Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Biosynthesis Related Abstracts

10 Influence of Hydrogen Ion Concentration on the Production of Bio-Synthesized Nano-Silver

Authors: Desouky Abd-El-Haleem, M.F. Elkady, Sahar Zaki


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are already widely prepared using different technologies. However, there are limited data on the effects of hydrogen ion concentration on nano-silver production. In this investigation, the impact of the pH reaction medium toward the particle size, agglomeration and the yield of the produced bio-synthesized silver were established. Quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles were synthesized through the biosynthesis green production process using the Egyptian E. coli bacterial strain 23N at different pH values. The formation of AgNPs has been confirmed with ultraviolet–visible spectra through identification of their characteristic peak at 410 nm. The quantitative production yield and the orientation planes of the produced nano-silver were examined using X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Quantitative analyses indicated that the silver production yield was promoted at elevated pH regarded to increase the reduction rate of silver precursor through both chemical and biological processes. As a result, number of the nucleus and thus the size of the silver nanoparticles were tunable through changing pH of the reaction system. Accordingly, the morphological structure and size of the produced silver and its aggregates were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. It was considered that the increment in pH value of the reaction media progress the aggregation of silver clusters. However, the presence of stain 23N biomass decreases the possibility of silver aggregation at the pH 7.

Keywords: Biosynthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, reaction media pH, nano-silver characterization

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9 Enzyme Involvement in the Biosynthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles by Geobacillus wiegelii Strain GWE1 Isolated from a Drying Oven

Authors: Daniela N. Correa-Llantén, Sebastián A. Muñoz-Ibacache, Mathilde Maire, Jenny M. Blamey


The biosynthesis of nanoparticles by microorganisms, on the contrary to chemical synthesis, is an environmentally-friendly process which has low energy requirements. In this investigation, we used the microorganism Geobacillus wiegelii, strain GWE1, an aerobic thermophile belonging to genus Geobacillus, isolated from a drying oven. This microorganism has the ability to reduce selenite evidenced by the change of color from colorless to red in the culture. Elemental analysis and composition of the particles were verified using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The nanoparticles have a defined spherical shape and a selenium elemental state. Previous experiments showed that the presence of the whole microorganism for the reduction of selenite was not necessary. The results strongly suggested that an intracellular NADPH/NADH-dependent reductase mediates selenium nanoparticles synthesis under aerobic conditions. The enzyme was purified and identified by mass spectroscopy MALDI-TOF TOF technique. The enzyme is a 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. Histograms of nanoparticles sizes were obtained. Size distribution ranged from 40-160 nm, where 70% of nanoparticles have less than 100 nm in size. Spectroscopic analysis showed that the nanoparticles are composed of elemental selenium. To analyse the effect of pH in size and morphology of nanoparticles, the synthesis of them was carried out at different pHs (4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0). For thermostability studies samples were incubated at different temperatures (60, 80 and 100 ºC) for 1 h and 3 h. The size of all nanoparticles was less than 100 nm at pH 4.0; over 50% of nanoparticles have less than 100 nm at pH 5.0; at pH 6.0 and 8.0 over 90% of nanoparticles have less than 100 nm in size. At neutral pH (7.0) nanoparticles reach a size around 120 nm and only 20% of them were less than 100 nm. When looking at temperature effect, nanoparticles did not show a significant difference in size when they were incubated between 0 and 3 h at 60 ºC. Meanwhile at 80 °C the nanoparticles suspension lost its homogeneity. A change in size was observed from 0 h of incubation at 80ºC, observing a size range between 40-160 nm, with 20% of them over 100 nm. Meanwhile after 3 h of incubation at size range changed to 60-180 nm with 50% of them over 100 nm. At 100 °C the nanoparticles aggregate forming nanorod structures. In conclusion, these results indicate that is possible to modulate size and shape of biologically synthesized nanoparticles by modulating pH and temperature.

