (50 mg/kg, PO), caffeine (10 mg/kg, PO), EGCG (5 mg/kg, IP), caffeine + EGCG and BPA +caffeine +EGCG. All rats were examined in five behavioral tests (grid, bar, swimming, open field and Y- maze tests). Biochemical changes in monoamines, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, glutamate, acetyl cholinesterase and oxidative parameters, as well as histopathological changes in the brain, were also evaluated for all groups. Results: Mn significantly increased MDA and nitrite content as well as caspase-3, GSK-3B, PGE2 and glutamate levels while significantly decreased TAC and SOD as well as cholinesterase in the striatum. It also decreased DA, NE and 5-HT levels in the striatum and frontal cortex. BPA together with Mn enhanced oxidative stress generation induced by Mn while increased monoamine content that was decreased by Mn in rat striatum. BPA abolished neuronal degeneration induced by Mn in the hippocampus but not in the substantia nigra, striatum and cerebral cortex. Behavioral examinations showed that caffeine and EGCG co-administration had more pronounced protective effect against Mn-induced neurotoxicity than each one alone. EGCG alone or in combination with caffeine prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex induced by Mn while caffeine alone prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra and striatum but still showed some nuclear pyknosis in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The marked protection of caffeine and EGCG co-administration also confirmed by the significant increase in TAC, SOD, ACHE, DA, NE and 5-HT as well as the decrease in MDA, nitrite, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, the glutamic acid in the striatum. Conclusion: Neuronal degeneration induced by Mn showed some inhibition with BPA exposure despite the enhancement in oxidative stress generation. Co-administration of EGCG and caffeine can protect against neuronal degeneration induced by Mn and improve behavioral deficits associated with its neurotoxicity. The protective effect of EGCG was more pronounced than that of caffeine even with BPA co-exposure.

Keywords: rats, Caffeine, bisphenol A, manganese, neurotoxicity, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, behavioral tests

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4 Fluorescing Aptamer-Gold Nanoparticle Complex for the Sensitive Detection of Bisphenol A

Authors: Eunsong Lee, Gae Baik Kim, Young Pil Kim


Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the endocrine disruptors (EDCs), which have been suspected to be associated with reproductive dysfunction and physiological abnormality in human. Since the BPA has been widely used to make plastics and epoxy resins, the leach of BPA from the lining of plastic products has been of major concern, due to its environmental or human exposure issues. The simple detection of BPA based on the self-assembly of aptamer-mediated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been reported elsewhere, yet the detection sensitivity still remains challenging. Here we demonstrate an improved AuNP-based sensor of BPA by using fluorescence-combined AuNP colorimetry in order to overcome the drawback of traditional AuNP sensors. While the anti-BPA aptamer (full length or truncated ssDNA) triggered the self-assembly of unmodified AuNP (citrate-stabilized AuNP) in the presence of BPA at high salt concentrations, no fluorescence signal was observed by the subsequent addition of SYBR Green, due to a small amount of free anti-BPA aptamer. In contrast, the absence of BPA did not cause the self-assembly of AuNPs (no color change by salt-bridged surface stabilization) and high fluorescence signal by SYBP Green, which was due to a large amount of free anti-BPA aptamer. As a result, the quantitative analysis of BPA was achieved using the combination of absorption of AuNP with fluorescence intensity of SYBR green as a function of BPA concentration, which represented more improved detection sensitivity (as low as 1 ppb) than did in the AuNP colorimetric analysis. This method also enabled to detect high BPA in water-soluble extracts from thermal papers with high specificity against BPS and BPF. We suggest that this approach will be alternative for traditional AuNP colorimetric assays in the field of aptamer-based molecular diagnosis.

Keywords: bisphenol A, colorimetric, fluoroscence, gold-aptamer nanobiosensor

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3 Determination of Bisphenol A and Uric Acid by Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube with Magnesium Layered Hydroxide 3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)Propionic Acid Nanocomposite

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Maryam Musfirah Che Sobry, Mohamad Syahrizal Ahmad, Nurashikin Abd Azis


A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) that has been modified with magnesium layered hydroxide 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid nanocomposite was proposed for the determination of uric acid and bisphenol A by square wave voltammetry. The results obtained denote that MLH-MPP nanocomposites enhance the sensitivity of the voltammetry detection responses. The best performance is shown by the modified carbon nanotube paste electrode (CNTPE) with the composition of single-walled carbon nanotube: magnesium layered hydroxide 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid nanocomposite at 100:15 (% w/w). The linear range where the sensor works well is within the concentration 1.0 10-7 – 1.0 10-4 and 3.0 10-7 – 1.0 10-4 for uric acid and bisphenol A respectively with the limit of detection of 1.0 10-7 M for both organics. The interferences of uric acid and bisphenol A with other organic were studied and most of them did not interfere. The results shown for each experimental parameter on the proposed CNTPE showed that it has high sensitivity, good selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. Therefore, the modified CNTPE can be used for the determination of uric acid and bisphenol A in real samples such as blood, plastic bottles and foods.