Keywords: Biosynthesis, genus Geobacillus, NADPH/NADH-dependent reductase, selenium nanoparticles

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8 Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Anthraquinone Derivatives

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Dmitry Yu. Korulkin


In review the generalized data about biosynthetic routs formation anthraquinone molecules in natural cells. The basic possibilities of various ways of biosynthesis of different quinoid substances are shown.

Keywords: Metabolism, Biosynthesis, anthraquinones, biochemical evolution

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7 Green Synthesis and Characterisation of Gold Nanoparticles from the Stem Bark and Leaves of Khaya Senegalensis and Its Cytotoxicity on MCF7 Cell Lines

Authors: Stephen Daniel Iduh, Evans Chidi Egwin, Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu


The process for the development of reliable and eco-friendly metallic Nanoparticles is an important step in the field of Nanotechnology for biomedical application. To achieve this, use of natural sources like biological systems becomes essential. In the present work, extracellular biosynthesis of gold Nanoparticles using aqueous leave and stembark extracts of K. senegalensis has been attempted. The gold Nanoparticles produced were characterized using High Resolution scanning electron microscopy, Ultra Violet–Visible spectroscopy, zeta-sizer Nano, Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Transmission Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized gold nanoparticles on MCF-7 cell line was evaluated using MTT assay. The result showed a rapid development of Nano size and shaped particles within 5 minutes of reaction with Surface Plasmon Resonance at 520 and 525nm respectively. An average particle size of 20-90nm was confirmed. The amount of the extracts determines the core size of the AuNPs. The core size of the AuNPs decreases as the amount of extract increases and it causes the shift of Surface Plasmon Resonance band. The FTIR confirms the presence of biomolecules serving as reducing and capping agents on the synthesised gold nanoparticles. The MTT assay shows a significant effect of gold nanoparticles which is concentration dependent. This environment-friendly method of biological gold Nanoparticle synthesis has the potential and can be directly applied in cancer therapy.

Keywords: Characterization, Biosynthesis, Cytotoxicity, gold nanoparticles, calotropis procera

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6 Plant Cell Culture to Produce Valuable Natural Products

Authors: Jehad Dumireih, Malak Dmirieh, Michael Wink


The present work is aimed to use plant cell suspension cultures of Crataegus monogyna for biosynthesis of valuable natural products by using quercetin as an inexpensive precursor. Suspension cell cultures of C. monogyna were established by using Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1 mg/L kinetin. Cells were harvested from the cultures and extracted by using methanol and ethyl acetate; then the extracts were used for the identification of isoquercetin by HPLC and by mass spectrometry. The incubation of the cells with 0.24 mM quercetin for one week resulted in an 16 fold increase of isoquercetin biosynthesis; the growth rate of the cells increased by 20%. Moreover, the biosynthesis of isoquercetin was enhanced by 40% when we divided the added quercetin into three portions each one with concentration 0.12 mM supplied at 3 days intervals. In addition, we didn’t find any positive effects of adding different concentrations the precursors phenylalanine (0.2 mM) and galactose to the cell cultures. In conclusion, the efficiency of the biotransformation of quercetin into isoquercetin depended on the concentration quercetin, its incubation time and the way of its administration. The results of the present work suggest that the biotechnological methods such as cell suspension cultures could be successfully used to obtain highly valuable natural product starting from inexpensive compound.

Keywords: Biotransformation, Biosynthesis, Crataegus, isoquercetin

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5 Biomedical Application of Green Biosynthesis Magnetic Iron Oxide (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles Using Seaweed (Sargassum muticum) Aqueous Extract

Authors: Farideh Namvar, Rosfarizan Mohamed


In the field of nanotechnology, the use of various biological units instead of toxic chemicals for the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles, has received extensive attention. This use of biological entities to create nanoparticles has designated as “Green” synthesis and it is considered to be far more beneficial due to being economical, eco-friendly and applicable for large-scale synthesis as it operates on low pressure, less input of energy and low temperatures. The lack of toxic byproducts and consequent decrease in degradation of the product renders this technique more preferable over physical and classical chemical methods. The variety of biomass having reduction properties to produce nanoparticles makes them an ideal candidate for fabrication. Metal oxide nanoparticles have been said to represent a "fundamental cornerstone of nanoscience and nanotechnology" due to their variety of properties and potential applications. However, this also provides evidence of the fact that metal oxides include many diverse types of nanoparticles with large differences in chemical composition and behaviour. In this study, iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) were synthesized using a rapid, single step and completely green biosynthetic method by reduction of ferric chloride solution with brown seaweed (Sargassum muticum) water extract containing polysaccharides as a main factor which acts as reducing agent and efficient stabilizer. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method. The resulting S-IONPs are crystalline in nature, with a cubic shape. The average particle diameter, as determined by TEM, was found to be 18.01 nm. The S-IONPs were efficiently inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida species. Our favorable results suggest that S-IONPs could be a promising candidate for development of future antimicrobial therapies. The nature of biosynthesis and the therapeutic potential by S-IONPs could pave the way for further research on design of green synthesis therapeutic agents, particularly nanomedicine, to deal with treatment of infections. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial activity of these particles. Antioxidant activity of S-IONPs synthesized by green method was measured by ABTS (2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (IC50= 1000µg) radical scavenging activity. Also, with the increasing concentration of S-IONPs, catalase gene expression compared to control gene GAPDH increased. For anti-angiogenesis study the Ross fertilized eggs were divided into four groups; the control and three experimental groups. The gelatin sponges containing albumin were placed on the chorioalantoic membrane and soaked with different concentrations of S-IONPs. All the cases were photographed using a photo stereomicroscope. The number and the lengths of the vessels were measured using Image J software. The crown rump (CR) and weight of the embryo were also recorded. According to the data analysis, the number and length of the blood vessels, as well as the CR and weight of the embryos reduced significantly compared to the control (p < 0.05), dose dependently. The total hemoglobin was quantified as an indicator of the blood vessel formation, and in the treated samples decreased, which showed its inhibitory effect on angiogenesis.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Biosynthesis, Seaweed, antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, iron oxide (fe3o4) nanoparticles, sargassum muticum

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4 Biosynthesis of Silver-Phosphate Nanoparticles Using the Extracellular Polymeric Substance of Sporosarcina pasteurii

Authors: Mohammadhosein Rahimi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mehran Bakhshi, Alireza Baghbanan


Silver ions (Ag+) and their compounds are consequentially toxic to microorganisms, showing biocidal effects on many species of bacteria. Silver-phosphate (or silver orthophosphate) is one of these compounds, which is famous for its antimicrobial effect and catalysis application. In the present study, a green method was presented to synthesis silver-phosphate nanoparticles using Sporosarcina pasteurii. The composition of the biosynthesized nanoparticles was identified as Ag3PO4 using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Also, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles was synthesized in the presence of biosurfactants, enzymes, and proteins. In addition, UV-Vis adsorption of the produced colloidal suspension approved the results of XRD and FTIR analyses. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images indicated that the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Bacteria, Biosynthesis, Sporosarcina pasteurii, silver-phosphate

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3 Cadmium Filter Cake of a Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter as a New Source for the Biological Synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots

Authors: Mohammadhosein Rahimi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mehran Bakhshi


The cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized from the nickel-cadmium cake of a hydrometallurgical zinc producing plant and sodium sulfide as Cd2+ and S-2 sources, respectively. Also, the synthesis process was performed by using the secretions of Bacillus licheniformis as bio-surfactant. Initially, in order to obtain a cadmium rich solution, two following steps were carried out: 1) Alkaline leaching for the removal of zinc oxide from the cake, and 2) acidic leaching to dissolve cadmium from the remained solid residue. Afterward, the obtained CdSO4 solution was used for the nanoparticle biosynthesis. Nanoparticles were characterized by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the formation of CdS crystals with cubic structure. Also, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to determine the particle sizes which were in 2-10 nm range. Moreover, the presence of the protein containing bio-surfactants was approved by using infrared analysis (FTIR). In addition, the absorbance below 400 nm confirms quantum particles’ size. Finally, it was shown that valuable CdS quantum dots could be obtained from the industrial waste products via environment-friendly biological approaches.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Biosynthesis, cadmium cake, cadmium sulfide, zinc smelter