Keywords: nanocomposite, bisphenol A, uric acid, magnesium layered hydroxide 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid nanocomposite

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2 Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Its Association with Birth Outcomes

Authors: Chun-Hao Lai, Yu-Fang Huang, Pei-Wei Wang, Mei-Lien Chen, Yi-Ting Chen, Hai-Wei Liang


Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used in consumer products, such as inner coatings of cans and polycarbonated bottles. BPA is considered to be an endocrine disrupting substance (EDs) that affects normal human hormones and may cause adverse effects on human health. Pregnant women and fetuses are susceptible groups of endocrine disrupting substances. Prenatal exposure to BPA has been shown to affect the fetus through the placenta. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential health risk of fetal exposure to BPA during pregnancy. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the urinary concentration of BPA in pregnant women, and (2) to investigate the association between BPA exposure during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Methods: This study recruited 117 pregnant women and their fetuses from 2012 to 2014 from the Taiwan Maternal- Infant Cohort Study (TMICS). Maternal urine samples were collected in the third trimester and questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, eating habits and medical conditions of the participants. Information about birth outcomes of the fetus was obtained from medical records. As for chemicals analysis, BPA concentrations in urine were determined by off-line solid-phase extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a Q-Tof mass spectrometer. The urinary concentrations were adjusted with creatinine. The association between maternal concentrations of BPA and birth outcomes was estimated using the logistic regression model. Results: The detection rate of BPA is 99%; the concentration ranges (μg/g) from 0.16 to 46.90. The mean (SD) BPA levels are 5.37(6.42) μg/g creatinine. The mean ±SD of the body weight, body length, head circumference, chest circumference and gestational age at birth are 3105.18 ± 339.53 g, 49.33 ± 1.90 cm, 34.16 ± 1.06 cm, 32.34 ± 1.37 cm and 38.58 ± 1.37 weeks, respectively. After stratifying the exposure levels into two groups by median, pregnant women in higher exposure group would have an increased risk of lower body weight (OR=0.57, 95%CI=0.271-1.193), smaller chest circumference (OR=0.70, 95%CI=0.335-1.47) and shorter gestational age at birth newborn (OR=0.46, 95%CI=0.191-1.114). However, there are no associations between BPA concentration and birth outcomes reach a significant level (p < 0.05) in statistics. Conclusions: This study presents prenatal BPA profiles and infants in northern Taiwan. Women who have higher BPA concentrations tend to give birth to lower body weight, smaller chest circumference or shorter gestational age at birth newborn. More data will be included to verify the results. This report will also present the predictors of BPA concentrations for pregnant women.

Keywords: Biomonitoring, bisphenol A, birth outcomes, prenatal exposure

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1 Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A Using ZnO Nanoparticles as Catalyst under UV/Solar Light: Effect of Different Parameters and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Farida Kaouah, Chahida Oussalah, Wassila Hachi, Salim Boumaza, Mohamed Trari


A catalyst of ZnO nanoparticles was used in the photocatalytic process of treatment for potential use towards bisphenol A (BPA) degradation in an aqueous solution. To achieve this study, the effect of parameters such as the catalyst dose, initial concentration of BPA and pH on the photocatalytic degradation of BPA was studied. The results reveal that the maximum degradation (more than 93%) of BPA occurred with ZnO catalyst in 120 min of stirring at natural pH (7.1) under solar light irradiation. It was found that chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction takes place at a faster rate under solar light as compared to that of UV light. The kinetic studies were achieved and revealed that the photocatalytic degradation process obeyed a Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and followed a pseudo-first order rate expression. This work envisages the great potential that sunlight mediated photocatalysis has in the removal of bisphenol A from wastewater.

Keywords: zinc oxide, bisphenol A, sunlight, chemical oxygen demand, photocatalytic degradation, Langmuir–Hinshelwood model

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