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2 Cas9-Assisted Direct Cloning and Refactoring of a Silent Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

Authors: Peng Hou


Natural products produced from marine bacteria serve as an immense reservoir for anti-infective drugs and therapeutic agents. Nowadays, heterologous expression of gene clusters of interests has been widely adopted as an effective strategy for natural product discovery. Briefly, the heterologous expression flowchart would be: biosynthetic gene cluster identification, pathway construction and expression, and product detection. However, gene cluster capture using traditional Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) protocol is low-efficient (0.5% positive colony rate). To make things worse, most of these putative new natural products are only predicted by bioinformatics analysis such as antiSMASH, and their corresponding natural products biosynthetic pathways are either not expressed or expressed at very low levels under laboratory conditions. Those setbacks have inspired us to focus on seeking new technologies to efficiently edit and refractor of biosynthetic gene clusters. Recently, two cutting-edge techniques have attracted our attention - the CRISPR-Cas9 and Gibson Assembly. By now, we have tried to pretreat Brevibacillus laterosporus strain genomic DNA with CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases that specifically generated breaks near the gene cluster of interest. This trial resulted in an increase in the efficiency of gene cluster capture (9%). Moreover, using Gibson Assembly by adding/deleting certain operon and tailoring enzymes regardless of end compatibility, the silent construct (~80kb) has been successfully refactored into an active one, yielded a series of analogs expected. With the appearances of the novel molecular tools, we are confident to believe that development of a high throughput mature pipeline for DNA assembly, transformation, product isolation and identification would no longer be a daydream for marine natural product discovery.

Keywords: Biosynthesis, DNA Assembly, CRISPR-Cas9, refactor, TAR cloning

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1 Harnessing the Generation of Ferromagnetic and Silver Nanostructures from Tropical Aquatic Microbial Nanofactories

Authors: Mohd Zobir Hussein, Patricia Jayshree Jacob, Mas Jaffri Masarudinb, Raha Abdul Rahim


Iron based ferromagnetic nanoparticles (IONP) and silver nanostructures (AgNP) have found a wide range of application in antimicrobial therapy, cell targeting, and environmental applications. As such, the design of well-defined monodisperse IONPs and AgNPs have become an essential tool in nanotechnology. Fabrication of these nanostructures using conventional methods is not environmentally conducive and weigh heavily on energy and outlays. Selected microorganisms possess the innate ability to reduce metallic ions in colloidal aqueous solution to generate nanoparticles. Hence, harnessing this potential is a way forward in constructing microbial nano-factories, capable of churning out high yields of well-defined IONP’s and AgNP's with physicochemical characteristics on par with the best synthetically produced nanostructures. In this paper, we report the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains isolated from the tropical marine and freshwater ecosystems of Malaysia that demonstrated facile and rapid generation of ferromagnetic nanoparticles and silver nanostructures when precursors such as FeCl₃.6H₂O and AgNO₃ were added to the cell-free bacterial lysate in colloidal solution. Characterization of these nanoparticles was carried out using FESEM, UV Spectrophotometer, XRD, DLS and FTIR. This aerobic bioprocess was carried out at ambient temperature and humidity and has the potential to be developed for environmental friendly, cost effective large scale production of IONP’s. A preliminary bioprocess study on the harvesting time, incubation temperature and pH was also carried out to determine pertinent abiotic parameters contributing to the optimal production of these nanostructures.

Keywords: Biosynthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, iron oxide nanoparticles, aquatic bacteria

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